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TT— " 

'«j '.'<.it... 

CfaUiH; officers in the province. . . . 83f 

Christianity, toleration of »i 195 

Cbtistianity in China •:. ^ 51 

C^riatiani^, universal toleiatibq of 587 
Chosan, British forces in. ....:. 11 

Cbc^hincfaina, embassies from'... . ll 

Coins, assay of sundry...... V. 

Angel, Chinese tenn for. \'J^ CoUinson, captain Richard C. B. 

AaoAtoiNAL tribes, ; .«' IpQ^llfl 

Agents, list of commercial.'. . ...» 
aIbu, victory gained in. . . . 161^4^ 
Allegiance,, renunciation, of. .... 69 
Anbm, series of views by Thomas IIS 
Aupanac, Christian in Chinese. . 190 
i^jDlerica, U. S. treaty with. 

Appendages, felicitous 
Assault and battery in Canton. .. 1501 
Association of lieavenr ana esrtfa .74 
Astronomer, a European at ^ontti Ml 
Astronomical Board;. 


k.. ..«.«. Civ 

Ball, death of R' Joseph 
Bamboo, its great hei|^t 


Colonial office m Peking. ..:::i'" 
^ Hege; Kwohtsz* kien, natiofiaL 

mmercial houses, list of. .:: . . 

nsulats, B. «. M . at Cantoii,^Q. 
CopsuKtoreign; ...... V ...;.,; "Ig 

CoiUrtitation, the U. 8. A. ftigatr 353 
OoffBa, embassies from. . . 1 . ... J isi 

Comer, reef off Fort. •. . . .*. .'. .. fnX 

Cn^hmg, Webster^ instiuetbns to 4ld 

Baiiditti about Canton . . . . . ; • .' .V 157 

Baoneis, officers of the eight* . .. 85 Cashing; his correspondence • . .'i :IS9I 

Bangkok, climate of. 
Baylis' Bay, noti'^cs of .;.... . 
Books in the M. K a Lihrsry . 
Bridgman, on Mr. Cushing's com. 4 
Brii^gman, marr. of the Rev. Dr... ** 

Bddhism, xemoir on . : 

Bt^mah, eiiibassies from ' 155 

J ..» 

CaXkHDak, English and CTiinese 2 
Calteiys'DiCtiona-rti Sacyclopo- 

dlqoo. 137 Oyke Ho, lord Aiuherses friend 

imeliL fraTworriH V provinionr 170 u 


CriminaL court, or TM! ssf. ri; ;V ^ 83 

OaJi sBoxas Island, notice of. . . . 26G 

petiih Warrant; the annnaL 163^ 

^eiiied men and heixMs, ^.^. fjg^ 

Benhum. journal kept bv 29& 

Dialogues, by Rev. Ur. Medhorst 395 
Di^ouTse by chancellor Hwang. 43(> 
Plstaoances in Chouchau fu. . . 214 
INvisinre type. Irv^cimens ot 125 

Dyer, specimen of his type X2^ 

Camels, transport ^ 

^arriagr''^/ o^xe otU'^. impenaL - 64 

Cattl(*rus<>^ book% in the 2if»EL9. 1288 

CatholKisi^., tuKirnion of. 540 East Lessons in Chinese 3?® 

Cereitvuiai'vio'irt, or K'^angluh sz" 83| Plight Banners, officers oi the. . . 87 

CK-in^iinfft skillful general 166 Eighteen provinceii, officers in- .. ST 

Chanrlin?. commander-in-chief. 'TB5|f Bmbassies to Peking- J5,^ 

(Jhartis^f some account of 2S9j 

(^^he^i'^nsT, officersin the province OOl 

ChcJcchu. notices of. «' . . . . 290 

C!iiiinio Bny, notice -f . ^ ^^ 

(;hiia, a ^'eriea of views in 118 

Chif^- i^ie coast of. 258 

Olu>*-*^»eir. cusdt line towards. . . 272uFBstivals, ivitices of ^4^ 

Etiquette, breach of court ir»^ 

tSverotc, Alejander, II. commis.. 'JSH 

FACToaiKS in Canton, notice of.. .347: 

Polkstone Rock, notircM of 2i;o 

Family-locks, the hundn^ri 



Foreignere, list of Kcideni*. 

Finftncm, delibentioiu on the. . 
Finn, Mr. J.'h accouDt af.... »05;j88{ 

Farei|cn coins, uuy of *J45 

Forsign residenU in Canlon .... ;14T 
Foreifjiiers, increaaed libeity of- . 495 
Formosa, aoticea ofiis tceuery.. 2^ 
Fonnoea, the gxivemment of. . . . , lu 
Foundling hoBpiUil U Stiingbii ITTi 

Fiihchtu fi'i, trade of 247| 

Fuhkien, officers ID the province. "" 
Funeral iteniion, by Dr. Parker. . 

L1.UIES, honorary titles of I'U 

Lamocif Islanda, notice of 2ti2 

Lamyet, anchorage irestward of. 'J7U 

Laos, embaasieB from ] 55 

Leaoona, eaay, in Chinese 339 

Liaitg Hii, the govemmeiit of. . . !>2 

Liin? Kiang, officera in the 68 

Lin TsehaU, notice of. 343 

Lin's cyclopedia of geography. .. 543 
List of officera in government. . . 77 

Ltucbiu, erobisaies from ,,. 155 

Lock, the liuhdred family 230' 

Luhuiiig, B veteran hero 1G8 

Macao,' regulationa ofcustomi 

Matficiims, prohibition of . 

Mall, the Cbina, newspaper, i . 
Mabchu's Ghiora or Golden n 

. 302 

God, Chinese word for the true . 

God, Chiiiese term for 

Good Hope, tbe Cape of. 

Great Britain, sends tribute ISS; 

Guest's court, or Chii-keh iSSI 

Cully, journal kept by 2061 

HiDDE, commercial agent .'i84 Maajr'>e9, their abundai 

Holland, embassies from [."KiiMartin, the honorable MonL. 

II "i K^ulof !i3 Medhuret'aChinesBdialo^e.... 396 

II '.jiiiorciul 0: 'Medicfd Board, or Taiyuen 84' 

H..n-t..i.^-, .;,-■.-.•■ LEI 445,:Miidicd Society in Hongkong.,, 245 

Hongkong, dcscrji'lipn of-. - IwlMemorial to governor Davis.... 39T 

Hongkong, colonial gavernnjemof L'), Meeaage to the U. S. A. senate 
Hongkon'g.gcngraphicalnoliceof SUli' 333,410,467 

HoDfkonfr, public works jo IMS.iMoihesoh'a harbor, notice of.... 274 

Iloapital, fiiundliag at Hbanglmi. l^T/MedLco-Ch'irurgical Society. ... 244 

Hilh&n, tbe Eoveckrnierjt of 02 1 Meteorological notices in Siam. . 337 

Hiipeh, the goweininent of ■ ..... 02 MtHrojiolitan officers, Peking... . 85 

Hwang's wnmings & adiiioiutioM 4;!ti iMi-liK Fiih, the sect of. 71 

ilymn, specimen of Chinese. . , . 485 :Mi4u Taz", aboriginal tribes lOS 

llMidaa, an Americansteuner.... 248 

I'LirtiigoverhorofYiinDan 170iMin, notice of the River 279 

Illegal aasociatioos, evils of. SS'Mi\a€a account of the Triad Soc. 50 

Imperial family, g^vernraeotuf. . iMlMiti-chi; the govemmant of. 90 

-, ' I'Mirrora, tht old orass 231 

jAiLOfi.thecr.'aU'.'nductofa.'.. 30i;JMissions, prau^dtant, notice of, . 2JS 

lewsinCI;ina noliceaof SO-ilMisBion, notice bVProteataot 352 

Joumalof Gully and Denhain. -9!)8 'Missioda, nuiice of pnitest&ht. . . 4i>4, 
I Missions, Protestant in "r^hina. . ^Mi 
Kahsdh, t1if> trovsmment of . . . . 
Khoten an'l its depenileocies... 
Kiangai, officers in tire province. 
Kiangsi'i, orficcra in the province 

Ki-lin, a fabulous aoimal SSll'.Moaey-swordti, nouceor -.eai 

Kiacblo, Russian trade at SSOi'Monument, the Syrian 201 

Kiylng and Hvtng N'.'anlung. . 244 LMurnsnn, notes by the lots Dr.. . 157 

Killing atl. British forc-fta in. JIJnMonkden, officers iit gl! 

KiilangBii evacuated l.^OjIMoundPeakiSiuid bonk -^15 

rO IMor. Ed. Soc. pupils' comimsitun 4117 
88 -Morrison Education Society..., ^■^, 

ingHi. [he Eovarnment of. , . . y9(lNA»ioH, desoripti 
Jywangtmig, the goyernmuut of.. UaiNaiiioli, south coast 


• IfEl 


Nfiliiraii'/cd, a C*hincse 2471 Shfintnnir« the fa\'ernincnt of. . . 

Ni*rk-riii|f kick, n chttnii 5^)0 Siiniui, tlin governnieiit of 

NogrotialioiiA with Kiyin<r, &c.. .. ?IV); Sheiwi, die (rovemincnt of 

New Frontier, Siiikiiiiiif, ^n-V. . !>5 iSiiiui, iiicUHirulosricul iiuUcch of.. 
New ymr, biiHine«s of 0. resinned liiH |Sioni, einhoRFioii froiu 

New Tc»(tAnient, vcrKionjt of . . . . tiA 
Njn'uihwni, nrtirrrp in tJio prov. . rt> 

NiiMil. n rcvolntinn in 101 

Nobility, onlerp of the nnnieis .... l-'i'i 
Notice* of China, by P. Scrni. . . 51!) 

Obitc A RT notice* of Mrs. Shnck I { » 
(>ck-8en or Wi'ikin. nr>tice of. . . . 37.1 

Oflicere, liiit of in (Jhina *Zi\ 

Ophthalmic HoFpital, Canton . . 441 > 
Opiuni, annual growtli of 544 

Pa?iohu, or the Pescadore archipcl 24! > 
Parker, on Mr. Ciuihin|^8 coiniuia. 4l'l 

Parker, report of hospital 44! » 

Paange laland, passage off. .... 27'i 

Perit, Mr. James Dunlap 24^ 

Peach charm, notice of. 2^11 

Peli-yun Tsung, the sect of ... . 7J 

Pei-kinir, or sacred books ^fi 

Pescadore archL notice of the. . 24!) 
Petitions not to iro to tlie city ^te« 1.57 
Petition, the ri (^ht of encroachc J . 1 .V 

Pinjf-hai, the anchorage of 275 

Plenipotentiary, m. b. m., 17 

Portnjnic<'G ^vemment in Macao 18 
President Tyler's letter to the cmp. 54*> 

Prisoners, liberation of 247 

Protestant missionaries 200 

Protestant missions, notice of. . . 14^ 
Provincial {^veniment 8< ! 

I Silks, tlie cxfiort of. 

jSilvcr niiiiei* near Pekin<r 

LSing:'iii tVi, the inoniiniml at. . . . 
Lsiuvc, nii/arfi, tht? term disliked. 

.Spells, forms of characters 

.Spirit of Go<l, best tenn for the. . 

.Spirit, Chinese term for 

.Stud, office of the Imperial 

Swonl of Cluui^rpoo and Gai. . • . 
Swonl, notice of the death of. ... 

S«ronls made of coin 

Siichau, an excursion to 

Sue A man, deatli of noticed .... 
iSuperintendent of British trade. . 

;SynR{rt>]?ue of Jews. 

'Sz'chuch and its {rnvemment. . .. 
Scriptures, transhuiou of tlie Holy 

RF.REr.Lto?r of Moliammedans... ]00 

Reit Bay, notice of 2(18 

Red Book, names from 2?M| 

Reos' Rock, notice of fiUh 

Rc^sters of tlie imperial family. KK); 
Rcsxilations of customs in Macao 151! 
Religious processions, notice of . . .543 
Reminiscences of China, 6lc^ . . . 1.57! 

Representation, court of gCj 

Residents, list of foreiirn .3 

Re»<idenUi, forci«rn, in (Vinton. . . 348 
Robbery, by fei<.med officers. . . . j5!» 
Russians, notices of tlieir trade. . 2d0 

SAcairiciAL court, or Taichancrsz* 83 
Sacrificial court, or Hun<rlo sz*... 84 
SnilinfiT Directions for the Pan?hi'i 24f) 
Snilinsr directions for tlio conn. . 2.58 
Salisbury, momoir writien by . . . . 42!) 

Tablkts, tlie pecious, rejfisters 

Talismans, a kind of 

Tan«; Tin(|:chin^, notice of.... 
Tdukwdng's personal appearance 
Teachers of false doctrines. . • . 

Tea from the Bohea hills 

Tea sect, remarks upon the 

Tens, the transportation of 

Teas, tlie ex|)ort of 

Theatre, destniction of a, by fire. 
Tien Chii Kati, notice of tJie. . . . 
Tientsin, trailc wiili Cunton. .. . 

Toleration of Christianity 

Toleration of Romanism 

Tongsan harbor, notice of. 

Topojyrnphy of Kn*anivsi ....... 

Treaty of fifankingr, translation of 
Treaty with the U.S. America. . 

Treaty with the French 

Treaty wiUi the U. S. A. ratified 

Treaties, remarks on tlie 

Triad S6ciety, notice of the. . . . 
Triad Society, ordinance asrainst 
Tribute broui^ht from Groat 


Tsnnjrjin fii, or clansmen court. . 
Tucker, intro<luclnry addri'ss by. 
Tunsrtinjr hi'i, notices of the. . . . 

Tutenapr in Yunmin 

Type, characters by divisible. . . 
Type, specimen of Mr. Dyer's. .. 
























V'lCToaiA, II. R. M.*s birtli day.. 248 

VI i*ONTP.KTfi. 

Wa ^PAiri a« the tronty of ."iW 

War n illi Oiiiia, o }(or;f>iif1 54iS 

Wob8for,tJio lioiL DaniolV IcUcr. 42:1 

Wheel -cftTt, noticot of one 300 

Williams' Easy Lessons :»» 

Vaks Vuchun, skillful ^ncmil. . IGH 

I'arkand and its dcpcn«lencies. .. OH 

Yellow river bnmt its banks. . . . 1G7 
Yuh-tieh, Registers or Genealo- 

}rie« L?l 

Women, their kind conduct 901 jl Yuuuan, officers in the province. JOO 

Wright, descriptive notices by i 


No. I. 

Art i. CnmnintiTP Kiicliiih and Chinnte Cilnndir for 1R15; liit of rftreifpi rrti- 
dniiU in Ch'inn ; cointnRrcial liotiMt ; colniii4i govornment of Hongkong ; H. B. 
M/k niihtarr forces and conMilar ettabliihment* in Chiaa ; other foreifn con- 
■iiU : I'ortusriic^c froveniment in Macao. - • - . . t 

Art. IT. Obitnnrv Nntirct of Mrs. Henrietta Shuck, of the American Baptist Mis- 
sinti in f 'hiiiii. Cominiinicntcd for the Kepositorv. ... |9 

Art. III. 'JVeatv of peace, signed at Nanking between England and China, translated 
frnni the Chinese. ....... sg 

Art ( V. A list or the thirty-foiir articles, deliberated and determined iipon, for the 
trade of the merchants of tlie United States of America, at the five ports in 
China. Tnnsl:ttcd from the Chinese. ..... so 

Art V. French tradinfr regulations ; or a commercial treaty, in thirty-fire articles, 
lietween France and (^hina. ...... 41 

Art. V'l. Christianity in China ; its claims to be ffeceivod bv the inhabitants of the 
empire, wiUi reasons for its propaaation on the part of ^'hristendom. - 61 

Art VII. ( Comparative View or Six aiflerent Versions in Chinese of John's {(oepel, 
(■hspter I. veme 1st. ....... ^ 

Art. Vlll. Journal of Occurrences : treaties with Great Britain. Fmnee, and the 
Ignited Stati*s ; affairs at Fekine. Shan'jh.ii. Niiigpo, Kulangsu, Canton, Macao, 
and Hongkong ; Frotestant missions in (^hina. .... 5o 

No. 2. 

Art. f . An Ordinance for the suppression of the Triad and other locietiee in the 
ii«bnd of Ho!i«rknng and its dependencies. .... 58 

Art. II. Some account of a secret association in China, entitled the Triad .Society. 
By tlie late Dr. Milne, principal of the .Xnglo-Chinese College. Commnniciyted 
[to tiie Royal Asiatic .*^ociety of Great Britain and Ireland]. - - 59 

Art. HI. F.viU of fonninc illegal aasociatinns ; prohibition of ma^cians, leaders of 
sects, and teachers of false doctrines ; renunciation of allegiance } the tea sect 69 

Art IV. hint of officers lielongin<! to the (Chinese eovemment, extracted from the 
Bed Book for the Chinese Repository, by a correspondent 

Art V. Rem-irks on the translation of the words (tod and Spirit, and on the trans- 
ferring of Scripture proper names into Chinese, in a letter to the editor of tlie 
Chinese Repository. ....... 101 

Art VI. Journal of Occnrrenres : secret associations ; revolution in NipaT ; council 
at Peking ; (rnvemm«*ntnl embarrait^mmts ; tlic five ports ; Macao j Hcmgkoug; 
new publications ; Frotestant missionaries. • - ' - . 105 

No. 3. 

Art. 1. Notices of the Miau Tsz\ or Abori'iinil Tribes, inhabiting Tarious high- 
lands in the southern and western provinces of China Proper. - - lOi 

Art II. Essay on the justice of the dealings with the Miau Tsa' or Aborigines who 
dwell on the borders of the provinces. - - - - 115 

Art (H. China, in a series €{ views displaying the scenery, architeetore, social 
habits. &,c. of this ancient and exclusive empire. - - • 118 

Art IV. Characters formetl by tiie divisibiu tvpe belonging to the Chinese mission 

of tlie Ronr^l of forei:;n missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U. .S. A. 124 

Art. V. Tmius jjin Fn, or Boanl charged with the' control ami government of the 
Imperial Family. ....... i-lO 


Art VT. Litennr noticef : The Chini Mail, Nm. 1-^ ; Chriftiui .Minanac in Chi- 
nen, for 1845; •nd Cfeltoiy'i DictioDnaire fiacyckopedique, Tome Premier. 185 

Art. -VU. <2iienee and remarlui on the tranalation into Chineae, of tbe woida God, 
Sniht,4ind Angel. - - - • - . .-. 145 

Art. V 111. Journal of Occurreneaa : Chriatianity in China ; proteatant Miaaionariei ; 
new teacher for the Mor. £d. Soc.; aaaault and battel in Canton ; £vacuation 
of Kolang au ; new port regalatioaa at Macao. .... 143 

Art. I. EUnbaaaiea to the court of Poking, indicating the way they come, the period 

of time, and the number of persona compoaing them. ... 153 

Art. II. Cbineae Reminiaoeacea, compiled iirom notea made by -the late Dr. Mor- 

riaoa, in the yeara 1896-27. ...... 155 

Art. III. Tepo^phy of Kwangai; aituation and extent of the prorince; ita area 

tedrnpolatioa *, ita-aubdiTimons, rivera, moimtaina, prodoctiona. 4e«. 171 

Art. W, Report of tbe doodling Hoapitalat Sbugfau, translated from the original 

for the Chineae Repoaitory. . -. ..«. 177 

Art V. Toleration of ChrietiaKty, intimated by the eoapater Tankwang, Dee. SSth, - 

1844, :in A veply jfiven to a memorial lh>m the imperial commiaaioaer K lying. IS5 
Aft VI. Joumal4>f Occarreneee : Pekias Gaaettee ; the emperor engi^sad in rali^- 

one worahip; the northern porta ; JNingpo; conveyance <of leae; Hongkfli^; 
•prooeedinga of the «Medieal Mianonanr Society 4 Proteatant mioaiooa. • - . IS9 

No. 6. i 

Aft. I. The Syrian Monnment, cnmmemofating the ptogreaa of ChrwtiaBirf in 

CUani, erected in the year of the Cliriatian era at Singan Ai. - SOI 

:Att II. Some Account of Chafma, and Feliciteoa Anpendagea woa eboatthe 

person, or honir -up in houses, dec., used by the Cninese. . 229 

Art III. List of omcera beloogiog to the Chiseae govetnment, corrected from the 

Spring Edition of the -Red Book. ...... $34 

Alt tV. Linee«naeeing'apaintingef the cemetery on Freaoh Islands, where Mr. 

Jamna Danlap Perit was buried, written by L. H. Siffoomey. . 243 

Art. V. Journal -of Occuiranoea : Chineae otficeni Lin Tsehaut Tang Tiagching ; 
■Kiying^ Hwnng Ngantung} Triad Society in Chauohau fu ; opium fleet : the 

China MediccCkiiruivical Society : an aasay of sundry foreign coins ( commeroe 

of Fuchau; treaty with the U. S. A. rniifie^ } 2. Chineae natumliaed in Bostoa ; 
•libeietion of prisoners in tioagkeng; Queea a birth day; piugraaa of public 

works ; the American ateamer Midaa ; Protestant miaaiona. -^ 243 

No. 6. 
Art. 1. Sailing Directiona for the Panghu, or Peaeadore Archipelago, with netioes 

of the-ialanda. By captain Richard CoUinaon, c. n. • • • . 249 

Art II. Sailing Directiona for the coast iof China; from the Cape of Good Hope to 

nAnioy. - •• -.. . -^ 258 

'Art. III. .Noticea of the trade- canied on by the Ruaaiana at Kiaohta, upon tinr 

Fronlieis of China. . . . . . . . 289 

Aft -IV. Catalogue oi' Booka in 4hn Library of the JHorriaoh Edocatioaf Society. 28» 
AxU V. Noticea of Hongkong ; situation , ahape and extent ef the ialaad ; ita aurfaoe, 
-productiona, geological features ; principaJ diviaiona, Victecia, Chekchu, Sheh- 

pii Wan. d&c; ita original landlords; cession to the British crown y e r ec t ed 

ittto*a colony; its govemment, population, and prospects. •* - 8&I 

Art. VI. Journal kept tv Mr. Gully and capt Denmun, darings captivity in China 

in the year 1M2. luiited-by a barrister. London, 1844. • .*-. 299 

Art: VII . Joums 1 of Occurrences ; dreadful loss of li» by the teiming^ of a tbealse 

.in Canten ; commerce of Fuchau fu ;• rrtum of major-general D^Aguilar ftom 

the north ; sunrers on the «oaata or China and Formosa ; Chinese pirates ; 

relations of the Chinese with foreigners. ..... 304 

No. 7. 
.Alt I. The Jews in China : their synagogue, their Scriptures, their histoiY. dec.. 305 
Art. it. An sccount of the great destNctionof life by fire, at a4heatricsl exaibition 

held near the Hall of Litetury Caaminatiena in thexity of Canton, 25th M^, 

1845. Written by Liang Shih^Niran. 335 

Art. III. Meteorological notices of the thermometer^d&c, made in Bangkok»Siam, 

dvsingfiTe stsccessi^c' years, endiagl844. By J. Caswell. . . 337 

Art. IV. .Easy Lessons in Chinese : or Profnssaive-exereises to facihtete'thn atndy 

•of that language, especially ackipted to tne Canton Dialect - - 819 

Art V. List offoreignreaidenU in Ganten, July - - - • 347 

Alt VI. Journal of OocurreMDca ; office of the Chinese Repository lemonad to 

Canton; payment of two srilliona of dollars to the British frov« the 

Chineae ; public<Cantonnnd Hongkong ; U. S. A.ifrigate Conatitu. 

tion^ new legation iirom U. S. A. to CWna; chan^ in the government at 

Hongkong;. new American eonsui ; imponuttion oi* ice^ French 

Cochinchina; Protestant miaaiona in China - - - 351 

COIfTBNTBj vi i 

Art. Vr. Literary noticei : The China Mail, Nob. 1-5 ; Christian Almanac in Chi- 
nese, for 1845 ; and Gallery's Dictioonsiie Encvdopediqiie, Tome Premier. 1S5 
Art VIJ. Queries and remarks on the translation jnto Chinese, of the words God, 

Spirit, -and Angel. • - • • . . .-. I45 

Art vIU. Journal ofOccurrenees: Christianity in China jprolestaatMissioQariei; 
new teacher for the Mor. Gd. Soe.: assault and battery in Canton ; Evacuation 
of Kolaag su ; new port regulations at Macao. .... 148 

Art I. Embassies to the court of Peking, indicating the way they come, the period 

of time, and the number of persons composing them. ... I^ 

Art 11. Chinese Reminiscences, compiled from notes made by<the late Dr. Mor- 

rison, in the yesrs -1826-S7. - ... . . . 156 

Art III. Tepo^aphy of Kwan^i; situation and extent of the province ; its area 

aedtpopulaUon ; its subdivisions, rivers^ mountains, productions, dec. - 171 

Art W, Repoit of the Fomdtiog Hospitalat Shanghai, tranalaled from the original 

for the Chinese Repository. - ... .• .«. I77 

A tt. V. Toleration of Christianity, intimated by the emperor Tiaukwang, Dec. t8th, • 

1844, in a reply jziven to a memorial iVom the imperial coiMaissioner Kiying. 1S5 
Alt. VI. Joumai-of Occurrences : Pekiaff Gasetles ; the emperor engsged in raligp- 

ona worship; the northern ports ; jlingpo; conveyance of teas; Hongkong; 

'pitMseedings of the <Medioal Missionanr Society.; Protestant missione. ' - . IS9 

No* 6. 
;Art. I. The Syrian Monument, commemorating the -progres s of Christianity in 

X^bian, erected in the year of the Cliriatian en at Singan Ai. . . fOl 

^Art II. Some Acconnt of Charma, and Felicitous Appendsgeswoon ebontthe 

person, or hung .up in houses, dsc, used by the Chinese. - - 229 

Art til. List of orocers belonging to the Chinese govenunent,-eorreciedflfwn the ' 

Spring Edition ofthe Red Book. - . . . . . 334 

Aft 1-V. Lines on seeing a painting of the cemetenr on Frenah Islands, where Mr. 

Jsnias Dualap Pont wsS'buried, written by Lt H. SigjMunef* - > . .SI3 

Art V. Journal of Occunenoes : Chinese omcersr Lin TMhmf ; Tang Tingchi^ ; 
iCiyingr Hwang Ngantung; Triad Seoiety in Uhauohaufu ; apian fleet :. the 

China Medico.Clunuvioal Society : an assay of sundry foreign coins ;comme r oe 

of Fuchau ; treaty with the LT. S. A. ratified ; a Chinese natmaliaed in-Boitoa ; 
-liberation of prisoners -in tUongkong; Queen's birth day ;*pnBgress of pubHe 

works I the American steamer Midas ; Protestant missiona. • <» 243 

Art. 1. Sailing Directions for the Panghu, or Pescadore Archipelago, with noticee 

of the-islanda. By captain Richard CoUinson, c. 9* ' • • 249 

Art II. Sailing Directions for the coastiof China; from the Cape of Good Hope to 

-Amoy. - • - ^ ^ - -- . • . 268 

Alt III. -Notices of the trade- carried on by the Rnasiana at Kiaofata, upon tksr 

FrontiecB of China. -- - --- . fgg 

Art .IV. Catalogue of Books io the Libcaiy of the Momsoh .Education Society. .289 

Art^ V. Notices of Hon^^koag ; situation, alupe and extent ef the island ; its surface, . . 

-productions, geological feataree ; principal divisions, Victoria, Chekcfau, Shek- 

pai Wan. dcrc; its original landlords; cession to the British crown; erec t ed 

into- a colony ; its government, poptdation, and prospects. - • 89l 

Alt. VI. Journal kept l^ Mr. Gully and capt Denfaam, duringn captivity in China 

in the year 1842. Edited -by a barrister, London, 1844. - - 299 

Art.- -VII. Joumsl of Occorreoees ^^readful loss of life by the bnririnr of a theatre 

-in Canton ; commerce oC Fuchau fu; return of maior-fes»r«l Di'Aguilar from 

the north; sarvevs on the •coasts of China and Formosa ; Chineoe pirates ; 

relations of the Cliinese with foreigners. ..... 304 

No. 7. 
Art. I. The Jews in Cbina : their aynagogne, their Scriptures, their bistonr, dtc.. 305 
Art 11. An account o£ the great destruction of life by fire, at a thoatricnl exhibition 

held oearthe Hall of LiteMry Eismmatieni in thexity of Canton, 25th May, 

1845. Written by Liang Shih Pwan. - - \ . „ .J-.J o- ^^ 

Art. III. Meteorological noticesofthethermometer.d&c., made m Bangkok, Siam, 

daring fire successive years, ending.1844. By J. Csswell. ' ^^^ ^, ^^ 

Art IV. -Easy Lessons m Chinese : or Progressive -exercises to faoditatetbeatudy -^ 

of that language, especisUy adapted to the Canton Dialect. - ^ SS 

Art V. List of foreign residents in GMiton, July . - Ji^^nL»^t^ 

Art VI. Journal of Oocuneneea: office of the Chinese Repoaitoryremoved to 
Canton; pavment of two millions of dollars to the BritiAp)jetiimeirt*y the 
Chinese ; public execntien» in Canton end Hongkong; U. S. A.thgate Comtitii- 
tionj; new legation from U. S. A. to CUna; chaiges in the government at 
Hongkong; new American consul; impoutntion.orice ; Frencb mtasiana.m 
Cochinchiaa; Protestant missions in China . . - .w 




Vol. XIV. — ^January, 1845. — No. 1 

Abt. I. Comparative EngUtk land Ckinese Calendar for 1845; 

Hst of foreign residents m China; commercial houses; colonial 

gottemment of Hongkong f H, B. M*s military forces and con-- 

^^.JMlar estabUshmaUs in Ckma; other foreign consuls; Portu* 

guese government in Macao, 

Tkmpus nioiT : and what havoc of men and things do we behold ! 
Even in China — where decrees and forms altered not — what changes 
have we seen ! . The relations of this government with foreign na- 
tions have been changed. Their forms of address and communica- 
tion are changed. Great movements there have been here in the 
pt V?ical world. . And all these are but the precursors of others still 
gVsAter. So we hope,, expect, believe. For China cannot, assuredly 
8^ cannot, go back to her former isolated and secluded state. A 
1 ttle while ago, only one small spot of ground was here allowed to 
foreigners, and even that was granted as a special favor. Now fo- 
reigners are numerous, and reside in many places, and widely re- 
mote. By these change* augmented obligations are imposed on the 
whole Christian world, and especially on those governments that 
have formed treaties with China, and on those individuals who 
reside among the Chinese. On this theme we cannot noy enlarge. 

• On the next page we give a comparative English and Chinese 
Calendar, and then follow lists of foreign residents, dLC. In that long 
Hst of names we see those of only iifleen persons who wire in China 
vtheo the first number of the Repository was issued in 1892. 

VOL. XIV. NO. 1. 1 

Calendar for the Year 1845 


21 «^««>«*««gS2!S22S25J22a85t«aSS8S5SaS'"^" 



4 a 













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•' '• , I . , 1 . . ,, 

— '^"'"'"'""^■-"■"^-■ Sgog; SI 5^x8 sags 





N. ft. In this list, the iniiud of the names of these severtl places 
stands Instead of the wholii name: tf6 for absent. Id several ins- 
tances the place of residence cannot be determined. MiMfh care 
has been taken to lilake the list Correct, and it is hoped that a'uch 
errors as have escaped notice, will be viewed indulgently. 

^■******^ ^* » » - *..■■ - -| i ■^-^-h-y^-M-^-^J-^J ^ _^^xfXn^ 

Abbott, A. 
Abeel, Itev. Oartd. 
AKnhuDf Bownuuif 
Akooliy R. and family 
Ahnadh W. 

A4lantoii, William Sl fam. 
Apderaon, John- 
Amdenoii, Patrick 
Andenon, Alexander, dt fam 
Afijer, J. C. 
Anthon, Joneph C. 
Ardaaeer, Fordoonjee, 
4\iliworth, Edward 
Aapinail, Thomas 
Aievedoi Luis M. 
Badenoch, P. 
Baekhouse, John 
fiall. Rev. D. m.d. and fam. 
Balfour, eapt. George 
Bancker^ Jamee A 
B^ptiata, Joa6 S. 
Banettr R. 

Barradas, Francisco C. 
Barretto, C. A. and family 
Barretto, Joio A. 
Barretto, Luis 
Barsi, Rev. Romuald 
:Bates W. Edward 
Bateman, J. 
Beale, T. C. 

Bsfvan, W. F. 
Bevridge, A. 
Bensa, Rev. Jeremiah 












•» N. 
Bird, Alexander 
Bird, G. Alexamler, 
Birdseye, T. 
Birlevf F. B. 

Blenkin, W. ah 

Blulse, -^ — 
Bdardf Charles 

Bomanjetf Muncherjee 
Bonham, Henry B. 
Borton, James 
Bmirne, Henry F. 
Beaisteaid, Edward 
Bovet, L. 
Bcfwman, J. 
Bowman, C. 
Bowman, Abraham, 
Bowring, H. 
Bcrwring, J. C. 
Bo^ra, C. W. 
Bowra, W. A., and family 
Brabam, H. B. 
Braine^ George T. 
Braga, J. J. R. 
Bremridge, R. 
Bridgman, Rev. E. C. o. n. 
Bvidgman, James G. 
Brimelow, Jno. 



Brown, Rev. 8. R. and fam. 
Brown, John 
Bruce, M. 
Bruce, George, C. 


















List of Foreign Residents in ChineL 




Brace, Frederiek W. A. 
Braen, John 8. 
^aist, ' 

Buckler, W. 
Bachannan, Joseph 
Bofiky Rev. Francie 
Bolatog D. 
Boll, Isaac M. 
Bard, John 
fiargaaa, Richard 
Borgeas, £. N. 
Bara, D. L. ab 

Buijoijee Framjee, 
.Bniioijee Sorabjee, 
Bosh, F. T. 
^Bntt, John 
Boston, Trayers . 
Byworth, O. 
Oicho, Anton 
Caine, William 
Cairns, John 
Calder, A. 
Caldwell, D. R. 
Callerj, J. M. 
Campbell, S. 
Cannan, John H. 
Carpenter, F. 8. 
Carter, Augostos 
Carr, H..J., and family 
Carr, John 

Carvmlho, jr., A. H. and fkm. par 
Carvalho, J. H. 
Case, W. ab 

Castro, L. d'Almada 
Castro, J. M. d'Almada 
Cay, Robert D. 
Chapman, Frederiek 
Chinnery, George 
Clark, H. 
Clark, W. 
Clayton^ £. W. 

Cleverly, Charles 8t. Oeorge „ 
Cleverley, Osmond 
Clarke, Oieorge 


Cohen, Saol 
Cohen, £. 
Colasso, ^-i—- 
Cde, R. and famfly 
Colombier, Rev. Peter 
Collins, Joseph 
Collins, James 
Compton, J. B. 
Compton C. S. 
Compton, Spencer 
Comslock, S. W. 
Connor, W. 
Coobear Eftirjeewon, 
Cooke, Henry 
Cooke, S. J. 







































Cooling, „ 

Cooper, Mathew „ 

Cooveijee Bomanjee pair 

Cortella, A. M. par 

Cowasjee PalUnjee par. 

Cowasjee Framjee „ 

Cowasjee Bapoorjee Longrm „ 
Cowaijee Shapooijee Tabao „ 
Craig, John, ab ' kr 

Craigie, A. ., 

Craon, Samuel „ 

Croom, A. F. ab „ 

Colbertson, Rev. M. 8. and fiun. 
Comming, W. H. m. d. an 

Cursetjee Dhonjeebhoy 
Corsetiee Rustomjee 
Oadabhoy, Boijorjee 
Dadabhoy Byranjee 
Dadabhoy Cursetjee 
Dadabhoy Jamsetjee 
Dadabhoy Hosunjee 
Dale, W. W. ab 

Dale. T. 
Dallas, W. 


Davidson, Walter 

Davidson, William 

Davidson, F. M. 

Davis, John Francis^ h. e. gov. 

Dean, Rev. W., and fkm. ab 

Dees, A. M. 

Delano, Edward 

Delano, jr. Warren, and fkm 

De Mas, don Sinibaldo 

Denham, Mark 

Denham, Frank, and fkmily 

Dent, John 

Dent, 'Lancelot 

Dent, Wilkinson, 

Derkheim, F. 

Devan, Rev. T. T. m. d. and fiun. 

Dewar, Oeorge 

Dhunjeebhoy Byramjee, 

Dhunjeebhoy Dadabhoy, 

Dhunjeebhoy Dossabhoy, „ 

Dickens — — ab ir 

Pill, F. M. D. 












h "^ 





I Disandt, Dan, and family 

Dizwell, George Basil 

Dadabhoy Cursetjee 

Dodd« Samuel 

Dodds, J., and family 

Dorabjee Nesserwsnjee Camajee 

Doasabhoy Hormusjee, 
y Douglass, Richard H. 

Dronet, William kr 

Drnmmond, hon. F. C. ab 

Dudell, George 

Dudgeon. Patrick 

Duncan, Erskine ab 







List of Foreign Rfsidenis in China. 

Dundas, Henry ab 

Dupaig, P. 
Dnrnui, A. 
Donrnn. jr,, J. A. 
Diiiui. N., and family 
Edger, Joaeph F. 
Edwards, J. 
Edwards, Robert 
Edwards, P. C 
Edwards, C. Shaw 
EUis, W. 
Emerr, Capt. 
Elmsiie, Adam W. 
Empson, Arthur J. 
Encama^ad. A. and fkm. 
Endieott, Jemes B. 
Endieott, William 
Erskine, W. A. 
Fagan, William 
Famcomb. Edward 
Farqnhar, W. C. 
Fearon, Samuel 
Fearon, Charles A. 
Fearon, Christopher 
Felteiani, Rev. Anthony 
Fessenden, Henry 
Findlay, Qeorge 
Fischer, M. and iamily 
risher, M. 
Fisher, Rodney 
Tisk, E. G. 


Fletcher, Angus 
Ffeteher, Duncan 
Forbes, Duncan 
Forbes. Paul 8. 
Ford, M. 
Forgnhas. W. C. 
Framjee Jamsetjee 
Framjee Nawrosjee, 
Framjee Shapooijee, 
Franklyn, W. H., and fam. 
Fraser, A. E. 
Fraser, George 
Fryer, A. H. 
Fryer, W. 

Funck, F. and family 
Gabriel, M. 


Giucor, ' 

Gibb, John D. 
Gibb, T. A. 
Gibb, George 
Gibbons, Charles W. 
Gillespie, Rev. W. 
Gillespie, C. V., and family 
Gill. Edward F. sb. 
Gilbert, James 
Gilman, J T. 
Gihnan, Richard J. 
























' s 











Glew, T. T. 

Goldsmith, — 

Gon^lves, Eugenio 

GooUm Hosecn 

Goolam Hoseen Chadoo 

Goddard. J. 

Gordon, Alexander T. ab. 

Grant, J. 

Graves, Pierce W. 

Gray, fi. 

Gray, W. F. 

Greene, S. N. 

Gribble, Henry, and family 

Griffin, Alexander 

Griswold, J. N. Alsop 

Groves, William 

Gnillet Rev. Claudia 

Gntierris, Candido 

Gutierris, Louren^o 

Gntierris, Apoloaario 

Gutierris, Cepriano 

Gutslaff, Rev. C, and fiim. 

Gutierres, A. 

Hacket, C. 

Haffue, and fkmily . 

HaM, Frederic Howe 

Hallam, Samuel J. 

Hamilton, Lewis, and fiui. 

Hance, H. F. 

Hanson, F. D. 

Happer, Rev. A. P. m. o. 

Hardam, Henry 

Harding, Charles 

Harker, Henry R. 

Hart, C. H., and family 

Hart, Alexander W. 

Hart, Benjamin, 

Harton, W. H. and family 

Hastings, William 

Hauve, P. 

Harry, F. 

Harvey, B. Frederick 

Hawkms, Thomas Dalton 

Hawkins J. Dalton 

Hay, W. W. 

Heard, John 

Heeijeebhov Rustomjee 

Henry, William 

Henry, W. 

Hepburn, J. C, and family 

Heras, P. de iat 

Hertslett, F. L. and family 


Hiekson, William 

Hillier, C. B. 

Hindley, E., 

Hobson, B. sad fiimily 


Hcnlgson, J. 
Helgate, H. 





■ t« 
























































tf • 




























List of foreign Rtii4ents in C^ina. 

Hallldty, J. and family ■ 

b „ 


Le Ocjt, VVilliBm C 

KoMfbrlh, C. G. 

Leffler, Jolin 

HaldforUi, J. 


LegEe, Rev. J o.u.andfim 

HolniM, John, and family 


Uggetl. H. 

Hiinnuajee SyramJM, 


Leilie, W. 

Honnume JamuaJM, 
Ho<re. ChailM F. 

Levin, E. H. 


Lew la. James 

Howell, Augiutai 


Lind, H. 

Hmrme, John, and family 



Livinciton, Joe€pli G. 

Lluyd, Cornelma 

H>me, David 


Lloyd, Rev. John « 

Hume, G. 


Lock.bail,W. and family 


LongBhaw, T. 

Lena, Alexander tl 

ffanter, R. H. 


Lnpea, Januario J 

Honter, T. 


Lope a, Bernordo 

Lopei, Joie J. 

Ilberr, WUIitm 

Lope., P^dto 

Ilbery, John, ak 

Low, E. A, 



Lowne. R, 

Itoai, Jamec, «. n. 

Lowrie, Rev, W M. a 

JaokioD, Riokard B. 

Loom.j, Rev, A W and (km 

JwkM>D, J. 

Lunjee Jamajee j 

Jardine, David 

Lunn. ii. C. 

JiHiiw, Joiepk 


Lun, W, H. 

Jarfie, John 

Lunjeelihoy Jamscljee » 


.MeCarlee,D, B.M.o, ,5 

. p«r 


McCklch.e, Rev- T. 

J>«i*, J. A. 



MeDonald, Jamei 







MeGregor, Aleiander 
MeMinnia, H. 

ionei, G. R. O. 


MeInto.h, C. 


Mclntyie, W. 

J on, jr., LeoDard 


MacKenjie. J. 

Jwt, Leonard 


McSwvney, P. C. 
Macculloeh, Alexander 

Kay, Duncan J. 


Kay, WiJIiam 

Macfiulane, A. i 

MarleboEie, James 

Kannedy, H. H. 

McDonald, J. C. 

Kerr, Crtwford, and fam. 


McKnight, T. and fam. 


M«oka.v, Hugh 

Kimball, John E. ab 


Kmr, Ckula W. and Amilr ,. 

Maclvor, Willism W. 

King, Jamei B. 

M«ckeiiii,T. W.L. 

King, William H. 

JVIacleocf, M. D, 

KiS'ey,' W. T. ab 





Kkuman, N. and ftmUy 

IrtacPhfison, A. W 

Kkby, Thomaa 



Mahomedbhoy AUoo , 

Krayenkafea, Juliiu 


ManecHjPe Burjnrjpe 

UioK, a. 

iVianeckjee Pe«ionjee 


M«naclijee Nanibhoy, , 

L<mon^Jokn,. Rev. JerorM 

Lue, Thomaa A. 


M,rcu,«o, P. and jkraily 

Lane, W. 


M»rjonbatik«, Samuel 

Lapraik, Oongia* 
Littoy. JoMpE 



MarkwicJt, Charles 
^larlin. Rob«iI M 

Lay, G. Trad«ea(it 



L«yu>n,T.H. and family 


B I 

Matbeaon, A lei. 


List of Foreign Resident* in China. 

























Matheaon, Donald 

Matheion, Williain 

Mathison, A. M. 

Matthyssen, and family 

Meadows, Thomas T. 

Medhurat, Rev. W. H., d.d. dtfiun. a 

Medhorst, jr., Walter H. 

Melrose, William ' 

Melville, Archibald 

JMercer, W. T. 

Meredith, William S. 

Merwaojee Eduljee, 

Meafing, W. A. 

Miehell, E. 

Miles, William Harding 

Millar, John 

Siller, U. 
ilne. Rev. W. C. ab 
M'lln, James 
Mitchell, W. H. 
Modderman Tonco 
Mohamedally Mohotebhoy 
Moller, Edmund 
Moore, William 
Moore, Philips 
Morrison, M. Croflon 
Moses, Gelaoston 
M<MM, Joseph 
Moss, Al^zi^nder 
Monl, Henry 
Mair, T. D. 

Inllady, O. 

Inrr^y, J. A. 

Inloo Doongur 
Mur, J. Manuel 

Surray, C. W. 
arrow, T. J. 
Mylne, J. 

ganabhoy Hormnsjee, 
apier, Ueorge 
isei i sa njee Dhunjeebhoy, par 
werwanjee Ardaaser, 
feave, Thomas D. 

Sessi»rwai^ee Bhicajee, 
esserwanjee Dorabjee, 
^ewman, Edward 
Nicol, — 
Kiven, — — 
{lorris. O. N. 
Noronna, J. M. 
Iffowrosjee Nesserwanjee, 

gye, jr., Oideon 
ye, Clement 
)9ye, Thomas S. H. 
Oakley, Herace 
Oswald, Richard 
Onteiro, J. M. df 
palmer, J. 

Pallanjee Dorabjee, mtr 

Pallanjee Nasserwaajae Fatal, par 












m. am 















Pareira, E. 

Parker, Rev. P., m. o. and lam. 

Parkes, Harry S. 

Parkin, William W. 

Pattullo, Stewart £. 

fedder, Willian, a. a. 

Peerbhoy Khalckhdin 

Peerbhoy Tacoob, 

Perkins, Geor|^ 

Pereira, Ignacio d'A. 

Pereira, Ignacio P. 

Pereira, Manuel L. R. 

Peslonjee Dinshaw 

Pestonjee Merwanjee 

Pestenjce Bjramjee Ck>hola 

Pestonjee Nanablkoy 

Pestonjee Nowrajee Poweluyjee par 

Pestonjee Hormnsjee Camajee m 

l^estonjee Jamsetjee ^ 

Pestonjee Rustoaajee Hukaen 

l^estonjee Rustomjee 

Peirce, W. P. 

Piecope, W. N. ' kr 

Piecope, T. C. ^ 

Pestonjee Raltonjee 

Pett, George 

FhiUips i. 


Pitoher, M. W. 

foidevin, G. F. 

Ponder, SteplMn 

Pope, 4ohn 

Porter, y 

?otier^ F. P. 

forter, p. 

Power, J. C. 

Prendergast, John 

Prescott, W. S. 

Proctor, Daniel 

Froctre, £. 8. 

Frosh, J. L. 

Fyke, William 

Fyke, T- W. 

Mu&gel, Floriano A. 

Rangel, Segeamunde 

Rawle, S. B. 

Rawaon, S. kr 

Read, S. W. 

Ready, John „ 

Remedioa, F. par 

Remedioa, J. B. „ 

9«ynv9an, H. G. J. and fkm. da 






I^ibeivo, J. C. V. 
BLibeiro, Lauriano V. 
Iticketi, John, and fkmily 
Riple^^ — and fiuiily 
l^itehie, A. A. aad fiumly 
Ritaon, John 
Rivoire Aime 
Roberto, Rev. I. J. 













List of Foreign Residents in China. 








Roberts, Joieph L. «, c 

Roberte, Oliver E. » c 
RoberUon, Daniel B. 
Robertson, J. 
Robertson, A. 
RfiskeUy, Thomas 
Rolfe, R. H. 
Ross, G. 
Routh, L. 

Rowland, T. H. ' „ h 

Roxa, Juzino ad per h 

Roxario, F. per h 
Rnstomjee Bnijorjee Chinoy par 

Rostomjee Bjramjee pit 

Rotter, Henrj kr 

Ruttonjee Hrorousjee /mit 

Rattomjee Framjee „ 

Rustomjee Framjee „ 

Rosden, A. W. G. ^ c 

Ruttonjee Camajee ., 

Ryan, James mm e 
Ryeh, W. J. 

Ryder, Charles h" 

Saner, Charles gtr m 

Saunders, Frederick kr h 

Scheel, Augnstui gtr 

Scott, Adam hr h 

Scott, William «, h 
Sennvan Bafel, M. Z. and fam. du 

Shaw, Char&s br i 
Shawnckshaw Rostomjee par 

Shelley, A. £. 6r h 
Shepard, George 
Shepard, John 
Shock, Rev. J. L. and Sum. am h 

Sillivan, G. G. a 

Silva, A. per h 

Silva, Candido „ h 

Silva, M. „ c 

Silva, Q. „ c 

Silverkiek, John kr h 

Silveira, Albino da par 

Sinclair, John, kr 

Sinclain, C. A. m b 

SirTf C* H. and fam. „ h 

Skinner, John ab „ 

Small, Alexander A. •, h 

Smith, Alexander o 

Smith, F. „ h 
Smith, Thomas S. 
Sniith,^J. C. 

Smith, J. Maokrill n- e 

Smith, John, and family „ m 

Smith, Henry H. „ 

Smith, James „ h 

Smith, Rev. George „ 
Smith, Gilbert, and iamily „ m 

Somjee Visram iiie4 

Sorabjee Byramjee par 

Sorabjee Framjee „ 



















Sorabjee Rustomjee 

8onsa, Atanasio 

Sousa, Florencio 

Spencer, Charles 

Spooner, Daniel N. 

Spring, Francis 

St. Croix, George 

St. Croix, Edward A. 

St. Croix, N. de 

St George. J. P. 

8tanton,llev. V. and family hr 

Stevenson, James 

Stephenson, R. 

Steven, D. 

Stewart, F. and fkmily 

Stewart, T. 

Stewart, W. 

SUll, C. F. 

Strachan, Robert 

Strachan, Adam F. 

Strachan, George 

Stronach, Rev. A. and (am. 

Sterling, Paul 1. 

Strocker, C. K. 

Sturgis, Jamei P. 

Sullivan, George, and fkm. hr 

Sumeordin Ahu>hoy, 

Sword, John D. and family am 

Syme, T. D. hr 

Tarrant William m 

Tayor, Edwards 

Thorn, Robert 

Tiedeman, jr., P. and lam. 

Tiedeman, J. H. 

Tiers, C. H. and family 

Townsend, jr., P. and nm. 

Trott, John B. ., 

Trotter, G. A. kr 

Tulloch, J. 

Twist, Charles 

Taylor, Jno ' „ 

Uliett, R. B. M 

Vaeher W. H „ 

Van Basel, J. M. S. and fam. dM 

Van Lofielt, Joa^uim P. du 

Van Rych, W. J. H. du 

Vesey, S. and ikmily 

Vincent, T. C. B. 

Wade, John, and family 

Walker, Alexander 

Walker, J. 

Walker, Jas. Thomas 

Warden, Edmond 

Wardley, W. H. 

Waterhouse, B, 

Watkin, C. 

Wa^, Rev. R. Q. and fkm. am 

Weiss, g9r 

Welch, James 

White, James, and hxa. 


























'^Liii of 'Commercial Houses ^ Agents /-^^c. 



Whitney, A^ 


Wilhelmy, Martin- 


WillciiiBoo,- Alfred 



Williams, S. Wells ab. 


Wilson, Craven ^i • i 



Winchester, Chsrles A. 



Winslow, G-. R. ' 



Wise, John • - * 

br * 


Woodlierry, Charles 


Woods, F^ 




Woolneri J. 

Wolcott, Henry 

Wynch, J. H. 

Wysroan, L. 

Xavier, J. dos Anjos 

Young, Peter ab • 

Young A. J. 

Young, Kev. W« and fam. 

Yvanvich, E. and fliiii. 

tlU '• 

*■' f 















♦1 ■ 





■ i.z' 

.. I ..a 

i-.ioi jI 


A I 

A. A. Ritchie. ;.; - :? : 

A. dtf. D. FURUOOKJEE. ' 

Ardaseer Furdoonjee. 
Jalbhoy Cursetjee, 
A.NOBKsos, Chalmers Sl Co. 
James S. Anderson. 
•' Patrick* Chalmers (England), 
'' Janiei D. Park. 
Augustine Heard «Sc. Co. 

Augustine Heard ((/. States). 
Geo. B. Dixwell. ' 
John Heard. ' 
' - - . ^11 J'. Joseph L. RoberU. 

Olfter E. Roberta. -^^ 
Bell ^ Co. 

William Bell. 

Sir O.G.deH.Larpent, br. (Eng.) 

Alfred Wilkinson. 

J. Mackrill Smith. 

Archibald MelTiHe.' 
' Richard Gibbs. ' 
Besjamin Sears. 
Boustead &■ Co. 

Edward Boustead. 
Benjamin Butler (Manila), 
Gustav C. Schwabe (Liverpool) 
Adam Sykea (Singapore). 
R. Aspinall, jr. 
Martin* Wilhelmy. 
W. HTJlchinsoiik 
W. C. FarqUhar. 
Francis B Birlcy.. 
BovET, Brothers, Jit Co: 
C. Beret (absent). 
L6uisBovet ' '^ 

. L. A. JeanAeret (absent). 
BvKVf Langk 6l Co. 
Mads Lange ( Bally) . 
O. L. Procter 
S. W; Roes. 



Bush &, Co. "^ ' '; 

E.T. Bush. '• 

Edward Hinley. 
' T.P.Giles. 


Spencer. Compton. 
C. H. Hart. 

C. Markwick (auctioneer. 


C. V. GlLLEiriB. 

Charles Shaw. 

J. H. Winch. 
Cawasjee Palukjee. ' J 

Cooverjeb* Bomanjee. 
Cawasjee Shapoorjek TabacK dcCov 

Cawasjee Shapoorjee. ^ ' ^ 

Dadabhoy Pestonjee.'r 

Manuckjee Pcstonjee:' : 

Pleston jee Nahabhoy. . . 
Cawasjee SHAPoonjEE.LihtGkASKA. 

Cawasjee Shapooxjee L. 

Pestoujec Jamsetjefe. 

Honnusjee Jamasjee. 

Framjee Shapoorjee Luiigrana. 

Pestonjee ByTamj«?e. 


Manuckjee Hnrjorjee. 
Pestonjee Ruttoiijee Shi'oll*. 
Burjorjee Sorabjee. 
DhuDJeebhoy Dadabhoy. * 

Sbrabjee Byramjee. 
Dadabhoy NesserwanjeeMoot^Cu. 
Dadabhay Hormusjec. 
Burjorjee Framjee. . ' ' " : 

DhunjcebhoT Hormusjee. 
Rustoinjee burjorjee: ' ' 

D. «& C. Natvabhoy. 
Pestonjee DhunjeeWioy. ■^' 
Dhunjeebhoy Dbsabhoy. ' " • ' 
Sorebjee Rustomjee. 

D. Jc M. RusTOMJtE Sl Co. 

Dadabhov RualDniU't* (at'sent). 



'List of Commercial Houses ^ Agents ^S^c, 


Mtoaokjee RottoinJM (itbgau). 
Merwanjee Jeejeebboy (ukenU) 
Dhunjeebhoy Byramjee. 
Dadabhoy Byramjee. 
Palunjee Nunerwanjee PuteL 
NffMerwanjee Bhicajee. 
Jamoojee Naserwanjee. 
Dadabhoy Hootanjee, 
Nenerwanjev Ardaaeer. 
Corietjee Dhqnjeebhoy. 
Nesaerwanjee Dhuajeebhoy. 
Nowrojee NesaerwaDJee. 
Peatonjee Ardaseer. 
Muneherjea Eduljee. 
DsVT 6l Co. 

Lancelot Dent. 
George T. Braine. 
William Leslie. 
Hon. F. C. Drummond. 
John Dent. 

W. U. Harton. 

M. W. Pitcher. 

Edward Pereira.. 

J. Bowman. 

J. Caldecot Smith. 


Dallai dt Co. 

Stephen Ponder. 

F. Chapman. 
J. Butt. 
Dickevi dGt Co. i 

Fnneii Diekena. 
-——St. George.. 
DiftOM, (xBA r dt Co. , ) 

W F. Gray. 
R. Dirom, (ahstnt), 
F. M Daridaon (absent). 
W. T. Hunter, (absent). 
W. W. Dale. 

C. Ryder. 

D. Potter. 
W. Ellia. ■ t 
J. Hodgabn. 


Ruttonjee Fsamjee. 
Dadabhoy Jamaetjee.. 

EDWAao Farnco-.. NoUr^ Public 
Solicitor, Attorney an4 P~«i«'^^* 
the Supreme Court ; alao Coroner 
of Hongkong. . , • i 
Edwaed Newman, (tuct^one^Of 
Embkt a Fraea*. . . .^rr- "^ t • 

FlAROH A Son... . ;..7-^---l'H - 

Chriatopher Fearon-. -. 

Charlea Fearon. . ., . . - i 
FiicKKa Wii.i.18 dt Co. ^ _ • .V 
^ Joaenh Bate., ^r. (England) 

Danlea Willis- (England). 

M. Pischct. 

/' f. . 

W. A. Menfing. 
J. F. Glewv 
Flstchrii, La ri lira (b, Co.. 
Angus Fletcher. 

D. Fletoher. 
Gebrge Findlay. 
A. M' CorteUi* 
FOK, Rawsov a. Co. 

T. S. Rawaon (absent). 
William Blenkin. {absent) 
Arthur J Empaon. 
Samuel Rawaom 
A Staple. 
W. H. Lnce» 
Thomaa Longahaw. 
r O..R Jt>nea. 

I. d*Almeida Pereira. 
William Kay. 
Framjsb Jamsbtjbb. 


FiTBR Sl Lavc. 


W. p.. Livingaton. 

Juat* ph O. LiTingalon. 

John, Skinner. 

T Jonea. 

John Silverlock. 
John D. Gibb. 
George Gibb. 
^oa« B. doe JRemedkw. 


Frainjee Heerajee. , , 

Shavuckshaw Raalomjee*' 
Peatonjee Rualomjeei . 
Riiatomjee FramjeOk. 
Framjee Nowrojee^ 

Hkfrv Thomson db Co. . 

Hbnrt Modl. . j ',. 


A. de Encarnacao 
Hboam«:Co. ^ 

William Gillman. (England) 
Auguatna Carter- 

..William Brown. 
, Robert Ker. 

^^Samuel Hill. 

J^^^ '^- Cuvillier. 
HoLLiDAT, Wise, dt Co.. 

John Holliday. (qisBnt)^ 
John Wise. {HonMkonff\ 
R. J. Firbrid-Tir-^lwd) 

• --^yy ' * yke. f 

Jbhh Sbepard« 
H. Bw Braham^., ■ 
F>. Hindley. . 
R. Bremridge. 
John Ritaoik 

- f 

' t 


List- of' Commercittl Mouses t Agents, 4*^ 



Rustomjeo Bjnunjee. 
Peatonjee Dioshawjee. 
Cartetjee Rustomjee. 


Burjorjee Hormasjee. 
Nanabhoy Homiusjee. 
HoMfUiJBB CiwiajBa. 
HooHXSDoii, Caldxr, a Co. ^ 
Charlea Hoffbesdon. 
Alexander Galder. 
Henry Rutter. . } . ' 

L A. 'Reffuinot. 
William Butler. 
IiAAc M. Bull. 

Jolm S. Broen. 
Jardinx. Mathxsoii a Co. 
Alexander Matheaon. 
Andrew Jardine /oAmjU). 
Donald Matheaon. 
David Jardine. 
l/Villiam Stewart. 

Bareito, B. A. 
Baretlo, J. A. 
Bowrtnf , J. C. 
Comptottf J. B. 
Daliaa^ A.O. (Skmngkai) 
Forfaea, Oonean (jneey) 
Goddard, J. 
Grants J. (Slan^rAet) 
Howell, Augttattti 
Hninpaton. Qerrtm 
Jaekaon, John Anunf. 
Jardine, Joaeph 
Maciver, William 
Macpheraon, • Alex; 
Matkeaon, W. 
Ottteiro, Joae d ' 
Raneel, F. A. 
Rolft. R. H. 
Bilveira, A. P. 
Still, C. F. 
Jamiksoji, How 6l Co. . 
J. F. Edger. 
O. Jamieaon {OlagfowD, 
John Giffbrd {Caleatta). 
William Henry. 
William Melroae. 
A. Walker. 
Jamxl Rtan. 
J. P. Stuxgii. 
J. Jarvix. 
J. A. Ddrram, Jr. 

Adkemar Darran. 
JoBX Caixhi. (Ed. of the Hongkong 

JoMX Caxx, (Ed. of the Friend of 



Jonx N. Alxop GxiawoLD. 
John Smith. 
John D. Swoao A Co. 
John D. Sword. 
John B. TroCt. 

William Groree. 
Rbnkrdy Macoxxoor iL Co. 
L. Just. 
L. JuiT, Jr. 

Douglaa Lapraik. 
Lattxt iL Co. 
LiXDiAT 4l Co. 

H. H.Lindn7(£a^). 
Crawford Kerr. 

Adolphna 8. Dryedale (oAtaiU). 
H. Dundee. {aUluu), 
Walter Davideon.: 
W. Fryer. 
T. Bnxton. 
E. Oon^alvee. 
T. Vineent 
M. J. Sxxx TAif Basbl. 
M. Foan dc Co. 
Maolxax, Dxaiib, iL Co. 

— » Maclean {Bombay)* 
— — Dearie (Lenten). 
R. H. Hunter. 

R. R. Calvert. > 
W. C. Clarke. 
J. de Noronha.. 
Macvicar a. Co. 

J. Macvicar (Engr.} 
D. L. Bum. (o^etiU) 
Gilbert Smith. 
Rodney Fiaher. 

Thoe. D. Neave, 
W. C LeC^tte. 
Henr^ Feaaenden. 
C. Milne. 
A. Grandpre. 
J. Campoi. 
McEwEN dt Co. 

M. McEwen. 
A. M. Mathfeaon. 
Mbrwaiijrb Eouljbb.^ 
MuRRow dt Co. 

D. C. Maokey, (CalcMtia), 
Y. J. Murrow. 

Charles W. Murray, 
J. Leffler. 
W. N. Piccope, 
N. Duus. . 

Ji Piria Pereira. 
Nyb, Parkix, &. Co. 
Gideon tiy^^ Jr. 
William W. Parkin. 
Clement D. Nye. 


List of Cdmmercial.House9f Agents ^\Jj^6. 


H. M. Olmsted. 
J. Kreyenhagen. 
J. P. Van LoffelU 
J. de- Encaraa^adi. 

N. BoiJLLB. 

Oltphant. At Co. .. . . . : • 

C. W.King, 
W. H. MortB (absent).. . . 

... J.:R« i^inff* 

James A. naticker.' 
R. H.Douglass.. . 
F. A. Kinff. . 
Oswald, Disandt, «& Uu. 
/.•s Richard Oswald^ 
. Daft DisandL. 
PatwcK; Stewart. • 
pcoro dk las hcras. 
PxsToifJKE Framjkb CaMa &. Co. 

Pestonjee Merwaojee. (Bombay) 
Palunjee Dorabjee Ranjee. 
Jamsetjee Rnstomjee. (Bonibay) 
Rustomjee Ntiserwanjee. (Bom,) 
Lanje«bhoy Jamsetjee. 
Bdmanjee Mancherjee. ~ 
P. dt O. NusBawANJCB Cama-^ Co. 
Pestonjee Nowrajeei . 
Dorabjee Niiserwanjee. 
Dadabhoy Nesserwanjce. 
Pesto!«jre Cursbt/bb Mod v. 
Horanusjee Pestoajee. 
Framjee Hormusjee. < !;. 

P. TowNSKND, Jr. ^auctioneer).. 

Angelo da Silva. 
Phillips. Muorb, dc Co.:- 


William Rathbone, Jr. (Wpool). 

S G. Rathbone. . 

J. W«irihiDgton. 
Rkyjtvaav Sl Co, 

H. G. J. Reynvan. 

P. T. S Silveira, 
F. H. PhUlips.. !:: 

R. Edwards. 

Riplky, Smith & Co. ^ 

Ritsskll &. Co. ••»'. 

Warren Delano, Jr. . 

Paul S. Forbes^ 

J. T. Gilmanv 

D. ff. Spooaer, 
Edward Delano..' 

3. J. Hallam, ' 

. . . , George -Pi-'rk i ns, 

Robetfrt.S..Sturgis.: . 

E::A. Ijaw, ' 
a. RangeL :. ) 


Q.SiWa. --■■• 

R. J. GiLMAHr. ... .1 

A. Bowman. 
E. Green. . i 

Robkrt LowaiB. 


Ruttonjee HormusjeeC. (ahsent) 
Doaabhoy Uonnusjee. 
Pestonjee Hormusjee. 
Sorabjee Framjee Crakaw. 


Tisas, BoDBMR Sl Co. . 
C. H.Tlem. 

H. F. Bourne. • 1 

R. P. de Silver. 
TI7RMBR &.Co. • ' f. 

W. Thomson (absent), 
T. W. L. Maokean. 
P. Dudgeon. 

A. McCttlloch. (Shang.) 
John H. Cannan. 
D. J. Kay. 

Ccaren Wilson, (5Aan^.) 
E..H. Levin. 
. iA. SmalL. 
W. iL T.Gbmhbll Sl Co. 

W illam . GemmeU (tt(rMiii) . 
Henry R. Harker. 
R.,StrachaA. . 

/-. v Adam Scott 
:-. • iW.F.Bevan. 

•Frederick Woods. 
.. George Napier. 
Wbtxorb. ^iCo. 

William S. Wetmore (jV. K) 
Samuel Wetmore^ Jr. 
N. Kinsman. 
S. B. Rawle. 
William Moore. 

Charles F. Howe. 
Joseph C. Anthon, 
Stephen T. Baldwin. 
J. T. Gilman.'. 
■ F. Gatierris. . 

W. Lanr. 

C. Lloyd. 
William Scott* 

C. Gutierris. 
W. H. Frank LYif. (auctioneer) 
L. V iera Ribeiro. 

W. P. PlBRCB. »^. .. .*- 

. ':rz'L' PiflfcoW.' Graves. 
WotCOTT: BAtss &. -Co. 
Vbysry d&Co. ■ 

JulittS'C. Peiver. 

1845. . Colonial Gopemmeni of Hongkong. 13 


His Excellency ^ Governor and Commander in 

John Francis Davis ( chief, 

Major-gen. D'Agntlar, c. B. Lieutenant Governor, 

W. T. Mercer, Esq. Private Sec. to H. E. the gov. 

Supreme Court of Judicature- 

The Hon. John W. Hulnr, Esq. Chief Justice, 

Hon. Paul Ivy Sterling, £Isq. Attorney General, 

Robert Dundas Cay, Esq. Registrar, 

P. McSwyney, "Deputy Registrar, 

H. Leggett, * Clerk to the Judge and Court, 

D. R. Caldwell, Interpreter. 

Colonial Secretary's Office, 

The hon. Fredrbick W. A. Bruce, Colon!. ' Secretary, 

L. d'Almada e Castro, Chief Clerk, 

George A. Trotter, \ 

J. M. d'Almada e Castro, S Clerks. 

Charles W. Gibbons, ' ) 

Rev. Charles Gutzlaff, \ ^J^^^'Y i" the Chinese De. 

f partment. 

Colonial Treasurer's Department, 

Hon. Robert M. Martin, Esq. Colonial Treasurer, 
W. T. Mercer, Esq. : Assistant Treasurer, 

James Collins, Clerk. 

Auditor ^General and Clerk of Councils. 

A 1? Q»„.,„«. p-« ' ^ Auditor General and Clerk of 

A. E. Shelley, Esq. ^ Councils, 

F. Smith, Clerk to the Clerk of Councils, ' 

John Ready* Clerk. to the Auditor, , 

Rev. V. Stanton, Colonial Chaplain. 

Chief Magistrate of Police and Sheriff, 

Hon. Major William Caine, Chief Magistrate of Police, &c, 

i Assistant Magistrate of Police at 

( Victoria, 
W.H. Miles, Clerk. 

Assistant Magistrate of Police at Chekchi, 

C. B. HiLLiER, Esq. -' Assistant Magistrate of Police, 

A. L. Inglis, . . Clerk. • r • .' . 

" ;,' *- 'Surveyor GeneraVs Department. ""i 

Alex. T. Gordon Esq. (absent), Surveyor General, 

Charles St. Geo. Cleverly. Esq. \ ^ 1;:::;:; «--' "" *" 

1 4 List of Ofitirs of the General Staff, Sfc, TanL 

T . ^ o,.^ ... . . S Civil Enffineer and Clerk of 

JobDPopc, » J Works, ^ . i/ : 

William Tarrant, Clerk of Registry of Oeed% 

S. J. Cooke, Clerk, . ^ . 

M. Bruce, Inspector of Roads. 

Hkrhor Master and Marine Magietraiem^ 

Lieut. William Peoder, r. n. \ ^.^J^' ^^' "^ ^*"°* ^'• 

A. Lena, Assistant Harbor Master, j ... r 

E. Micbell, i Clerk, > *'\ t-A 

S. 'PcaRjn, Esq.; X^^^:^"^"^ ^"^ ?^^\ 

^ -f' • :i ^ of Kevenue. .;',>. J:.. 1 

Charles Bolt, ( Clerks. 

James Stevenson, ( ,,..., 

■ •■ '■-■••• •■• 


F. Dill, X. D«, Colonial Hospital Surgeon. 

• . . ■• . * 

Poi^ Ofice DepartmenL 

F. SpRiifo, Acting Post.ma8ter, 

J, Palmer, . . : r:- ' Clerk. r .,.. 




J .. ,, JpVAnn OF RONORONG. 

General staff. ^ ' 

Tbe bon. major-general D'Aguilar, c. b., commandinfr in China. 
Lieut C. L. D'Aguilar, Royal artillery, assistant military secretary 

and aid-de-camp. 

Capt. J. Bruce, 18th' {R. I.) regiment, assistant adjutant general. 
Capt. H. T. D' Agu^l^r, Grenadier guards, assistant quar. mast. gen. 
Qapt. R. N. Faunce, 2d regt. M. N. I., staff officer Madras troops^t 

. and officiating deputy judge advocate. 


Brigadier Cbesney, commandant, commanding artillery in China. 
Lieut. J. D. Smytb, 98tii regiment, station staff officer. 

MEDICAL STAFF. . 'i .. ,;P 

Surgeon J. Thomson, superintending surgeon. 

Assist, surgeon, W. C. B. Eatwell, and medical store keeper. 

Second class staff surgeon, Edmonston, surgeon to the staff. 


W. Miller, esq., deputy eofnmissary general. 

• • • 


List of Officers of the General Staff, J^c. 


O. Goldsmith, esq., assistant connniasary general. 

L. Routh, esq., deputy assistant commissary general. 

F. S. Carpenter, esq., deputy assistant commissary general. 


Br.-mRJor E. Aldrich, superintendent public works and surveyor. 

Lieut. J. B. Collinson, executive engineer. 

Lieut. J. Montresor, 98th regiment, assistant executive engineer. 


Mr. George Pett, store keeper 1st class. 

Mr. Arthur Boate, deputy store keeper 1st class. 

Mr. Theodore S. Ford, 2d clerk. 


Lieut.-col. H. H. Farquharson, barrack master 1st class. 


Lieutenant P. S. Parsons. 
Lieutenant £. J. Patterson. 
Assistant surgeon Duggan. 


Lieut.-colonel A. C. Gregory, commanding. 

Major William Roberts. 
Capt. J. C. A. Dunbar. 
Daniel Rainier. 
J. M Jeffery. 
Lieut. J. A. Street. 
P. Shehon. 
F. Peyton. 
J. A. Macdonald^ 
A. F. Steele. 
T. C. Duhbar. 
H. T. Richmond. 
Ensign R. Young. 
M. Batt. 
M. Dillon. 
H. W. Stroud. 
O Latouche. 










Ensign R. Reid. 
Paymaster capt. E. Hunter. 
Adjutant lieut. E. Grantham. 
Quar. master J. Fagan. 
Surgeon C. Cowen. 
Assist, surg. E. D. Batt. 

Cromelin. B«pivmr. 

Bingham. Middsamy. 

Fletcher. mmIim umy. 



Staff ass. surg. Douse. 






Capt. F. J. Fischer. 

,, J. £. Glynn. 
Lieut, and br.-c&pt. J. Dods. 
Lieut. G. W. N. Dunlop. 

„ P. R.J. Wood. 
J. Dentoa. 

4th REGIMENT M. N. I. 

Lieut. J. J. Brine. 

,, W. J. Jones. 
Ensign J. F. A. Plant. 

„ G. J. S. Fireman. 
Asst. surgeon W. Traill, m. d. 


List of Officers of the General Staff, Sfc. 




BrigiifJicr CaiiipUoll, c. it., coiniiiaiidiiig. 
Lieutenant K. Ilnythoriie, l)8th regiment, brigade major. 
Captain D. Bnmfield; 56th B. N. I., military magistrate. 
Lieutenant L. Shad well, 9Sth regiment, Chinese interpreter. 


IL Green, esq., deputy assistant commissary general. 


Lieutenant J. Ilitchins, executive engineer. 


Mr. J. E. C. Tetley, Ist clerk. 

U; M. 18tR U. I. REGIMENT. " ' 

^ Lieut.-colonel J! Cowper, commanding. 

Major J. G rat ton. 
Copt. F. Wigston. 

Lord Cochrane. 

J. W. Graves. 
Lieut, and br.-capt. C. Dunbar. 
Lieut. J. J. Wood. 
„ T, Martin. 

F. Armstrong. 

H. D. Burrell. 

E. W. Sargent. 

J. M. Elliott. 

H. A. Ward. 

IL J. Mason; 




Lieiit. W. H. Graves. 

,, R. Farrcr. 
Ensign W. B. Graham. 
H. J am res. 
R. J. Ivin. 
C. T. Kelly. 
E. Jones. 
Adjutant lieut. W. T. Bruce. 
Quarter master G. Peel. 
Assistant surgeon J. Stewart. 

A... Ferguson 






•I .'I 

Captain J. Back, commanding. 
Lieut. H. E. Hick».. | Assist, surgeon W. Joii^sion. 

. 2d. REGIMENT M. N. 1. • 

Lieut. -colonel J. R. Luard,. c. d., commanding. 

Capt. and br.-major R. ShirrefT. 
„ T. Back. 
„ U. Stewart.. 
Lieut, and br.-capt. E. Green. 
G. Carr. 
J. F. Erskine. . 



Lieut. S. Main waring. 
Ensign W. Touch. 

H. Acton. 

E. A. B. Travers. 

J. Brown. 
Surgeon W. G. Maxwell, m. d. 


Oarrison staffs 

Major E. Haldane, 4th Reeimeiit M. N. L, commanding. 
Lieut, and Br.-captain J. M. Johnstone, 4th Rcgt. M. N. L, station 
staff officer. 

J84S. List of H. B. M. Superintendent in China, 17 

Lieut. C. J. Collingwood, Madras Artillery, barrack master. 

Asst. Surg. W. R. Gingeil, 2d Regt. M. N. I., Chinese interpreter. 

Commissariat Departmbnt. 
Thomas Power, esq., acting deputy asst. commissary general. 

2d regiment m. n. I. 

Major E. Apthorp, k. s. p., commanding. 

Captain J. H. B. Congdon. 
Lieut. R. Shawe. 
„ A. A. Shaw. 

4th REGIMENT M. N. I. 

Captain H. Colbeck | Asst. Surgeon J. Robson, m. d. 

Lieut. S. J. M. Cunningham. 
Ensign W. M. Burrouffhs. 
Ass. Surgeon W. W. Rawes. 


EsTABLisBUflNT OP H. B. M. Plbnipotkntiart and 
Superintendent op trade in China. 

At Hungkong. 

H. E. John Francis Davis, i H. M. Plenipotentiary and Su. 

dcc.9 ^^•v { perintendqnt of British trade* 

Alexander R. Johnston, Esq. Secretary, (absenr,) 

Adam Wallace Elmslie, Esq. QfRciating Secretary, 

Rev. Charles iGutzlaff, Chinese Secretary, 

Martin C. Morrison, Assistant Chinese Secretary, 

Alexander Bird, ,Esq. Chief Assistant, 

Mr. William Connor, 1 

Mr. Horace Oakley, > Assistants. 

Mr. Edmund Warden ) 

H. B. Mafesiy^s Consulate at CanUmi. 

Francis C. Macorboor, Esq. Consul^ 

Richard Belgrave Jackson, Esq. Vice^onsul, 

Thomas Taylor Meadows, Esq. Interpreter, 

Mr. John Backhouse, Senior Assistant, 

Mr. Edward Fry Giles, Junior Assistant (Absent.) 

N. de S. Croix, Esq. Consular Agent, Whampoa. 

John Rickett, Esq. Consular Agent, Macao. 

H. B. Mttjesty^s Consulate at Amoy, 

Rvtherpord ALcocKrEsq. Consul, 

George G. Sullivan, Esq. Vice-consul, 

Harry S. Parkes, Esq. Interpreter, 

Mr. F. L. Hertslett, (Acting) Senior Assistant, 

Mr. C. A. Winchester, Junior Assistant, 

H, B. Majesty^s Consulate at Fitchdu. 
George Tradescant Lay^ Esq. Consul, 

▼UL. XIV. NO. 1. <$ 

18 List of Foreign Consuls in China. JanI 


Mr. Joseph Thomas Walker, Senior Assistant, 

Mr. W. Saunders Meredith, Junior Assistant. . 

H. B, Majesty's Conndaie ai Ningpo. 

Robert Thom, Edq. Consid, 

Temple Billiard Lay ton, Esq. Vice-consul, 

C. A. Sinclair, Esq. Acting Interpreter, 

Dr. Irons, Surgeon, 

Mr. Patrick Hague, ' Senior Assistant, 

— — Junior Assistant. 

H.'B. Mqfesiy^s Consulate ai Shdnghdi. 

Capt. Gborge Balfour, Mad. Art. Consul, 

Daniel Brooke Robertson, Esq. Vice-consul, 

Walter Henry Medhurst, jr. Esq. Interpreter, 

Mr. Frederick Howe HaJe, Senior Assistant, 

Mr. Frederick Harvey. Junior Assistant. 



^, , ^ . • . D^ S Consul of the \st class, etcting as 

Ch. Lefebrre de B^cour , J ^^^^ ;^^,^^ .^ ^^ S , 

S. 'A. Rivoire, Chancelier, (absent,) 

G. M. Callery, Chinese Secretary, 


Paul S. Forbes, esq. Consul, Canton. 

W. P. Pierce, esq. Vice-consul and Naval Agent, 

Henry Wolcott, esq. Vice-consul^ Ningpo. 


M. J. Senn Van Basel,. -^ Netherland Consul. 



H. E. Joz6 Gregorio Pegado, Governor. 

Joaquim A. de Morses Carneiro, Judge. 

D. Niculau R. P. Borjas. Bishop. 

Francisco de Assis Fernandes, Substitute to the Judge, 

D. Geronimo Pereira de Matta, Coadjuctor Bishop. 

Members of the Senate. 

Felippe Joz6 de Freitas; } Judges. 

Felippe Vieira, } 

1845. Obituary Notices of Mrs. JSkuek. t9 

.ioz6 Francisco de Oliveira, ^ * •' 

Francisco Joa5 Marquis, ^ > Vereadores, 

Monoel Duarte Bernardino, ) 

J026 Vicente George, Procurador. 

Joz6 Sifna5 dos Remedies, TVedsurer. 

Migael Pereira Simoens, CUrk to Senate. 

Demetrio d'Araujo SiWa, Collector of' Customs. 

Justices^of the Peace. 

Vi A 4 o.^u^^^ I ^^ Parishes of Si and 

Cepnano Antonio Pacheco. \ St. Antonio. "^ • 

(Vicente Vieira Ribeiro. Por Parish of Si: Lauren^. 

Commandants of the Ports. 

Lt.-col. Joaquim V. Sanches, Commandant of the Bar Port. 
^ATajor Ludgero J. de Faria Neves, Do. ' of the Monte Port. 
Miljor Antonio Pereira; ' Do. ofthePranciscanPort 

Major J0&6 Valentim Churoal, Do. of the Quia Port. 

.Major Caetano A. Lemos, Do. y of the Bom PartoPort. 


i . 


...... - . ....;. .: • -. . . i .'. ■■.[■■..: 

: ' ' • ■ . ' . . .:•''•■ " •■'■•♦'» 

Art. II. Obituary Notices of Mrs. Henrietta Shuck^ of the 

American Baptist Mission in China. Communicated for the 


In obedience to the command of that ascended Savior who has all 
power in heaven and on earth, this departed jnissionary left her fa- 
ther's roof, numerous and endeared connections, and native land, 
,and braved the dangers of the deep and the perils of a foreign clime, 
to, do what she could in teaching the gentiles the way of life and 
salvation. She relied upon his power, apd enjoyed the fulfillment of 
his blessed promise, "Lo! I am with you cdway even to the endJ* 
Through all the varied vicissitudes of her times, she was animated 
and sustained by this promised blessing, . and up to the last. day of 
her life was allowed the happiness of being actively employed in her 
domestic duties and missionary work. She lived up to the very 
close of life in cheerful activity, and. then, the veil being drawn 
aside, she stepped from time into eternity, entered from the church 
militant into the church triumphant. — In expectation of full details 
of her life and labors being given to the public iu another form, a 
few brief notices must sufiioe for the present. 

20 Ohiiuary Notices of Mrs. Shuck, Jan. 

Mrs. Henrietta Shuck, the daughter of the Rev. Addison Hall, 
was born at Kilmarnock, state of Virginia, United States, on the 
28th October, 1817. Under the inflaence of eminently pious parents 
and extensive Christian privileges, she, in the thirteenth year of her 
age, afforded the happiest evidences of genuine piety, and in the 
same year was baptized by the Rev. J. B. Jeter, upon profession of 
her faith, and became a member of the church of Christ At twelve 
years of age she entered a seminary for young ladies in Fredericks- 
burg, Virginia, under the superintendence of Mrs. Little, a lady of 
piety and intelligence. But her father, wishing to have his children 
educated under his own inspection, soon afler this procured a com- 
petent instructor and established a boarding school on his own pre- 
mises. Here the subject of these notices won, by her deligence and 
amiableness, the high esteem of her instructor and the warm love 
of her fellow students. About this time her beloved and pious 
m6ther died leaving six children, one a very young infant, under 
circumstances somewhat similar to those in the midst of which she 
has vanished from amongst us. In the beginning of 1835, she re- 
moved with her father to Richmond city, the capital of Virginia, 
where he became the general agent of the State Colinization Socie- 
ty, and Miss Hall entered the seminary in that city under the care 
of the Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Keeling. Upon leaving this seminary she 
refceived, unsolicited, written testimonials of the highest character. 
Ob the 8th of September, 1835, having long cherished the true 
spirit of missions, she was united in marriage to the Rev. J. Lewis 
ShCIck, of Richmond College, and on the 22d of the same month, 
sailed from Boston in the ship Louvre, capt. Brown, for the far East. 
Besides Mr. and Mrs: Shuck, the following missionaries were fellow 
pASsengers in the same ship, viz. Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Reed destined 
to^ the Chinese, ReV. Mr. and Mrs. Davenport for the SiiEimese, Rev. 
Mir. and Mrs. Day for the Talingooe of Madras, Rev. Mr. and Mrs. 
Ihgalls for the Burmese, Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Haswell for the Pe- 
gUans of Bdrmah, Rev. Mr. Abbott and Miss Macomber for the 
Kerens of Burmah, Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Sutton, Rev. Mr. and Mrs. 
Phillips and Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Noyes all for Orissa, south of Cal- 
cutta. The Rev. Mr. Malcom, as visiting agent of the American 
t Baptist Board to their eastern missions, also made one of the pas- 
se^H^rs. The Louvre touched at Bengal, Burmah, Penang, and 
Singapore. At this latter place Mr. and Mrs. Shuck remained four 
inbnths. where their eldest son, now eight years old, was born. In 
September, 1836, they arrived in China, and remained at Macao till 

1845. Obituary Notices of Mrs, Shuck. 21 

March, 1842, when they became permanently located at Hongkong. 
Mrs. Shuck waa the first American /emo/e miaaionary to China. 

While she made respectable advances in the literature of the 
Chinese language, her knowledge of it was chiefly confined to the 
colloquial, and she spoke it with usefulness and success. She ever 
felt it her duty to teach the children of the heathen, and from her 
first coming into the field has had more or less of them under her 
immediate tuition, and at the time of her demise she had twenty 
Chinese boys, six Chinese girls and her own four children, making in 
all thirty children,'under her care and taxing her anxieties. She' 
was emphatically a i0orih*]i^ missionary, and she was permitted to 
sise the fruitt of her disinterested toils, and was allowed to re* 
joice over the blessings of the spirit of God upon her instructions to 
the young. Yes ! she was a successful missionary, as well as a 
laberious missionary. To her disconsolate husband she was a de- 
voted and affectionate wife and a help meet indud; to her children, 
a fond and faithful mother ; and to the mission, a beloved and highly 
valued member. 

• For severed months previous to the brief illness which terminated 
her earthly career, she enjoyed unusually good health, and yet she 
ofteb expressed most singular presentiments that she should not sur- 
vive- her approaching season of trial. In view of these premoni* 
tions she became more fervent in prayer and more faithful in her 
work, and for several months she manifested a marked spirituality 
of mind, and a lovely ripeness of piety. She made her arrangements 
in view of what she believed would end her pilgrimage on earth. 
She spoke of it to her husband and to her friends, but never widi. 
gloomy forebodings, such was the activity of her Christian hopes. 
Even every drawer and all her little boxes, with their various articles, 
have since been found arranged with singular neatness and order. 
A day or two after her demise the following, among other papers, 
were discovered in her writing table, and bearing evidence of having 
been written about two months previous, '* I am so strongly impressed 
with the idea that ^some great and calamitous event is about to befall 
me, that I cannot but write it down. What it is, God only knows. I 
feel a presentiment that samcfhing is going to take place, something 
dreadful. Oh ! Lord prepare me for all that thou art preparing for 
me ! Help me to take every dispensation of thy providence as for 
my own- good.'^ At about midnight, on the 26th November before 
calling her physician, she requested her hiisband to join with her in 

prayer, and as he took her hand and knelt by her couch and min* 

22 Obituary Notices of Mrs. Shuck. JaI«. 

gled their sapplications before the throne, she seemed to enjoy fel- 
lowship with the Father and with his son Jesus Christ Her whole 
frame of mind was eminently prayerful and heavenly. At half past 
one o'clock she became the happy mother of a healthy son, and 
gave thanks to God for his delivering mercies, and called upon her 
friends to join her in prayer and praise. Afler making some maternal 
inquiries about the child, she added, " May he be a missionary." At 
this time there was full prospect of her soon being restored to her 
domestic circle where she had so long been the presiding sun. But 
God's ways are not as our ways, nor his thoughts as our thoughts.; 
and soon a peculiar fainting and nervous prostration ensued, similar 
to what on a former occasion had indicated her near approach to 
the. grave, and which now, in defience of every remedy which medi- 
cal -skill could suggest, told the last beating pulse ; and at 3 o'clock, 
.on the morning of November 27th, her pure spirit winged its flight 
to the heavenly world, to the bosom of Him whom she loved and 
served in earth's vale of tears. Her final exit was singularly easy, 
being attended with scarcely an apparent pain or struggle. She 
literally *' entered heaven with prayer," and in the fullest sense fell 
asleep in Jesus. She had the high privilege of passing from a day 
of willing activity and toil, in the master's service, to an eternity 
of bliss and rest without the usual lingerings and sufferings of dis- 
ease. She completed the work assigned her, died in the midst 
of her labors, . and finished her course with joy.. That the golden 
bowl of life has been broken is gain to her, for she indeed was ready, 
but she has lefl a widowed husband and five motherless children to 
mourn their irreparable loss. 

A copy of the '* Gem's of Sacred Poetry," presented her by her 
husband, she had long been in the habit of using as a companion to 
her Bible. Since her departure it is discovered that in this little 
relick, wards, lints and whole poems, on the subject of death, the 
grave and the heavenly world, are marked and underscored in pen- 
cil with her own hand, and some of them are singularly prophetic 
of what has been fulfilled in her passing away. In one she says, . 

f Lord it belongs not to ii^ care, 
Whether I die or live, 
To love and serve thee is my care, 
. And this thy grace must give. 

If life be Umg I wiU be g^ 

That I may long obey ; 
If life be thmi I am not sad, 

I long to be away;" 


Obituary Notices of Sirs. Shuck. 


• Again she says, 

' *^0h what ia life ? Tia like a flower, 

That blosaoma and is gone, 
It flouriahes ita UUU hour, 

With all ita beautiea on 
Death cornea, and like a wintry day, 
^ It cnta the lovely flower away. 

«*6h! what ia Ufe? Tib like the bow, 

• * That glistena in the sky, 

We love to see ita colors glow; 
But while we look, they die ; 
Life fails Of soon ; to-day ^ here, 
TVatorroia it may djaappear. 

<^ Lord what ia life ? If spent with thee, 

In humble praise and prayer, 
How /bn^ or tAM»f, our life may be 

We feel no anziona care, 
Thouffh life depari^ our joys shall last. 

When life and all ita toila are past** 

• Again she adopted the following as her own. 

<* Mv timea are in they handa. 

My God, I wM them there. 
My life, my frienda, my soul I leave, 

£nftre^ to thy care. 

' ''My timea are in they hand, 
I alwaya truat in thee, 
And after death at thy right hand, 
I shall forever be." 

Religious services having been conducted at the house by the Rev. 
Dr. Devan, her remains were borne to their final resting place by the 
European Police corps (who made special application for the privi- 
lege of doing so) followed by an unusually large number of persons 
both foreign and native. The Rev. Mr. Brown made an appro- 
priate address at the grave and oflTered prayer. All who knew her 
loved her. On the Sabbath following, at 11 a. m., the Rev. Mr. 
Gillespie of the Lon. Mis. Soc. preached at Hongkong with special 
reference to the event, from the text, *' Blessed are the dead that die 
in the Lord," d&c, d&c; the Rev. Mr. Dean at night at the dueen's 
Road Chapel, from the promise, " Lo, I am with you alway even unto 
the end ;" and at Macao, the Rev. Mr. Lowrie of the American Pres. 
Mission from the text, ** Ye shall know hereafler/' 6lc. All the Chi- 
nese services of the same Sabbath, in connection with the Baptist 
Mission, were made to bear directly on the subject, and the myste- 
rious Jehovah has already caused good spiritual results to ensue. 

Mrs. Shuck's religious character was marked by strongest /atVA, 
and there have been some rcmarkahh and direct answers to her 

24 Obituary Notices of Mrs. Shuck. Jan: 

ferTent prayers. She was punctual in her private devotions,. and 
warmly believed in a minute as well as in an all comprehensive Pro- 
vidence. It was her constant delight to commit all her interests for 
time and eternity to the care of her Heavenly Father. 

In her domestic relations she was happy, kind, and true to her 
trust, and shed light and happiness upon the circle over which she 
presided. As a wife and a mother she was most affectionate, faithful 

, and devoted. Her solicitude for the welfare of her family though 
intense was coupled with a sweet resignation to the divine will, and 
a hearty committal of all her loved ones to the care of the Christan's 
Ood. That fond maternal care for these defenseless babes was 
mingled with peaceful thoughts of confiding trust in that kind Father 
in Heaven, who had provided for herself when a motherless child, 
and who had been her guide in riper years. For the proper training 
and spiritual good of her children she cherished the keenest anxie- 
ties, but notwithstanding her numerous and lesponsible duties to her 
own offsping she ceased not to labor, though with a delicate constitu- 
tion, for the children of the heathen and the destitute around her ; 
and how many, both among the native and foreign community here, 
will ever have occasion to think of her either as a spiritual guide, or 
as a friend indeed ! She. blended in admired proportions the lovely 
Christian, the intelligent lady^ and the gospel laborer. In her 
Missionary captoeity she was indeed a bright ornament, and .dis- 
covered an active mind jind a judicious judgment, and was a safe 
counsellor. The success of her husband's labors, and the prosperity 
of the Mission with which she was connected, may in no small 
degree be attributed, under God, to the .wisdom of Jier counsels, the 
seal of her endeavors, and the fervency of her prayers. She wrote 

* considerable, and her compositions were characterized by simplicity, 
ease and elegance. Her prayerfulness, her faith,, and her habitual 
confidence in Ood, mingled in an interesting manner with all her 
anxieties, cares,. toils, and joys of life. In all her ways she emphatical- 
ly acknowledged God, and she believed that He directed her paths. 
The day previous to her departure she wrote two long letters, one 
to her former Pastor, and the other to her Richmond preceptress, 
each breathing a spirit of thankfulness, resignation, and Christian 
hope, affording an additionally' consoling balm to the wounded 
hearts of surviving friends. Her health was so good even a few 

'hours .before her departure, and her demise so sudden and to us so 
unexpected, that we find it hard to realize that she is really gone. 
She has indeed vanished from our sight like a meteor, but her light 

1845. Obituary Noiieet of Mrs. Shuck. 25 

still shineth : yes ! she has vanished from our sight, yet we have so 
loDg been accustomed to witness her smile of joy and contentment, 
and to listen to her words of friendship, to behold her benevolent 
efforts and mingle with her hallowed devotions, that her removal 
strikes us as a dream of the night. Like Enoch she walked with 
God, and u noi, for God took her. ^ . 

She realized the fulfillment of the promisie, *^Lb I am with you 
^way even unto the end.*' In her childhood^ in her youths in her 
jaumeyings, in her lohors, in nU her Hfe, and. in her peacefully tri- 
umphant deaihf this promise was verifiiedl Those who witnessed the 
peouliar smile of Joy that rested on her sainted- countenance, when 
the pure spirit had been disembodied, and life had departed, wiH see 
a prophetic interest in the following .verse, taken from one of the 
favorite poems of her little book, evfl^ word of the fourth line 
having been underscored by her own hand. 

<» •! t- . ( 

- 2 • MQ:! for that sanunit ef*iny wish '.!.:/. 

Whilst here I draw mv breath,. .,, ;^ , 

That promise of eternal life, . . ^ 

• Agiorioui emile in dealkT ' i:- r: .' 

Again she specially marked the following, as if in prediction of 
what was soon tn her own case to be fulfilled. 


* >1 do remember, and wijl ne'er forget, * 
; ::.:.i "»» TH# dying eye I That eye ^one was bright, • '"• ' ' "i 
:«:.':.• A^d brighter grew, as nearer death approach'd:. 
,, ...,.; As I have s^en the gentle little flower 

' Look fkirest in the sUver beam which fell 
>' I : i Reflected fhrni the thnnder cloud that soon* 
■[., , . .) v.ijCafnedown^andp'erthedQdeitBoatter^d far -, ., - 

: . And wide its loveliness. She made a sign 
' * • ' To brinff her babe-^'twas bTOngfat, ^lid by her 'placed :* ' 
•::•*-> '> She iooked upon its fiuse,. that neither smiled > i 

., j . No^wept,iior knew who gazed upon*t; and laid 
' Her band upon its little breast, and sought 
For it, with look that seem'd to penetrate 
The heavens, unutterable blessings, such 

As God to dyinff parents only granted, ; 

"' For infants left behind them in the world. ^ 

' "^Godkeeprnvchildr* We heard her say, and heard 

I' . No more.- The Angel of the Covenant 

. ^ Was come, and faithful to his promise stood 
' Prepared to walk with her through death's dark vale. • 
Ana now her eyev grew bright, and brighter still. 
Too bright for ours to look upon, suffused , . • i< 

With many tears ; and closed without a cloud 

They set as sets the mominfr star, which goes - ' ' 

Not down behind the darkenM west, nor hides 
Obscured among the tempests of the sky, 
But melts away into the light of heaven.** 

VOL. IIV. NO. I. 4 ^ 

26 Treaty of PtaW between Edglaud tuid^ China, JAJfl 

» I •» . ' ■ .■ • I'.f 7 . t\\-* ■ • r : : ••■' • I-: 

•!• l-* I •' : • !f r.| ! :':t,; -j;- •!, {'•' .'J • }| 

Art. til. Treaty of peace, sighed at Nanking ictween Eiigiand 

and Chinal translated from the Chinese. ' ' 

1*0 the Editor of the Chinese Rcpositonr. , .' ' • ' !' ' /\ 

OfrarSir, — My fonner traiulation of the"Su{)plemehtu7 Trratjr hft^ing^ 
excke4 some «tt|Bntioii, I beff leave throu^ It < the; Imedium of your < Tftluilile 
Jpumal to lay before the pablic a tranalaUon of the treaty of p^ce f ijrned at 
Naikkiiig, whicli was' found in a native booksellers shop in the Chinese' 
eity where I nowi reside.: It will be seen that this, like my former tmnsla-^. 
tion, [differs, fron^ the o^r^^gTnent: publii^l^ed by aut|^(»ifty» and insomerespectSr 
from the supplementary treaty itself (see.the 2d articled. .1 cannot help also 
haardiiig tne opitlionf that it is more 'fUvorable to the Bri^h interests than 
the«iibseqaent document, and Itfaat it would hsveibeen hettdr if our dipioroan 
ti8t.had let w^ll alone; but while. I venture these remarks, I, must, beg. leave 
not to be made responsible f<>SB^l the lucuberations of newspaper editors 
that' have ai^peared en this suDject - I a^i^ sir, yom^ truly. 
August 3d, 1844. ' n J .? ..m, vu /■' ! ^:Ofj>'« Wheat..: •.•..,{ 

Art. 1. The great emperor of China will. [Perpetually maintain peace 
and amity with the ebvereign of the English nation; the subjects of 
China and England shaU preserve mutual amity, and severally dwelling 
in their respective countries shall receive the protection one of .the 
other, so that' both persons- and families |>e preserved ii^tran()ui]ity>^ 

Art. 2. From henceforth the favor of the great emperor permits the 
people and inhabitanta of Engjanil to bring with. them; ^heir families, 
and dwell in the five sea ports of Canton, Fuchaa, Amoy, Ningpo, 
and Sh^nghii, for the purpose of trade and commercial intercourse, 
without impediment The • sovereign of the English! nation shall 
appoint consuls and charge d'affaires to dw^ll in (of at)^the cities of 
the above named five ports/ and. be,, entirely devoted ^othe arrange- 
ments of commercial intercourse, while ih^ :carr^ on « official com- 
munications wHh the local magistrates and see to the full and proper 
payment of the duties and port charges by the English,; according to 
the regulations which-shall be hereafter specified; 

Art. 3. Inasmuch as the merchant ships. of the. English nation come 
from afar across the distant ocean, and being frequently injured by 
the voyage stand in need of repairs, it is suitable to confer upon 
them a place on the sea coast, conyeqient for the repair of shipping, 
and for the storing up of the necessary materialsy the 'great emperor 
has graciously bestowed the island of Hongkong on the sovereign of 
the English nation andihec descendants, in peirpetual sovereignty, to 
rule and regulate at will. j . .| . , 

Art. 4. Inasmuch as the imperial cbmnrissioner and the rest of 
them, in the 19th year of Taukwang, (1839), and the 2d month took 

184^. Treaty of Peace helwem England and China, 27 

ihe charge d'affaires of tKeEnglish nation, together with some British 
subjlscts, ' and ! forcrbly 'detained theni at • Canton, threatening them 
with death, and demanding a quantity of opium as the ransom of 
their Jives; now the great emperor allows the sum of six millions of 
dollars as payment of the original value, 

' Art;- 5. Whenever the merchants of the English nation traded at 
Cinton, according to the old regulations, all their business way con* 
ducted by a certain number of hong-merchants, who were also deno- 
minated government merchants for assisting in the management of 
business; how thei great emperor has permitted that henceforth, fb- 
rcaghers 1 be not compelled to follow the old regalations; but. all 
English merchants who proceed to the various ports for trade may 
carry on business with what dealers they please, according- to their 
own- convenience; moreover some of the established number, of bong 
merchants under the old system having become indebted tofth&Eng^ 
lish merchants in Jarge amounts, without the meansof payings it is 
settled and agreed that three millions of dollars, being tbe amount 
of the hong merchants debts; shall be made good by the officers of 
the Chinesegovemment. ' ri. ; 

: Art. 6. Inasmuch as the. imperial commissioner ahd the rest of 
them, did not act towards the officers and people of the English na-» 
tion with justice,- but made: use of violence, so as to necessitate the 
raising of troops to seek for redr^s, it ia now settled and agreed that 
twelve millions ef dollars be paid for the expenses of the army and 
navy, which the great emperor' has allowed to be made good ; only 
the sums which the! English nation has received from the various 
cities of China, since the J 5th day of the 6th moon, of the 21st 
year of Tiukwing, (August Ist, 1841,) are to be deducted from the 
above amount. 

Art. 7. The above specified sums amount to 21 ,000,000 of dollars : 
of which six millions shall be paid immediately ; in the 6th month of 
the Kweimiu year, (1843) three millions, and in the 12th month of 
the same year, three more shall be paid, making six millions for that 
year; in the Ki ash in year, (1844,) in the 6th month two millions 
and a half, and in the 12th month two and a half more, making five 
millions for that year; in the year Yihaz', (1845,) in the 6th month 
two millions, and in 12th month two millions more, making four 
millions for that year^ Thus from the year 1842 to the year 1845 
inclusive the sum of 21 millions will have been paid. If however 
the money should not be paid upon the dates specified, then it is 
agreed, that fi\e. per cent, aimually shall be paid for interest. 

29 Treaty of Peate between England and China. Jan. 

Art. 8. Whafaoerer British subjeeta, whether belonging to England 
or its colonies, are now in confinement within the dominions of Chi- 
na, the great emperor allows that they be immediately liberated. 

Art. 9. Whatsoever Chinese subjects may have formerly dwelt in 
the cities kept possession of by the English, or may have been in 
communication with British subjects, or in their service, or may have 
acted as spies to the officers of the British government, they are, by 
an especial decree sent down from the great emperor, which has been 
copied and circulated through the empire, graciously forgiven their 
offenses ; also whatsoever Chinese may have been apprehended and 
confined on account of mixing themselves up with the affairs of the 
English they are to be graciously liberated. 

Art 10. When, according to the 2d article of the present treaty, 
the barriers are opened, and the merchants and people of England are 
allowed to dwell in the five ports of Canton, d&c, for the purpose 
of commercial intercourse, they must pay the import and export 
duties and charges, according to the tariff to be equitably arranged, 
and issued by the proper Board, for general information, and for* the 
convenience of the English merchants paying the same. It is now 
further agreed, that when duties on English goods have been paid at 
the several ports, according to the tariff, then it shall be permitted 
10 the native merchants to carry them all 6ver the empire, and when 
they pass any of the usual custom-houses on the road, they are not 
to be charged with any heavy imposts, but merely an ad valorem 
duty of a few candareens on each tael. 

Art. 11. It has been agreed upon and settled that English govern 
nors and generals residing in.China, entering into official correspon- 
dence with the great officers of China, whether in or out of the capital, 
shall adopt the form of ^ ^^ ehdu hwAy, official communications : 
and that subordinate officers shall adopt the form of ^ ^, shin ehin^ 
explanatory statements ; when the great officers of China reply, they 
shall adopt the style of z|^ ^, cAd hittg, official dispatches; and 
thai when the secondary officers of both nations hold intercourse, 
they shall employ the usual styte of B8 ^, chau hwHy, official 
communications. Should the merchants of either nation address 
the officers, they do not come under the same category, but make 
use of the form of petition. 

Art. 12. When the great emperor has given his assent to the enfor- 
cement of the several articles of the treaty of peace, and has allowed 
of the payment of the six millions, and when this sum has been fully 
paid, then the naval and military force of the English nation shall 

1845. TVeaiy of Peace between England and China. 20 

immediate)/ retire from the neighborhood of Nanking, and shall 
not any more hinder the merchants of the various provinces of China 
from trading ; they shall also deliver up Chinh&i and PAushin ; only 
the islands of Chusan, in the department of Tingbai, and the small 
islet of Kuliug s(j near Amoy, shall still be garrisoned by Eng- 
lish troops, until the sums of money agreed upon, have been fully 
paid, and the ports previously alluded to have been opened to the 
commercial intercourse of the English; after which the troops gar- 
risoning those places shall retire, and no longer, keep possession 
of them. 

• Art 13. The several articles of the treaty of amity, specified a« 
bove, shall be held in abeyance until the great officers have separately 
reported to the august emperor, and obtained his reply assenting to 
the same, and until the sovereign of the English nation has ratified 
them, when the credentials shall be immediately exchanged, each 
nation holding one copy in order to secure good faith ; but as the 
nations are widely remote from each other, two additional copies 
shall be prepared, which shall first be signed and sealed by the imperial 
commissioner and the envoy of the English nation, each one retaining 
a copy as proof, and from that very day begining to act with security 
according to the terms contained in the teaty of peace. 

JVbCif t(f a eorruponAokM eoimeeted with th€ f rMfy 
tf ffoet nuuU at Jfankmg. 

] . With regard to the dpbts of the hong-merchants at Canton, (with the 
eaception of the three millione for the payment of which the geverament it 
tecnrity,) fVom henceforth it ia agreed that the English in their eommercial 
intereonrse may carry on trade with whomsoever they please, entirely at their 
own covenience ; but as the firms with which the English do business will 
toot be of the class of hongs established by the Chinese guvernment, shoald 
debts be incurred, the officers can do nothing more than prosecute, and can- 
not be security for the payment. 

It appears from this article in connection with the reply of the barbarians, 
that from henceforth the gains and losses on their trade will entirely devolve 
on themselves ; should debts be incurred, the consuls may inform the local 
magistrates, who will institute prosecutions ; but on no account are the of- 
ficers of government any more to be held responsible. 

3. As deliberations have now been settled, and as war is perpetually to cease, 
merchant vessels alone can go and come between the five ports of Canton, 
Fttchau, Amoy, Ningpo, and Shingh&i, and it will not be convenient for ships 
of war to be criuzing about ; at all other ports, besides the above named 2ly9^ 
such as Peking, Moukden, Shintung, Tientsin, Formosa, Ate., not only will 
it be inconvenient for ships of war to go and come, but merchant vessels also 
may not trade thither ; for the boundaries must be strictly observed, in order 
to keep up the good feeling now established. 

30 *' U. 8. A. Treaty with Ckina. V J^ti. 

It ap^ars from this articl^y in, connection with i the reply ,'ofi the barbarians, 
^hat as soon as the five ports are opened, and the tariff published, the ao- 
vereign of the English nation will issue a proclamation to. her subjects, per- 
mitting merchant vessels to trade only at the five ports, and not allowing 
ihem to be hurrymg towards other places. The said nation has hitherto had 
a number of small vessels of war, sailing in and out of the various ports to 
examine into the stata of trade ; these will cooperate with.' the local officers 
of the Chinese government to prohibit merchant vessels from gping else* 
where; and also invite the native authorities severely to rest^in;the Chinese 
people from holding commercial intercourse with the English at any other 
than the five porU above named." ' ' * * • ' '« '•* • ' * 

3. It having been deliberated and agreed upon that itshould be left to 'th^ 
Chinese government to decide las to whether the itroopa-. from iChe various .pro- 
vinces should be 'kept under arms or. disbanded , so • also the forts,; barricades^ 
and citadels, which, are now in ruins, may be repaired in due order so be 
restored to their original condition, really with the view of guarding against 


I. .. • .' :. :|- ■ L:.:.'. :i-:;:; :' ; : . ? ' •.) .!; t\ :'.:: .:. .;.f 

:■■.■! I : . . i. r vii'.:). f •; t i" r: •• •-:: ■ :.i !• ;l j: ! :( 

I ■• -rl 

Art. IV. A list of thirty-four articles,. deliberated and determined 

upon, for the trade of the merchants of the United States of 

America, at the Jive ports in China, Translated from the 

Chinese. ■■ '*.••-■..■ •:.■:.:■• .;••".." ? 

Art. 1. Hereafter the Great Pure Dynasty with the United States; 

and the people of both nations at any place whatever, shall mutually 

be on terms of amity, good faith and harmony, preserving together 

peace and quietness for myriads of years, without anything to 

disturb it. . ' . . - . . ■ 

Art. 2. The people of the United States coming to China to 
trade, shall pay duties on imported and exported goods according to 
the tariff already settled, without being charged more than other 
nations ; all former expenses and fees being completely done away 
with. Should the underlings of the custom-houses make extortions, 
the Chinese nation will punish them according to law. Should 
China hereafter wish to make any change in the tariff of duties, it 
must be deliberated upon, and consented to by, the consuls and 
other officers of the United States. Should any extra advantage be 
extended to other nations,, the people of the United States must 
equally and universally benefit by it ; in order to display justice and 

1845. U. S: A. Treaty with' China'. 31: 

• <AHi'3, Heneeforth the* people of the United States shall without 
exception he rpermitted to take, and carry their, families, to all the. 
five ports of Canton,. Fuchau, Amoy, Ningpo, and Shanghdi, to 
dwell and trade .thei:e: The vessels of the five ports carrying cargoes 
backwards and forwards may follow tlieir own convenience; but 
itilo any port.other/ than the five. ports not;a single vessei ^hall enter 
nor: presume, to Mfander > about. • They also • may not , privately trade 
with the! hiwle^. inhabitants along the coast. Should there be any 
who oppose ,and> ofilgtfid against this prohibition, the' vessel and goods 
must^' regulations ake^y; agreed upon, all .re ver^ 
to^Ghin^ and be qonfiscated tp. government. • .. t. . ;:.» 
M Ai%-'^ .The people.of the United States being permitted to resort 

tpithe. five ports for puqKMses of trade, it will be right and. iiecessary 
to establish consuls 2^n4: other officers at each place, to superintend 
the* A flairs .of the . people; of their own nation* The local officers of 
Chinaishall receive and metet them with increased liberality. ;In all 
mnlual: intej^courpe, whether: by the interchange of public ^docu- 
menls lor by interviews' for personal consulta.tion, both parties shall 
maintaiia their proper i;ank. Should the local officers insult or slight 
the consuls and other officers, the consuls and others will be, permits* 
fedito lake the griev«nce^ find compUin of it for redress to the high 
oS«ersf0f Ghiiia,)iMho/ will in,. equity : and /justice exam.ioe into an4 
arrange/it : BOV the. consuls alsf» may not follow their own will and 
uiielinaliion,ithus/ giving ris^ to many,' altercations with .the Chinese 
officers and people. : ; - j ;. '. . • . - i 

in Art, 5.i ThB people of theUnited .States trading, at the 6ve.portS| 
with the e^tception of merchandise forbid4en by the Chinese law^ 
t6ibeiimpovted or exported, will be permitted to take .every othec 
article ofimerchf^ndise. and either bring it from their^piwq or othe^ 
touhtries, and import it for sale; and; they will also: be permitted tq 
carry ojutiiChiaese merchandise and export it to their other 
tcMintries for. . sale, -. in. . both cases paying duties ! according to the 
prteeatiestablished regulations^.. beyond which, no other expenses of 
fees will be permitted. ., 

• JkrL^l&. I All vessels bdonging to the United States proceeding to 
thetifiire povtsi to trada,! shaU-hav^ Iheilr ships- pfipers examined by 
th0 eonsulaand other .officers, who will^report to the superintendent 
^ffCUStioms;^ wihon^' according* to the nuniber of tons* whi eh. a vessel 
can carry, she willpSy the tonnage due^i Thasv those which canoarry 
more than 150 tons shall for each ton pay tonnage dqes:five miioe ; 
while tho^te below 150 tons shall fpr each ton pay tonnage du^ one 

92 • U,8. A, Treaty with China. Jan. 

mace. The former fees, for meiBurement and other items, shall be 
entirely done away with. Should any vessel enter a port, having 
already paid her tonnage dues at the custom-house of that port, and 
because of not completing the sale of her goods, take them to some 
other port for sale, the consuls and other officers shall report it 
clearly to the superintendent of customs, who will, on that vessel 
leaving the port, take the fact of her having paid her tonnage dues' 
and clearly state it in the grandchop, and he will also forward a letter 
to the superintendent of customs of the other port to examine into 
it, and on the said vessel entering the other port, she shall only pay 
duties on her goods, but no tonnage dues, to avoid a second charge.' 

Art. 7. When people of the United States at the five ports use 
their own boats and other craft, to carry passengers or baggage or 
letters and eatables and other things, for which duties are not pay* 
able in the tariff, it will not be necessary for such craft to pay ton- 
nage dues. But if, besides these things, they should carry merchan- 
dise, then they should, according to the rule for vessels under 150 
tons, pay one mace per ton. Should Chinese boats be engaged, they 
will not come under the rule of paying ionnage dues according to 
the number of tons. 

Art 8. AH trading vessels belonging to the people of the United 
States entering the port, will be permitted to hire pilots in going 
through narrow passages and dangerous places. When a vessel is 
reported as brought in, as soon as she shall have completely paid up 
her tonnage dues and duties, a pilot shall be ordered as before to 
take her out immediately. In hiring servants or compradores, or in 
requesting the services of linguists and writers, or in engaing Chi- 
nese boats to remove goods or convey passengers, or in hiring ad- 
ditional workmen, servants or sailors, and in all circumstances 
where necessity requires, if not contrary to the laws, every one shall 
follow his own convenience. The price of work, the merchants 
and people may themselves determine upon, or it may be arranged 
by the consuls ; the Chinese local officers are not to interfere in the 

Art. 9. When a trading vessel of the United States comes to a 
porty as soon as a pilot has brought her in, there shall immediately 
by deputed from the custom-house trust worthy runners to attend the 
vessel and guard her. These runners may either lodge on board 
the merchant vessel, or hire their own boat and attend the ship ac- 
cording as they find it most convenient. For food and necessaries, 
the eustom-house shall daily give money ; they may not extcnrt from 

1845. V. S. A. Treaty with China. 33 

the merchant ship any fees however small. Should they disobey, 
they will be considered as guilty of receiving bribes. 

Art. 10. On a merchant vessel of the United States entering the 
port, either the captain, supercargo, or the merchant agent shall, with- 
in a period of two days, take the ships' paper, bills of lading, 6lc., 
and deliver them to the consuls and other officers of their country to 
keep and hold. The consul shall immediately take the name of the 
vessel with the names of the people, the number of tons she carries 
and the kind of goods, and making a minute list ^of them, commu- 
nicate with the superintendent of customs, who will then allow them 
to receive a permit to break bulk and unload the goods ; should it 
happen that^ before the receipt of a permit, any should presume to 
unload goods, they shall then be fined 500 dollars, and the goods 
which they presumed to land and remove, shall altogether revert to 
China, and be confiscated to government. Should a merchant vessel 
enter the port, and only unload a portion of her cargo, she shall pay 
duties according to that portion of the goods discharged. The 
goods yet undischarged may without exceptipn be carried to any 
other port for sale. If a vessel should enter the port, and not yet 
having broken bulk, should wish to go elsewhere, she will within 
the limit of two days go out of the port, but she must not remain 
longer; in which case also no duties nor tonnage dues will be levied 
or received. But on her arrival at any other port and making sales, 
she will then be required to pay duties according to the tariff. 
Should a merchant vessel, afler entering the port,, have exceeded the 
term of two days, it will then be necessary to pay the tonnage dues, 
and the superintendent of customs may as- before fill up and issue a 
grandchop, and make it known to the other ports in order to avoid 
paying them a second time. 

Art. 11. Merchant vessels of the United States dealing in goods 
either for import or export, shall report the day fixed tor unloading 
and. shipping goods to the consuls and other ofHcers, which report 
shall, by the consuls and other officers, be ti^ansmitted to the superin- 
tendent of customs, who will on the arrival of the day depute an 
official attendant that he mny in conjunction with the captain, super- 
cargo,, or merchant agent and others, equitably and fniriy examine 
the merchandise, in order that the duties ma> be levied according 
to the tariff. If among them there be any goods, the price of which 
must be estimated to determine the duties, or respecting which there. 
may be differences of opinion as to the price, or as to the deduction 
of the amount of tare, so aa to give rise to dir^uies- which. cannot be 

VOL. XIV. NO. I. 5 

34 U. S. A. Treat if with China. Jan. 

readilj settled ; the said merchant shall, on that same day, petition 
and report to the consul, so that he may acquaint the superintendent 
of customs, and with him consult upon and determine it. If the 
petition and report be delayed, then no permission will be given fur- 
ther to arrange it. 

Art. 12. At the places of the consuls of the United States at each 
port, there shall be furnished by the Chinese superintendent of 
customs, a ehang measure, a cheh measure, a steel-yard and weights, 
of each a set, ready for measuring lengths and breaths, and ascertain- 
ing weight and lightness. They shall be after the patem of those 
distributed by the hoppoof Canton, and w\]l be marked with engraven 
characters^-one rule applying to the five ports, in order to avoid 
irregularity and villainy. 

Art. 13. After a merchant vessel of the United States has entered 
a port, on receiving a permit to unload goods she must immediately 
pay up the tonnage dues; on goods imported, the duties must 
be paid at the time of unloading ; and on goods exported the duties 
must be paid on being shipped ; and when the duties and tonnage 
dues shall have been completely paid up, the superintendent of cus- 
toms shall issue a grandchop, having examined which the consul 
shall return the ships' paper,jiQd permit the merchant vessel to go 
out of the port and return to her own country. The duties paid, 
shall be received for the Chinese ofiicers by bankers appointed 
by them either in sycee silver, or in foreign dollars, made up to 
the standard, all in accordance with the already existing regulations. 
Imported merchandise that may be taken by Chinese merchants into 
the interior for sale, shall on passing every custom-house pay duties 
according to the old tariff: there may be no further addition or 


Art. 14. Merchants ships of the United States anchoring within a 
port, will not be permitted to tranship goods from one to the other. 
Should it be necessary to tranship into another vessel, the merchant 
must present a request to the consul, who will report it to the su- 
perintendent of customs, that he may send an officer to make clear 
and true examination, when permission will be given to tranship. 
Should any, without petitioning and waiting for examination, con- 
fusedly go about transhipping, the goods thus transhipped shall 
altogether revert to China, and be confiscated to government. 

Art. 15. According to the former regulations^ /the commerical 
intercourse of every nation reverted to foreign hongs, established 
by the Canton officers to arrange and control. Now it is determined 

1845. U. S. A. Treaty with China. 35 

upon to take the list of the foreign hongs, break it up, and do away 
with it. Thus people of the United States importing or exporting 
goods are permitted to trade with any Chinese merchants they 
please; there shall. be no limit or restrictions, so as lo put a stop to 
all the villainy of grasping and monopolizing. 

Art. 16. Should Chinese merchants happen to owe money to the 
people of the United States, or should they iTefraud them of their 
property, the people of the United States may themselves go and sue 
lor it ; the officers cannot be security for its recovery. If an accu- 
sation be lodged with the officers, the Chinese local officers, on 
receiving a communication from the consul, must immediately make 
equitable investigation and push the recovery of the debt ; if the 
debtor be already dead, and his property gone, or if the fraudulent 
villain have really escaped into concealment, and there be no traces 
left of him, the people of the United States shall not adhere to the 
old regulations, and require the hong merchants to make it good. 
If any people of the United States contract debts with, and defraud, 
Chinese merchants, then it shall be arranged according to this rule, 
and the consul also will not be security for its recfovery. 

Art.- 17. People of the United States, trading at the five ports, 
whether dwelling there for a long period, or temporarily residing 
there, are in both cases permitted to hire and rent the people's 
houses, or to hire ground in order to build themselves houses, and 
for sites on which to establish hospitals, halls for worship, and ceme- 
teries. It will be necessary for the Chinese local officers, in com- 
pany with the consuls and other officers, to consider and inquire 
into the feelings of the people, in selecting and fixing upon a spot 
of ground. The people of the United States, with those of the inner 
land, are equitably to determine and fix the rent of the ground ; the 
people of the inner land are not to raise the prices and extort, nor 
are the people from afar permitted to compel the hire, nor to be 
hard and rapacious ; and it is necessary that each party express its 
own wishes in accordance with equity and honesty. Should per- 
adventure any graves be destroyed or dug up by the Chinese people, 
the Chinese local officers will make strict seizure and punish them 
according to law. In the places where the people of the United 
States anchor their vessels, and take up their temporary abode, the 
merchants, sailors, and others, will only be permitted to walk about 
on the neighboring ground, and will not be allowed to go far into 
the villages and hamlets of the inner land and wander where they 
please ; still less may they go tu the markets and military stations. 

36 U. S. A. Treaty with China, Jxii, 

and privately carry on trade. The boundaries will be consulted 
upon and fixed with the consuls by the local officers of the five ports, . 
each according to the people's feelings, and the situation of the place ; 
and they may not be passed over ; in order to fix the period for eter- 
nity and for the mutual quiet of both. 

Art. 18. It is permitted to the officers and people of the United 
States to engage scholars from all parts of China, to instruct them 
in the dialects of every place, and to assist them in literary affairs; of 
whatsoever rank or class the persons so engaged may be, the Chi- 
nese local officers and people may not in the slightest degree molest 
or injure them. The people of the United States are also permitted 
to collect and buy all kinds of Chinese books. 

Art. 19. Hereafter people of the United States quietly trading 
in China, will be on terms of mutual friendship and amity with the 
Chinese. The 'local officers must constantly afford them protection 
and care, causing them and their families to be in perfect peace. 
They will also make inquiries and prohibit all vagabonds from in- 
sulting and vexing them. — Should any lawless villains of the inner 
land with malicious intent set fire to and burn the foreign houses or 
plunder and rob the property, the consuls will immediately report it 
to the local officers, who will send soldiers and police to suppress 
the tumult, make examination and seize the offenders, and also take 
the vagabonds who burnt and plunder, and punish them severely 
accord ini^ to law. 

Art. 20. People of the United States having brought merchan- 
dise into port, and paid duties upon it, should they wish to take the 
disembarked goods and transport them to another port for sale, may 
state the matter olearfy to the consuls, who will convey a report to 
the superintendent of customs to see if the duties, said to be paid, 
agree with the custom-house books, and to send an officer to make 
inquiry whether they really be the original bales and the identical 
goods, and that there has been no breaking open and moving, or 
taking out and changing, and such like impropriety ; when he will 
immediately take the number of peculs of merchandise, and the sum 
of the duties already paid, and enter them into a pa^, which will be 
given to the said merchant to receive and hold ; at the same time, he 
will dispatch a letter to the superintendent of customs of the other 
poT\ to examine accordingly ; and when the said vessel shall enter 
that port, and it be found on examination that there is no discre- 
pancy, she will immediately be permitted to open her hold and make 
sales, in order to airoid the payment of duties a second time; should 

1845. U. 8, A, Treaty with China. 37 

there be any false accusations or secret conveyance of things, on the 
discovery of it by the superintendent of customs, the goods shall be 
confiscated to government. 

Art. 21. Hereaf\er should any Chinese have any quarrels, dis- 
putes, or get mutually involved with the people of the United States, 
the Chinese will be seized and examined by the Chinese local of- 
ficers, and will be punished according to the laws of China. — The 
people of the United States shall be seized and examined by the 
consuls and other officers, and will be punished according to the law 
of their country ; but it is requisite that both should in justice and 
integrity divide the question, and neither side cherish partiality, 
which would lead to quarrels. 

Art 22. The United States having now with China adjusted and 
sworn to peace and amity, their ships may go and come at the five 
ports to trade. — ^If at any future time, another cojintry should be at 
enmity with China, China may only prevent the inimical nation, and . 
not permit it to resort to the five ports for trade. — When people of 
the United States go to the other country to trade, or transport the 
merchandise of that country to the five ports, China must recognize 
the United States' flag, and permit them to enter the river. But the 
United States merchant ships will not be permitted privately to in- 
troduce one soldier of the other nation into port, nor receive the bri- 
ber of merchants of the other nation, who call upon them to ex- 
change flags, and bring merchandise for them into port for trade. — 
Should there be any infraction of this prohibition, it shall be allow- 
able for China to search it out, seize the parties and settle it. 
' Art. 23. At the close of every Chinese year, each of the consuls 
residing at the five ports must take an account of the ships and 
goods of the United States yearly entering and leaving the port, and 
of the prices at which they are v'alued, and minutely report it to the 
governor-general of each province, that he may transmit it to the 
Board of Revenue, as a proof for examination. 
• Art 24. Should people of the United States in any important 
matters make complaints to the Chinese officers, they must first 
petition the consuls and other oflicers, who will examine whether the 
words and phr^es in the petition be clear and intelligible and the 
subject reasonable, af\er which they will at once transmit it to the 
local officers to examine into and arrange. — Should Chinese in any 
important matters make complaints to the consuls and other officers, 
they must first petition the local officers, who will examine whether 
the words and phrases in the petition be clear and intelligible, and 

Z% U. S. A. Treaty with China. Jan'. 

the subjeet reasonable, after whieh they will at once transmit it to 
the consuls and other officers to examine into and arrange. — Should 
it happen that people of China and of the United States wrangle 
about any matter, and are not able to arrange it amicably, it will be 
necessary for the officers of both nations to make inquiry and equi- 
tably examine and decide the matter. 

Art 25. Should people of the United States at the five ports of 
China be involved in disputes among themselves about property, it 
will be examined into and arranged by the consuls and other officers 
of their country. If people of the United States in China, dispute 
and wrangle about matters with traders of other nations it must be 
arranged in accordance with the rules established by their respective 
nations ; Chinese officers will make no inquiry whatever about it. 

Art 26. When merchant ships of the United States enter the 
five ports of China, and anchor there, they come under the control 
of the consuls and other officers in company with the captains of the 
vessels, China will have no control whatever over them. — Should it 
happen that on the high seas, other nations insult and injure traders 
of the United States, China cannot revenge it on their account. But 
if merchant vessel of the United States, when on seas within the 
jurisdiction of China, be plundered by pirates, the Chinese civil and 
military officers, must, as soon as they hear it reported, make a strict 
seizure of the robbers, and punish them according to law. The 
recovered stolen goods, of whatever quantity, must all be delivered 
to the nearest consul and other officers to be all returned to the ori- 
ginal owners. But the territory of China being vast and the people 
numerous, it is ten thousand to one but that the principal thief can- 
not be caught or there be thieves and no stolen goods, or the stolen 
goods may not be completely recovered, and the Chinese local of- 
ficers must act as is separately provided for by law, and cannot 
make up or return the stolen articles. 

Art 27. If merchant vessels of the United States when off the 
Chinese shore, meet with tempests, strike on rocks, get on shore, 
or meet with pirates so that the vessel be destroyed, the local officers 
along the coasts, on examination and knowledge thereof, must im- 
mediately set on foot measures for rescue, and devise means for 
showing Increased compassion, so that they may reach their port and 
get repaired. In all buying of rice and provisions and obtaining fresh 
water, the least opposition or hindrance must not be given. Should 
the said merchant vessel be wrecked on the outer seas and be drift- 
ed to the Chinese shore, as soon as the officers shall have made clear 

184i. V. S. A. Treaty with China. 30 

inquiries into it, they must also treat them all with soothing com- 
passion, and arrange their matters securely. 

Art 28. Merchant vessels and property belonging to people of 
the United States, whioh may be found at the five ports of China, 
may not be taken by froce or intimidation by the local officers, such 
as laying embargos on vessels for public use or otherwise. But 
they must be suffered quietly to carry on their trade in order to 
avoid trouble and annoyance. 

Art. 29. If among the people of the United States, there be any 
on ship board, who do not attend to their duty, and leaving their 
ship, escape into the inner land, to conceal themselves, the Chinese 
local officers will immediately depute police runners to seise and 
bring them to the consuls «nd other officers, for punbhment. If 
any Chinese having offended the law sgo to the houses and dwellings, 
and on board of the merchant ships, of the people of the United 
States, to conceal themselves, the Chinese local officers on discover- 
ing it, will immediately address a letter to the consul and other 
officers, to seize and send them back. In either case the least shelter 
or concealment must not be given. With respect to the merchants, 
sailors, and others of the United States they will all come under the 
consuls and other officers, who will when necessary make examina- 
tion and keep them under restraint. — ^If the people of the two nations 
use force and make disturbances, or carelessly use fire arms and 
wound men, so as to lead to fighting, killing, and other serious 
eases, the officers of the two nations must maintain the laws and 
severely punish them : — there must not be the least partiality which 
would cause the hearts of all to be unsubmissive. 

Art. 30. Hereader in the official correspondence to and fro of 
the great ministers of China with the great ministers of the United 
States, there must be used in accordance with the principles of 
equality, the form of "official communication." In the official 
correspondence to and fro of the consuls with the Chinese local 
officers, the form of " official communication " will also be used. In 
reporting to the high officers the form "explanatory statement" 
will be used. If common people address officers, they will as be- 
fore use the form of ** petition." There may be no appearance of 
insult, or disrespect to the wounding of public friendship on either 
side ; while the two nations must not seek for, or extort from each 
other ceremonies observances. 

Art. 31. If on a future day the United States send a national 
letter to the government of China the original document must be 

40 U, S. A. Treaty with China. Jaft. 

presented on their account by the imperially appointed high com- 
missioner, or by the governor-general of the Two Kw&ng, or of 
Fukien, and Cheki6ng, or of the Two Ki&ng, or by other great 
ministers who may be arranging on the part of the middle nation, 
the affairs of outside nations. 

Art. 32. Hereafter if the United States have ships of war sent 
to inspect the trade, coming to the different ports, the naval com- 
modore or high naval officers of the vessel of war, will be treated by 
the high civil and military officers of China at that place upon terms 
of equality, in order to show a feeling of amity and good will. If 
the aforesaid ships of war want to purchase provisions or get fresh 
water and other things, China cannot in any way forbid or hinder 
them. Should perhaps a ship of war be injured, she also will' be 
permitted to be repaired. 

Art. 33. Air people of the United States who presume to take 
upon themselves to go to other ports, where no custom-house has 
been opened, and privately carry on trade, smuggle and evade the 
duties, or introduce opium and other prohibited articles in China, the 
Chinese local officers may themselves adjudicate it and punish them. 
The government or people of the United States must not afford the 
least protection. If vessels of another country assume the flag of 
the United States, and carry on illegal trade, the United States must 
take measures for prohibiting and preventing it. 

Art. 34. As soon as the treaty of peace shall have been deter- 
mined upon, the two nations must each obey and keep it, and not tri- 
vially make changes. With respect to the dissimilarity of the cir- 
cumstances of each port and the regulations regarding barter, and 
the high seas, it is to be feared that there cannot but be some slight 
changes ; therefore after a period of twelve years the two nations 
will appoint officers to consult upon and settle them equitably. 
Further after the treaty of peace shall have received the imperial 
reply and assent, the government and people of the two countries 
must both reverentially obey it. With respect to the several states 
of the United States, they will not be allowed to depute an officer 
hither, or otherwise have further deliberations. 


^j^jXrij-if - * ■ ■*■■ ■ w w w w^ 

1845. French Treat jf with China. 41 

Art. V. French trading regulations ; or a commercial treaty, in 

thirty-jive articles, between France and China. 
Art. 1. The emperor of China as well as the emperor of the great 
French nation, and their subjects of both countries wilJ henceforth 
for ever and ever live in amity and peace, and no matter who the 
men are, or in what country, will all obtain full protection for their 
persons and families. 

Art. 2. Henceforth the family of every Frenchman may be taken 
to the five harbors, marts, and territory of Canton, Amoy, Fuchau, 
Ningpo, and Sh^nghii in China, to trade and live there peacefully 
without any hindrance, always without ceasing. French vessels 
may go and come, anchor and trade at the live ports, at their plea- 
sure. But it is expressly prohibited to enter other Chinese ports 
and trade there, or on every shore along the coast clandestinely to 
buy and sell. With the exception of what is stated distinctly in 
the third clause, he who offends against this regulation, will have 
the cargo of his vessel confiscated to government. But when the 
Chinese local officers have seized such kinds of goods, they ought, 
before confiscating the same, immediately to give previous notice to 
the French consul nearest to that port. 

Art. 3. The property and goods, which any Frenchman may 

have in the territory of those five ports, must not contemptuously 

be involved by Chinese subjects. The Chinese officers ought not 

.on any accV>unt by oppression or force to take a French vessel for 

public, private, or other uses. 

Art. 4. The emperor of the great French nation will at his 
option appoint consular officers at the territory of the five commercial 
ports in China, to manage the trading affairs of the merchants, and to 
examine whether the regulations are observed. The Chinese local 
officers, ought to treat those consuls politely and correspond with them 
on terms of equality. And if there is any difference, the said consular 
officers will proceed to the great minister who has the general superin- 
tendence of those five ports, and state their complaint. If there is no 
great minister for the superintendence of the five ports, he will ad« 
dress his grievance to the great provincial officers, that they may 
carefully tf investigate the same for him, and manage it justly. If it 
ever happen that there is no consular officer at the said port, the 
French captain or merchant may entrust the same to a national 

VOL* XIV. NO. I. 6 

42 French Treaty with China, 2 as. 

consul to transact this business for him. If not, he may repair to 
the hoppo, make there a clear statament, that he may adopt means 
to manage it properly, in order that the said captain and merchant 
may reap the advantages of the regulations. 

Art. 5. The emperor of the great French nation will at his option 
appoint men of war to anchor within the territory of the five ports, 
in order to keep down the merchants and sailors, so that the consul 
may have authority and power. The people of the men of war will 
in future, however, be under control, and not be allowed to create 
any disturbance. And the master of those men of war will be held 
responsible to issue orders for the due observance of the 23d clause, 
and the provisions for the control of the sailors in the management 
of matters concerning every vessel, and their business with the shore. 
But it is now distinctly agreed and settled, that men of war will pay 
no tonnage dues. 

Art. 6. The plenipotentiaries of both nations have by their 
signature and seal settled a tariff and regulations, according to 
which for all the vessels that enter and leave those five ports, the 
French ought to pay duties and tonnage dues. The duty money 
must not in future be increased, and there ought to be no other fees. 
And it has now been recorded in the regulations, that whenever any 
Frenchman has paid the tonnage dues, and the duties on his goods, 
there will be no prohibition or restriction (on the sale). It matters 
not if (the cargo) is imported from their native or other countries, 
nor to what country it is taken, but this is entirely at one's conveni- 
ence. China cannot enter into its code, any additional prohibitory 
coersive regulations. If any alterations are in future to take place, 
the law requires that the French shall conjointly discuss the matter, 
and when agreed upon, it may then be changed. But the tariff and 
regulations now proposed, or in future to be established, will be fully 
observed at every place, and always by the French merchants and 
people who differ unwise from the most favored (greatly beloved) 
nation. If there are subsequently any reductions in the duties, the 
French will at the same rate pay less. 

Art. 7. French goods which have been imported at the five ports, 
and according to law paid duties, may be taken immediately by Chi- 
nese merchants into the interior, and shall pay transit duties ac« 
cording to the present regulations, without again extorting fees. 
The standard shall be the present tariff, and no additions need sub- 
sequently to be made. And if any clerks or runners of the maritime 
custom-house, do not observe the law, and falsely take fees in addi- 

1845. French Treaty with China. 43 

tion to the duties, they shall be punished according to Chinese 

Art. 8. Having 'now determined the rate, this cannot afford any 
pretence for smuggling, but it is for the sake of being just, and the 
French merchant vessels will not in future smuggle at the five ports. 
If there is any merchantman which in the five ports smuggle, no 
matter what goods, their price or what description of articles, or 
contraband cargo, for defrauding the revenue, the local officers will 
seize the whole and confiscate it. China can moreover put a stop 
to smuggling vessels at its pleasure, and prevent their entering the 
central land, or direct them to clear their accounts, and then im- 
mediately leave the harbor. But if any other nation makes falsely 
use of the French flag (for smuggling purposes), France will take 
measures to put a stop to it, and suppress this evil spirit. 

Art. 9. The hong-merchant's hongs which were formerly esta- 
blished at Canton for the sake of trade, are now according to law 
abolished. Frenchmen will henceforth at their own convenience 
-dispose of their articles at the five ports, whether imports or exports, 
and trade with any Chinaman they may wish, without any interfer- 
ence or obstruction. In future none else ought to combine in form- 
ing a monopoly for trade. But if any trangress this law, the con- 
sul will inform the Chinese officers to expel (the monopolist ?). The 
officers of the central empire ought to issue previous prohibitions, to 
avoid injuring the principles of free trade. 

Art 10. If in future any Chinese are in debt to French captains 
and merchants, no matter whether on account of owing (money) or of 
fraud, the Frenchmen will not according to the old law, demand the 
same of the security merchant, but ought to report it to the consul, 
that he may address himself to the local officers, to investigate the 
matter, and they exert themselves to hold (the debtor) responsible for 
the legal payment. But if the debtor can either not be apprehended, 
or is no longer in existence, or has made a total bankruptcy, being 
without the means of paying, the French merchant will not ask the 
officers to make up (the debt). If a Frenchman cheats a China- 
man out of his goods or owes him (any thing), the consul will 
exert himself equally to recover the same. But the Chinese must 
not demand of the consul, nor of the French government to pny him. 

Art. 11. . Any French vessel which sails within the territory of 
the five ports, may hire a pilot, to take her immediately into port. 
Afler having paid the port dues and duties, and wishing to set sail, 
the pilot ought quickly to take her out of port, without any impedi- 

44 French Treaty with China, Jam. 

meat, delay, and difficulty. Whosoever wishes to be pilot of a 
French ship, must have two captains' certificates, and the consul 
may then make him a pilot, to manage as other nations on the same 
footing. The consular officers at the five ports will justly determine 
the pilotage according to the distance or the dangers and facilities. 

Art. 12. As soon as the pilot has brought any French vessel into 
port, the marine custom-house will appoint one or two trustworthy 
servants to follow and to look afler the smuggling. Those waiters 
will either go oh board the merchant man, or will themselves hire a 
boat, according to their own convenience. Their maintenance will 
be furnished by the custom-house, and they ought not to extort 
money from the captains or their agents. But if they transgress this 
law, they will be sentenced according to the amount of the extor- 
tions, and the whole be again reimbursed. 

Art. 13. If there is no impediment, any French vessel twenty-four 
hours afler having entered the port, will present through the captain, 
supercargo or agent the ship's register and bill of lading to the consul. 
The said consul will within a ^ay after the receipt of the ship's pa- 
pers and bill of lading, distinctly state to the hoppo, the ship's and 
people's names, the amount ofihe tonnage, and. nature of the cargo. 
But if the captain is dilatory, and two days after the entrance of the 
vessel does not present to the consul the ship's papers and bill of 
lading, he shall for every day be fined 50 dollars, for the use of the 
Chinese government. Yet the fine ought not to exceed 200 dollars. 
The consul will then communicate with the superintendent of cus- 
tiLms, and the boppo will issue a permit to open the hatches. But if 
the captain has nut received this permit, and of his own accord 
breaks bulk and discharges cargo^ he will be fined 500 dollars, and 
the goods thus unloaded will at the same time be confiscated to go- 

Art. 14. Any vessel wliich has entered the port and not yet re- 
ceived a permit to discharge cargo, may according to the provisions 
of the 16th paragraph, within two days leave the harbor and go to 
another place, without there paying duties and tonnage dues, which 
will be discharged aud paid up at the emporium where the goods are 


Art. 15. Any ship which leaves the port after more than two 
days, will pay up the whole of the tonnage dues. According to 
law, every vessel of above 150 tons burden, will pay at the rate of 
five mace per ton, those below 150 tons, will pay at the rate of 
one mace per ton. All previous entrance aud clearance fees are 

1845. French Treaty with China. 45 

aboliiihed, and no others will afterwards be (demanded). Whenever 
the superintendent of customs gives a clearance, he will distinctly 
state, thaf the vessel has paid the port dues. If that ship goes to 
another harbor, she will take this certificate and present it for ex- 
amination, to avoid (paying) a second time. All French vessels 
which from abroad enter China, shall only once pay tonnage dues. 
Small French vessels such as boats, no matter with sails or without 
sails, carrying passengers, luggage, letters, and provisions, and no 
articles paying duties, will all be exempted from tonnage dues. If 
such small craft, however transport goods, they will pay, according 
tOxthe rate of (vessels) below 150 tons, one mace per ton. If French 
merchants hire a Chinese boat, she will not pay tonnage dues. 

Art. 16. Whenever any French vessel wishes to load or unload 
cargo, she will first draw up an account of the goods, and present 
the same to the consul, who will direct a linguist to report the same 
to the custom-house, and then she will be permitted to discharge or 
take in a cargo. A deliberate examination of the goods ought to 
take place, so that neither party may suffer loss. French merchants 
who do not wish to calculate themselves the amount of duties, will 
employ a well experienced individual to compute them in their be- 
half. The payment will also be at their convenience. If afler this 
business some difference arise, no notice ought to be taken of it. 
As for articles that pay duty per valuation, if the merchant cannot 
agree with the Chinese, they ought on both sides to call two or three 
traders to examine the goods, and determine their value at the high- 
est offer. Whenever duties are to be paid, the articles themselves 
form the standard, and the tare ought to be subtracted. But if the 
Frenchman cannot agree with the custom-house about the weight of 
various goods, the disputed articles and tare must be weighed ; and 
then let them first settle the quantity and average number, and again 
weigh the mere goods without the tare to ascertain the amount, and 
make the result the basis of everything of this kind. If in the ex- 
amination of goods some disagreement exists, the Frenchman will 
request the consul to come ; and the said consul will instantly com- 
municate this to the hoppo* to endeavor to make them agree. But 
the information must be given within a day, and if not, no notice 
will be taken of it. Before the dispute, however, is settled, the hop- 
po must not enter the account on books, for fear of the difficulties 
to arrange it subsequently. Imports that have been injured ought 
to pay less duty, and this ought to be managed justly, according to 
the law of valuation. 


46 French Treaty with China. Jam. 

Art. 17. Whatever quantity of goods a French vessel may im- 
port and unload, the duties will be paid as they are discharged. If 
the remainder of the cargo is to be taken to another port to be deli- 
vered and sold there, the duties thereon will also be paid in that 
other port. If it ever happen, that a Frenchman has already paid 
the duties on the goods in one port, and wishes to ship them for 
another for sale, he will inform the consul thereof, that he may ac- 
quaint the hoppo therewith to ascertain, whether they are indeed the 
very marked articles, which have not been touched. On giving him 
the portclearance, it ought to be distinctly stated^ that the said 
goods have already paid duties in a certain harbor. And when the 
said merchant enters that emporium, he will present the certificate 
to the consul, to transmit the same to the hoppo for examination, to 
be free from duty. He will then receive a permit to unload the 
goods, without paying any fees. But if there be any smuggling or 
deceit, the goods will indiscriminately be seized and confiscated to 

Art. 18. The regulation is now made, that any French captain 
or merchant, should every time that he lands goods, also pay their 
amount of duties, and it should be the same on loading exports. ' As 
soon as any French vessel has paid the whole of the port dues and 
duties, the hoppo will issue. a receipt to be presented to the consul 
for examination, that the ship's register may be restored and permis- 
sion for her departure be given. The custom-house will appoint 
the number of bankers who may receive for the Chinese government 
the duties which the French ought to pay. The receipt given by 
the banker will be equivalent to any issued by the Chinese officers. 
The duties may be paid in sycee or foreign money. In regulating 
the amount of premium to be made, the hoppo and consul will ex- 
amine the relative market price of sycee and foreign money. 

Art. 19. At all the five ports the custom-house will have scales 
-and measures from the Board (of Revenue). These will be accurate- 
ly compared from the true standard, and be sent to the consulate to 
be kept there, and must not in lightness, or heaviness, length or 
shortness differ from those of the Canton custom-house, whilst each 
will be stamped with the characters of the custom-house. All the 
money of tonnage dues and duties, which must be paid to the Chi- 
nese government, shall be weighed on these scales. If there arises 
any dispute about the weight or measure of goods, it must be settled 
- by this standard. 

Art. 20. If no express permission is given by the officers from 

1845. French Treaty with China. 47 

transhipping goods this ought not to be done unadvisedly, and if a 
necessity exists for transhipping the same, the merchant ought first 
to communicate this distincUy to the consul, that he may issue a 
certificate to be examined by the superintendent of customs to allow 
him to tranship goods. The said hoppo may always direct his 
underlings to superintend these proceedings. But if goods are tran- 
shipped without permission, unless there be unexpected danger 
brooking no delay, all the transhipped articles will be confiscated 
to government. 

Art. 21. Every French captain or merchant may at his pleasure 
engage any kind of lighters and small boats to carry goods and pas- 
sengers; the fare will be agreed upon by the merchant to the satis- 
faction of both parties, without the influence of the local officers ; 
but if the boatmen cheat, run away or lose anything, the local offi- 
cers will not make it good. The number of boats will not be res- 
tricted, and no body ought to have the sole management. There 
ought also to be no monopoly of coolies in loading or unloading 

Art. 22. According to the second paragraph, every Frenchman, 
no matter what their number, may live at the territory of the five 
ports, rent dwellings and store-houses, or ground to erect the build- 
ing himself. All Frenchmen alike may build chapels, dispensaries, 
poor-houses, and cemetaries. The local officers in conjunction with 
the consul will determine upon the ground, where the Frenchmen 
ought to live or build. The amount of ground rent, and house rent, 
must on both sides be settled by business like persons, according to 
the local rates of prices. The native ought not to raise the rents 
high, and the French consul ought carefully to guard, that his coun- 
trymen do not violently force (people) to let at a certain price. The 
parcels of ground allotted in the territory of the five ports for the 
houses of all the Frenchmen, ought to be spacious, and no restric- 
tion ought to be entered upon as to the number, so that Frenchmen 
may mutually be advantaged. But if any Chinese profane or des- 
troy the French chapels and graves, the local officers will seize them 
with strictness, and severely punish them. 

Art. 23. Every Frenchman who sojourns in the territory of any 
of the five ports or comes and goes, may at the nearest place walk 
about, and take exercise. To his daily movemements and doings, 
he does not differ from any native, but must not exceed the boun- 
daries fixed upon by the consul and local officers, for the sake of 
scheming, (afler gain). At the anchorage of merchantmen, the 

48 French Treaty with China, Jan 

sailors ought likewise in their walks not to exceed the boundaries. 
Whenever they go on shore, there ought to be regulations for co- 
ercing them. These rules will be drawn up by the consul and sub- 
mitted to the consideration of the local officers, to prevent the said 
sailors from creating disturbance, or strife amongst the natives. No 
matter who the Frenchman is, whoever goes beyond the space allot- 
ted, or to a distance into the interior, may be seized by the Chinese 
officers. But he ought to be delivered up to the keeping of the 
French consul at the nearest port. The Chinese officers and people 
must not beat, wound, injure, or cruelly treat the French prisoner, 
to harm the friendship and peace between the two countries. 

Art. 24. Frenchmen are allowed at the territory of those five ports, 
at their option to rent, buy, and hire linguist, clerks, artisans, sailors, 
and workmen. They may also engage gentlemen to teach them the 
Chinese language, instruct them to write the Chinese characters, and 
acquire the dialects of every part. They may also employ people to 
assist them in their literary labors to draw up essays, study literature 
and arts. The hire and pay they will either fix themselves, or the 
consul will settle it for them. Frenchmen may also teach those of 
the Chinese who wish to learn their own, or any other language, also 
sell French books and buy all kinds of Chinese works. 

Art. 25. Every Frenchmen who harbors resentmant or ill will 
towards a Chinese, ought first to inform the consul thereof, who will 
again distinctly investigate the matter and endeavor to settle it 
If a Chinese has a grudge against a Frenchman, the oonsul must 
impartially examine and fuHy arrange it for him. But if there are 
any disputes, which the consul is unable to assuage, he will request 
the Chinese officer, to cooperate in managing the matter, and having 
investigated the facts, justly bring the case to a conclusion. 

Art 26. If any Chinese of the five ports in future harm the 
French, insult or annoy them, the local officers will immediately put 
them down, and adopt measures for their protection. But if there 
are villains or disreputable people who wish to rob, destroy, or burn 
the French houses, factories, hospitals, and buildings they have 
erected, the Chinese officers wiH either make inquiries, or the con- 
- guls will give information thereof, and then send their police to drive 
away the rabble, seize the offenders, and punish them severely ac- 
cording to law. making them in future responsible for the recovery 
of the stolen articles or a compensation. 

Art 27. If there is any strife between Frenchmen and Chinese, 
or any fight occurs in which one, two or more men are wounded 

1845. French TrttUy with China. 49 

and killed with fire arms or other weapons ; the Chinese will in such 
case be apprehended by their own officers with all strictness, and 
punished according to the laws of the central empire ; and the consul 
will use means to apprehend the Frenchmen, speedily investigate the 
matter and punish them according to French laws. France will 
in future establish laws for the mode of punishment. All other mat- 
ters which have not been distinctly stated in this paragraph will be 
managed according to this, and great or lesser crimes committed by 
Frenchmen at the five ports, will be judged accord'mg to French 

Art. 28. All • difierences of Frenchmen in the territory of the 
five ports will tilso be settled by the French consul. If a French- 
man has a quarrel with a foreigner, the Chinese officers will not 
interfere. Vessels within the territory of the five ports, must not be 
meddled with by the Chinese officers, but the management will either 
fall to the consul or the captain himself. 

Art. 29. As soon as the civil and military authorities hear in 
the neighborhood, that a French merchantman has been robbed by 
Chinese pirates on the seas of the central land, they will with all 
severity seize them and punish them according to law. The plun- 
der no matter at whatsoever place it is seized, and under any cir- 
cumstances, must be given back to the consul, to be restored to the 
agent. But if the pursuers cannot apprehended the robbers,. or not 
obtain all the stolen goods, they will proceed according to the Chi- 
nese laws in this matter, but no compensation will be made. 

Art 30. All the French men-of-war which come or go, or sail 
about for the protection of merclrantmen, ought to be treated with 
friendship at every port they touch. Men-of-war are allowed to buy 
their daily provisions, and on having sulTered damage to refit, with- 
out let or hindrance. When French merchant vessels have been 
injured, or if there is any other cause or necessity for seeking shelter 
in a port, no matter what the emporium may be, she ought to be 
treated with friendship. If any French ship, suffers near the ter- 
ritory of the Chinese shore, the local officers on hearing of it will 
render assistance, and supply her daily wants and adopt means to 
drag out goods to prevent their being damaged. They will give im- 
mediate notice to the nearest consul, who in conjunction with the 
local officers will adopt measures for sending the merchants and 
sailors back to their homes, ^nd also save for them any articles of 
the wreck. 

Art. 31. When bailurb have run away from French aieii-ol-war 

VOL. XIV. NO. I. 7 

50 French Treaty with China. Jan.' 

or merchant vessels, the consul or captain will give notice to the 
local authorities, that they may exert themselves in seizing and deli- 
vering them over to the consul or captain. But if any Chinese cri- 
minals take refuge in a French dwelling, or hide themselves on 
board a merchant ship, the local officers will then send information 
to the consul, that after having clearly investigated the crime, he 
may use means to seize and send him to the Chinese officers. No 
protection (to outlaws) ought to be given on either side. 

Art. 92. If in future China is at war with any other country, the 
central empire will not prevent the French from carrying on their 
commerce, or from trading with the hostile nation, unless a blockade 
be declared to disable (vessels) from entering. All legal articles 
may be exported from China to the country with which it is at war 
without any hindrance, or any difference in the ordinary trade. 

Art.. 33. Perfect equality and etiquette shall in future exist in 
the intercourse between officers and public men of both countries, 
according to their designation and rank. Great French officers, no 
matter whether they correspond with the great officers in or out of 
the capital, will use the word communication (BS ^Y French 
officers of the second rank will in their official letters with the great 
provincial Chinese officers, use the word statement (/|^ ([$)• '^^^ 
great Chinese officers will write to them under the term of making 
known (^SA \j)' ^^^ ^^® officers of both nations possessing equal 
rank will correspond on equal terms. Merchants and plebians of 
either (country) on stating any complaint will all use the word peti- 
tion (^)* When a Frenchman has to refer any case to the 
Chinese local officers, his petition and letter must be transmitted 
through the consul, who will examine, whether the expressions are 
reasonable and proper, and if not, change them or give back (the 
paper). If any Chinese have a petition to transmit to the consul, 
they will do this through the local officers to be managed in the 
same manner. 

Art. 34. If in future the emperor of the great French nation has 
to send a letter to the court (of Peking) the resident consul of the 
emporium will take this dispatch and present it to the great minister 
who manages the foreign affairs of the five ports. And if there is 
not a great minister over the five ports, it will be transmitted to the 
governor to forward the same. If any national letter is sent in return 
it will be done in the same manner. 

Art. !^. If there are any clauses in the regulations, which on a 
future day the emperor of ttie great French nation wants to have 


Chriitianity in China. 


changed, twelve years after the exchange (ratification) of these re- 
gulations must first elapse before this can be done, and then new 
negotiations may be entered into with China. But if there are any 
other provisions settJed with other nations and not contained in 
those clauses arranged by the French, the French consnlar officers 
and people cannot be constrained to observe them. Yet if the cen- 
tral, empire confers especial favors, extensive benefits, considerable 
exemptions and protections, which other countries obtain, France 
will also participate in them.. 

Art. VI. Christianity in China: its claims to be received by the 
inhabitants of the empire^ with reasons for its propagation on 
the part of Christendom. 

Christianity, in its purity, is from God« Its precepts and pro- 
raises— the invitation^ is gives, the penalties it imposes — all just and 
equitable, are designed expressly and solely for man, and form for 
him a perfect rule of life. As a code of ethics, the Bible is in no 
point defective, and in none redundant. Without it, man has but a 
dim and feeble light, by which to find his way through the dark 
mazes of this world. With it, his path is made so plain, that he 
need never err. In whatever sphere he moves, public or private, 
whatever his calling or duties, if he follow the plain instructions of 
Holy Writ, his thoughts will be pure and elevated, and his conduct, 
just, benevolent, and unblamable, before both God and man. The 
decalogue, and the royal law, with all the precepts of the New Tes- 
tament, he will hold sacred and endeavor religiously to obey. He 
will abhor not only idolatry and the high and dreadful crimes of 
murder, slander, and such like; but he will dread, and strive to 
avoid all the secret sins of the heart, — ^pride, covetousness, &.c. 
Men who take the revealed will of Go<l for their guide, will see and 
feel that they are not the mere creatures of time, and that their rela- 
tions are not those merely of man to man. They will see and know, 
that they are the offspring of the Most High, and that he who died 
on the cross for the redemption of the world is their only Savior. 
They will see, and understand too, that every word and work, with 
every secret thing, will be brought to light at the tribunal of Jesuit, 

52 Christianity in China. Iks. 

when at the last great day he shall come to judge the world and to 
close the drama of human life. 

Standing with you, Christian reader, at that point in the world's 
history — ^standing there in imagination,-*we cannot but be serious. 
The scenes of this mortal life have all closed. Time is no more. 
The earth and heavens have passed away. The judge is on his 
throne. Raised from the dead, and assembled with the living from 
the four quarters of the earth, all the sons and daughters of Adam 
stand in one vast multitude, awaiting their last sentence. In a little 
time, the final separation will take place — the righteous will be glo- 
rified and made happy forever, the wicked covered with shame and 
made eternally miserable. Then the value of the Bible and the gain, 
of godliness will be seen and known. Then — ^looking back to 1845, 
we shall see that China was an idolatrous nation. Both its rules 
and people, and the learned and the ignorant, were the worshipers 
of false gods Their temples were not for the Most High, but for 
deified heroes, and the creatures of imagination; and nearly the 
whole of its three hundred and sixty millions of souls have come up 
to the judgment seat in the character of gross idolaters, covered 
with sins that must forever exclude them from the paradise of God; 
for the unjust and the filthy must so remain, and receive their 
portion with hypocites, unbelievers, and "whosoever loveth and 
maketh a lie." But stop. .... 

Happily, this final sentence has not been passed. The year 1645 
has but just commenced. To these three hundred and sixty millions 
of idolaters, the God of heaven still grants time for repentance. The 
Bible, — the gracious proclamation of his will, — comes to you, in- 
habitants of China, with every possible claim to be received. It is 
a legacy of mercy, a bill of rights, a code of laws, from the court 
of heaven. It is not a human devise ; but a sacred writing, made by 
inspired men, guided by the Almighty, the God of the whole earth. 
In this book he reveals his character, with a system of govern- 
ment holy, just, and good. In it, too, we have " the mystery of god- 
liness," and see our everlasting Father giving up his own dear son 
to die as a ransom for the soul. For you, inhabitants of China, as 
well as for others, the son of God has died. He has procured balm 
for all your wounds, and remedies for all your diseases. The dread- 
ful stains of sin he can wash away, and destroy the sting of death. 
The religion of the Bible, Christianity in its purity, is a sovereign 
remedy for every ill. Not so the religions of your country. These 
are all faK-«e and hurtful. Confucianism has no power to remove or 

1845. Christianity in China, 59^ 

abate the maledies of sin. Biidhism and the ethics of Liiutsz' are 
equally powerless, for all purposes of good. They are merely human 
devices, not of God, but against him, and lead their votaries to serve 
the wicked one, to the dishonor of their maker, and to their own 
everlasting shame and ruin. The Bible has claims to your attention 
because it ministers to yoiir welfare, and because it eminates from 
the universal sovereign, our Almighty Father, and demands for him 
universal homage and universal love. In the strictest sense, you are 
Jehovah's pfispring, and he has a perfect right to your obedience and 
love ; but these by your idolatry you have withheld from him, and given 
to those who are no gods ; and by doing so you have forfeited your 
heirship and incured the penalty of eternal punishment. But now a 
day of merciful visitation has come; the Bible is in your language: 
and copies of it, if you please, can easily and speedily be so multipli- 
ed, that none shall be left uninstructed. Will you now receive it ? 
Will you follow its precepts ? Will you accept its invitations ? These 
are pertinent and serious questions, and will soon be put to the test. 
So we expect. The signs of the times, and both the promises and 
providence of God warrant this expectation, and the belief that upon 
you, inhabitants of China, the awful responsibility will soon be laid 
of accepting or rejecting Jehovah's gracious proclamation, — ^the Bi- 
ble> — gxvNk in mercy for the instruction aud consolation of all the 
children ofmen. 

And now. Christian reader, what kind, and what degree of respon- 
sibility in this matter rests with you, with us, and with all the inha- 
bitants of Christendom? The people of God — professing Chris- 
tians — ^have it in charge to publish the gospel to all nations. The 
reasons for the accomplishment of this, on the part of Christendom, 
deserve the most serious consideration. And to thisconsideration 
we shall endeavor from time to time to draw the attention of those 
who as Cliristian philanthropists feel an interest in the welfare of this 
great portion of the human family. It was our wish to have add- 
ed here a few paragraphs, but space and time* are wanting; and for 
the {>resent, therefore, we leave the subject, hoping the reader will 
give it the attention it demands. 



Versions of the N, T. in Chinese. 


Art. VIL Comparative view of six different versions in Chinese of 

John* s gospeif Chapter I. verse ist. 
There are extant at least six difTerent versions of the whole or parts 
of the New Testament in Chinese; and the entire book is now un- 
dergoing a further revision. Of the six versions, subjoined, the 1st 
is that found in the British Museum, a copy of which was brought 
to China by Morrison ; the 2d is that made by Morrison ; the 3d is 
that by Marshman; the other three were made by persons now 
engaged on the new revision. 

6 5 4 3 2 • 1 

7C 7C 7t M^ ^ S 

Jt feV^X X -S- 

^i^ i^it^ ^ ^ 

v^n.*^ w 

E ^^..e E e. 

M w ^\^ -w t % 

t MM #^^ 

^ n vs %%ii^ 

W, ^ K P § e 

III ± ± It » 

% 1 ^MM itii 

± * "t 


* € ^ 

$k ± ± w w ^ 


±* * lif^J* 

This plan, of bring together for comparison the different versions 
€Xtant, has been suggested to us by a friend, and it is worthy of the 
attention of those now engaged in the work of revision. In these 
versions two important words occur, regarding which the translators 
jhave differred in opinion : the first is Xo^o^ translated yen g by 
some, and tau ^f by others ; and the word dso^ translated shin Wjk 
by the older, and sh&ng ti Jj^ m by the more recent translators. 
At present we prefer t&u and shin; and shall be glad to hear 
the opinions of others on the subject. We also prefer ynen ch( 
711 ip ^^ <^ither of the other phrases for the word ** beginning." 

1845. Journal of Occurrences* 55 

Art. VIII. Journal of Occurrences: treaties wWh Great Britain ^ 
France^ and the United States; affairs at Peking, Skdnghai, 
Ningpo, Kiddng s^. Canton, Macao^ and Hongkong; Pro- 
ttstant missions in China. 

For the translations of the three treaties, given in this number, we 
are indebted to correspondents and friends : and we trust it will also 
be in our power, before this volume closes, to add the originals, to the 
second andthird, — that of the first having been already published. 
The translnior of the second treaty, in a note, has the following 
remarks : " in the 34 articles, the United States are designated as 
the Hoh Chung Kwoh, the literal meaning of which characters is 
either, "the united all nation," or "the union of all nations;" 
they do not, however, in any sense express the " United States.'* 
Throughout the treaty, when wishing to point out other nations, the 
character kwoh is used, meaning a nation ; which character is also 
used in the English treaty, when designating England as a nation, 
being the same as the last character of the national designation of 
the United States of America. In the 34th article the character 
kwoh is used to express each state." We wish the translator would, 
at his convenience, give us the proper characters for the " United 
States of America," which will oblige us very much. | 

' Ere this tim6 we presume the emperor of China has signified his 
kipproval of the French treaty ; and we have no doubt that both it 
and that with the U. S. A., will be ratified by the two respective go- 
vernments in the west. 

At Peking, so far as we can learn, pacific counsels still prevail, 
with the ' sincerest purpose to fulfill all the provisions of the new 
treaties. And if ministers understand the true interests of this coun- 
try they will persevere in this policy; and cultivate the friendship of 
foreigners. They have perhaps less to fear from without than from 
within. There is, however, no small danger on both sides. To 
steer clear of Charybdis and Scylla must needs require much skill 
and energy. The Chinese are now fully within the current of fo- 
reign influence, and with it they must keep on. Ministers — some of 
them at least-Hsee this. But should the old popular and hostile 
feeling towards foreigners again get the ascendancy, his majesty 
will soon find himself in a "sea of trouble." Whether peace is 
to be preserved or not, we hold one thing certain that in a very 
few years foreign ministers will be resident at Peking. 

The Gazettes continue the usual detail of minor occurrances — 
such as appointments, deficits in the provincial revenues, malversa- 
tions of petty ofiicers, robberies, &lc,, 6lc. 

At Shanghai, from all accounts that have reached us, it would 
seem that the foreign commerce is likely, at no very distant day, to 
become very great. 

56 Joumai of Occurrences. 

At Ningpo the prospect is far less encouraging. Still we think 
Ningpo will have an extensive trade, in the course of a few years 
after the evacuation of Chusan. 

Kulang su, it is said, will be evacuated in course of February, 
and the troops all removed to either Chusan or Hongkong. At the 
close of this year, Chusan is also to be evacuated. 

At Canton there has been, with a good degree of political quiet, 
considerable commercial activity, Klyin<4 doing his best to preserve 
the peace and meet the wishes of all parties. We see that a long 
memorial has been laid before the emperor, proposing the immediate 
removal of the: obstructions in the river below Canton. It is ex- 
ceedingly desirable that these should be immediately removed, as 
they are continually cuasing great inconvenience and much damage 
to life and property. ! . 

Macao, if we must believe current reports, is likely, at no very 
distant period, to enjoy more than its pristine quietude. For it is 
said that its houses and harbors will soon be frequented by few 
except the Portuguese. Still Macao is not to be despised. It has a 
fine climate, and many commodious residences. 

Hongkong, for the time being, is becoming more healthy and pros^ 
perous : at least, houses, in great numbers, are rising in every part of 
Victoria, and the roads and streets are being extended and improved. 
The troops are said now to enjoy better health than at any previous 
period since the island was occupied. ... ; 

Politically snd commercially considered, the various parts of the 
Chinese empire, to which Our knowledge extends, are in a condition 
that is tolerably satisfactory. Not so when morally and religiously 
viewed. In all parts itis morals are corrupt and its religions falser 
£ut we see— or think we see, the dawning of a better day. The 
time is near at hand^ when the Land of Smim is to be visited by 
the dayspring from on high. We indulge . the most confident^bpe 
that, in a few years, the good providence of God will prepare a high 
way, through all the length and breadth of this empire, for the 
gospel of peace, and China be blessed with the benign and happy 
influences of pure morals and true religion. 

The following we believe is a correct list of the persons now con- 
nected with the Protestant missions in China. 

Jit Macmo, are^ Rev. A. W. Loomw, Rer. M. S. Calbertson, Richard Cole, 
printer. M Canton^ Rev. Peter .Parker, m. o., Rer. L J. Roberts. M Hong- 
Hang^ Rev. J. L. 8huok, Rev. T. T. Devan, m. o., D. J. Mac^owan, m. o.. 
Rev. Dyer Ball, h. D., Rev. fi. C. Bridgman, d. d., Jamea O. Bndgraan, Rev. 
Jamev Leggc^ d. o., Rev. W. Gillespie, Benjamin Hobson, m. d., Rev. 8. R. 
Brown, Rev. A. P. Happer, m. d.^ Rev. George Smith, Rev. T. M'Clatehie, 
Rev, W. M. Lowrie, (Rev. W. Dean, and 8. W. Williams, absent), ^t ^moy. 
Rev. William J. Polhman, Rev. E. Doty, Rev. John Stronach, William 
Young, William H. Gumming, m.d., J. C. Hepburn, m. d., Rev. John Lloyd, 
(and Rev. D. Abeel, absent), ^i Ningpo, D. B. M'Carlee^ m. d., Rev. R. Q. 
-Way. Jil Skdmgkdij Rev. W. H. Medhurst, d.u., William Luckhart, u.a.c.8. 



Vol. XIV.— February, 1845.— No, 2. 

Art I. An Ordinance for the suppression of the Triad and 
other secret societies in the island of Hongkong and its depen- 

What evidence the governor and council may posses, to prove to 
others or to satisfy themselves, that any branches or members of the 
Triad Society exist in Hongkong we know not. That some of this 
brotherhood have resided on the island, and carried on secret corres- 
pondeiice, and held' secret meetings, we presume it to be true. Indeed 
if we remember rightly, we have somewhere seen documentary evi- 
dence of the existence here of this or similar associations. China is 
full of secret societies, and probably has been so from time immemo- 
rial. But of the character, objects, and doings of all these, we know 
very little. The Chinese government disapproves of all associations, 
secret and public, if formed among the people ; and it has enacted 
severe laws for their suppression. What has been the effect of these 
laws we are hot able to say. In looking over the Penal Code, some 
years back, we remember having seen the names of i^everal societies. 
The Triad and that called Tien ehu Itidu (Christianity as taught by 
the Roman Catholics) were among the nmnber. And during the 
reign of the Ta Tsing dynasty, perhaps no association has been more 
strongly reprobated or more severely persecuted than the one last 
'named. With what propriety government has done this, we leave it 
for others to determine for themsefves. Cliinese moralists also have 
joined with the government,, in- action against these associations. 
Unpopular though they may hare been, yet great multitudes of the 
people have uikited with them ; and it is impossible to compute their 

VOL. XIV. NO. n. 8 

58 Ordinance against the Triad Society. Feb. 

numbers, or form any satisfactory opinion regarding their strength, 
all their operations being secret. 

In Canton, it is said, the numbers of the Triad Society are very 
numerous. From the nature, of the case^ however, no one will ac- 
knbwledge any connection with it or hpekk of it in favorable terms. 
On the contrary, when alluded to by the Chinese, they invariably 
reprobate the association, as one composed only of bad men, leagued 
together only for evil purposes. We have heard it said, that its 
grand object is the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty. No doubt 
the Society is strong, and has often resisted tiie authority of go- 
vernors and magistrates. But bad as its principles and doings may 
be, we do not think the gbvernmehi of China has much cause to 
fear its machinations or dread its power. At Malacca, Singapore, 
Penang, &c., its power has been much greater than in China. 
While writing this paragraph we hear that, in the city of Hidngshan, 
between Canton and Macao j its members are giving the magistrate 
lib little dnnoyance. 

As some of our readers may not have at hand the works which 
contain notices of these secret societlies, ihd the enactments of the 
Chinese goveriiment i^egarding thiem; we pr6j)'<!^ to throw together, 
in ^ei^arate articles, sdch it^ms of ihlTormatioh as may seem to bear 
bd the late ordinance. Which we here filrdt introduce wittioul fiirtheir 

" Hdflgkoiig, ahiio octavo Victorie Regiic, 

No. i, iS45. 

'* By his excellency John Francis Davis, esq., governor and. com- 
mander-in-chief of the colony of Hongkong and its dependencies, 
her majesty's pleiiipotentidry and chief superintendent of the trade 
of British subjects in Chiiia, with the advice of the Legislative Coun- 
cil of Hongkong. 

"An ordinance for the suppression of the Triad and other secret 
Societies within the island of Hongkong and its dependencies. 

** Whereas the Triad Society and other secret societies prevalent 
in China exiist anioiig the inhabitant's of the island of Hongkong, and 
whereas these associations hdv^ objects in view which are incompa- 
tible with the maintenance of good order and constituted authority 
and with the security of life and piroperty and afford by means of a 
secret agency increased facilities for the commission of crime and for 
the escnpe of olTenders : 

''1. Be it therefore enacted and ordained by the governor of 

1S45. Milne's Acfouni of the Triad Socnty. 59 

Hpnffkong with the advice of the I^stslaliye Council thereof that from 
and after the passing of this ordinance if any person or persons being 
of Chinese origin in the said islapd or its dependencies shall be a 
member or members of the Triad Society or other secret societies 
as aforesaid, he, she or they shall in consequence thereof be guilty of 
felony and being duly convicted thereof shall be liable to be impri- 
soned (or any term not exceeding three years, with or without hard' 
labor, and ait the expiration of- such term of imprisonment that such 
person shall' be marked on the right cheek in the manner usual in 
the case of military deserters and be expelled from the said island. 

^' Passed the Legislative Oouncii of Hongkong, this 8th day of 
January, 1845 ^ 

' '*JbHN Francis Davis, Gmtmwr, Spe.^ ^c. 
^'Al>oLPjius E. Shelley, 

"Cierk of Councils." 

I . ^^«0«>»0^^»|^<^W^W^^<»»W^^|»^^»»»«M«» 

I . 

Art. II. Some account of a secret association in China, entitlrd 
the Triad Society, By the late Dr. Milne, principal of the 
Angto'Chinese College, Communicated [to the Royal Asiatic 
Society of Great Birtain and Ireland] by the Rev, Robert 
Morrison^ o. o., .f. r. s., m. r. a. s. Read February 5th, 1835. 

The writer of this paper is fully sensible how difficult it is to discover 
that which is studiously concealed, under the sanction of oaths, 
curses and the (supposed) impending vengeance of the gods ; and 
how liable one is, even after the utmost care, to be mistaken in 
tracing the progress of any set of principles and schemes, which the 
fortunes or lives of the parties who have adopted them are concerned 
Co hide, to varnish, to distort, and to misrepresent. He therefore 
offers the following remarks, not as the result of firm and unhesita- 
ting conviction, but as having a good deal of probability to support 
them, and as containing the substance of the best information pro- 
curable in his situation. He be^s <hen to say a few words on the 
name, objects, government, initiatory ceremonies, secret signs, and 
seal of the said association, and to conclude with a few mtsccJlane- 
ous remarks. 

First, the name^ The name is not expressed on the seal, and 
hence it is difficult to ascertain it with certainty. Tt seems, however. 

60 Uilne*s Account of the Triad Society. Feb. 

to be the San hoh hwui, ^ '^ ^* i. e. "The Society of the 
three united/' or " The Triad Society." The three referred to in this 
name are tien, ti, jin, ^ jA^ ^, * heaven, earth, and man,' which 
are the three great powers in nature, according to the Chinese doc- 
trine of the universe. In the earlier part of the reign of late Chi- 
nese majesty Kicking, the same society existed, but under a different 
denomination. It was then called the tien ti hwui, J^^l^^i 
" The Ccelesto-terrestrial Society," or *' the society that unites hea- 
ven and earth." It spread itself rapidly through the provinces, had 
nearly upset the government, and its machinations were not entirely 
defeated till about the eighth years 9f the said emperor's reign, when 
the chiefs were seized and put to death; and it was (in the usual 
bombast of Chinese reports) officially stated to his majesty, " that there 
was not so much as one member of that rebellious fraternity left under 
the wide extent of the heavens." The fact, however, was just the con- 
trary, for they still existed, and operated, though more secretly ; and 
it is said, that a few years after they assumed the name of the " Triad 
Society," in order to cover their purposes. But the name, by which 
they chiefly distinguish themselves, is Hung kid ^ ^, the " Flood 

There are other associations formed both in China and in the 
Chinese colonies that are settled abroad, as the T\en hau htoui, 
^ E" W", the " Queen of Heaven's Company, or Society ;" called 
also, the Nidng md hwui, ^[^ jj^ w, or *' Her Ladyship's So- 
ciety ;" meaning the ** queen of heaven, the mother and nurse of all 
things." These associations are rather for commercial and idolatrous 
purposes, than for the overthrow of social order; though it is said, 
that the members of the " Queen of Heaven's Society," settled in 
Bengal and other parts, unite in house-breaking, d&c. 

Secondly^ the object. The object of this society at first does not 
appear to have been peculiarly hurtful ; but, as numbers increased, 
the object degenerated from mere mutual assistance, to theft, rob- 
bery, the overthrow of regular . government, and an aim at political 
power. In foreign colonies, the objects of this association are 
plunder, and mutual defense. The idle, gambling, opium-smoking 
Chinese (particularly of the lower class), frequently belong to this 
fraternity. What they obtain by theft or plunder is divided in shares, 
according to the rank which the members hold in the society. They 
engage to defend each other against attacks from police officers : to 
hide each others crimes ; to assist detected members to make their 

1845. Milne*s Account of the Triad Society. 61 

escape from the hands of justice. A (Chinese tailor in Malacca, 
named Ts^ufu, who committed murder, in the close of 1818, shortly 
after the transfer of the colony, and made his escape from the hands 
of justice, was a chief man in this society; and, it is believed, had a 
considerable number of persons under his direction, both on the land 
and at sea. There cannot be a doubt but his escape was partly owing 
to the assistance of his fellow-members, as a rigorous search was made 
for him by the police. In places where most of the members are 
young, if one takes a dislike to any man who is not a member, the 
others are sure to mark that man as the butt of their scorn and 
ridicule. If any one feels injured, the others take part in his quarrels, 
and assist him in seeking revenge. Where their party is very strong, 
persons are glad to give them sums of money annually, that they may 
spare their property, or protect it from other banditti, which they 
uniformly do when confided in, and will speedily recover stolen 
goods. In such places as Java, Singapore, Malacca, and Penang, 
when a Chinese stranger arrives to reside for any length of time, he 
is generally glad to give a trifle of money to this brotherhood to be 
freed from their annoyance. 

The professed design, however, of the 8dn hoh kwui is benevolence, 
as the following motto will shew : 

• Yii fuh tung hiang. ^ p ^ ^ 

Ydh6tungtang;. % jg [P] § 

The blessing, reciprocally share ; 
The woe, reciprocally bear. 

They assist each other, in whatever country, whenever they can 
make themselves known to each other by the signs. 

Thirdly, its government. The government (if it he proper to 
dignify the management of so worthless a combination by such an 
epithet) of the San hoh hwui, is vested in three persons, who are all 
denominated HCd, ^, " elder brothers," a name given by way of 
courtesy to friends > in the same manner as freemasons style each 
other brothers and brethren, .and as certain religious societies call 
their members brethren, and say "brother" so and so. They dis- 
tinguish between the ruling brethren thus : Yih k6, -— SI; *rh k6, 
^'^;Sdnk6,'^J^; ''brother first; brother second; brother 
third." There may be others who take part in the management, 
where the society's members are numerous. The members generally 
are called Hiung /i, ^ ^ •* brethren." 

Of the laws, discipline, and interior management of the San hoh 

03 Milme*s Aceauni of the Triad Society. ^rb, 

Jiwuij the writer of this has not be^n able to obt«iin any information. 
Tliere is said to be a MS. book, containing the society's regulations, 
written on cloth, for the sake of preserving the writing long |n a legible 
state. Should a detection be made, the cloth MS. may, fpr the time, 
be thrown into a well or pond, from which it can afterwards ^t 
convenience be taken out ; and in case of ih/e person, ip whose care it 
is, being pursued by the police, and obliged to swim ficrpss a river, 
6lc., he carries the MS. with him ; an(| ^a the in^ appears Co ppsses^ 
a peculiar quality, the iii^pression in either c^ise is qi^ite legj|i>Ie. As 
tb^y cannot pf int their regulatpns, this seems well calculated tQ 
pre^rye therp from oblivion. 

Th^ heads of this fraternity, as iu al) p^her simil^ association, 
have a larger share of all the booty t|iat is procured, tha^i the other 

JPpuHhly^ initiatory ceremonitft. Of thiese but a vpry jmp^rfect 
idea c^n be obtaii^.. The iniiiaiion takes pl.ace copomonly at night, 
in a very rietired or secret chamber. Therje is an idol there, to whicli 
o^er^ngs are presented, find before whic^ the ofith of sepresy is taken. 
The Chinese say there are Sdii shih luh shi^ ^ "+ >r? §, 
"thifty^ix oaths" taken on tl^e .occasbn; )>ut it is probable ti^at, 
instead of being distinct oaths, these are di&iffii particulars of one 
oath, very likely -the impreeatioru contained in it, ;igainst persons 
who shall disclose the nature and objecU of the society. 

A small sum of money is given by the initiated to support the 
general expense. There is likewise a ceremony which they C9II 
Kw6 kidu, J^ ;J§» " crossing the bridge." This bridge is formed 
of swords, either laid between two tables (an end resting on each), 
or else set up on the hilts, and meeting at the point ; or held up iri 
the ^ands of two ranks of members, with the poinU meeting, in form 
pf an arch. The persons who receive the path, take it under this 
bridge, whieh is called—" passing, or crossing the bridge." The 
yih kS, or chief ruling brother, sits at the head of this steel bridge 
for each witha drawn sword), reads the articles of the oath, to every 
one of which an affirmative response is given by the new member, 
after which he cuts off the head of a cock, which is the usual form* 
of a Chinese oath, intimating—" thus let perish all who divulge the 
ecret." But it is said the grand ceremony can only be performed 
^ h re there is a considerable number of members preseiit. They 
wn^hip heaven and earth on those occasions and sometimes, when 
Ihe place is sufficiently secluded, perform the initiatory rites in the 

open air. 

184d. Milne's Account of tht Triad Sociciy. 63 

fifthly, secret signs, l^om^ of (he marks by Which the members 
of the San koh hwui make themselves known to each other ^ are those 
thdt follow : — mjrstic ntimbe^s; the thifef of ^hlch h the number three. 
Th^y dartre their prefbr^hoe for thi ^ probabl j froM the Name of their 
society, " the Triad Society." In conformity with this preference 
(hey adopt 6dd Mthefr then et^en nbmbers, tirhen it can be done. 
They say threei ihret tim^ ten, ihHe huhdi-ed, three thousand, thret 
ffiyriads, i'ath^f than two, four times, ten, &,t, 

'the woixl Hvtng^ ^k, above-mentioned, contains the fiuthber thtet 
hUhderd hnd ttbenty^inUy atld is often used by theni for pArticulatr 
purposes. They separate its cdinpohent parts thuft : sAn pah >A- 
shih yihf ^ /\ ^f* ""^ The character san is properly a form of 
shiaui, 'j/jCf (water), as used in composition, and should have this 
sound ; but in the analysis of any Chinese character, of which this 
form of shwui constitutes the deite^ component, the teacher says to 
his pupil, san tien shuntiy ^ ^^ ^, i. e. put ** three points water at 
the side," or " the three point form of shtmi" But when used by 
the San hoh hwui, the word sdn (or three) alone is employed ; the 
other parts being out of place for them. Pah, /\, or eight, much 
resembles in sound peh, '^, (an hundred) and in a rapid conversation 
is scarely distinguishable from it. 'Rh-^hih, 4f^» is the united or 
mercantile form of *rh shih, 2L -pi or " two tens," run together for 
the sake of expedition in business. Yih, — , is the common form of 
one. Now hearing the component parts of hung gone over in (his 
manner, it seems to the uninitiated to mean sdn peh 'rh shih yih, 
"^ Q^ Zl "J — * " three hundred and twenty-one" What the 
members themselves mean by it, it is impossible to discover. In 
writings it is as above analyzed ; or in uttering the sound of the 
components, they equally understand each other's meaning. 

Certain motions of the fingers constitute a second class of signs ; 
e. g, using three of the fingers in taking up any thing. If a member 
happens to l>e in company, and wishes to discover whether there be 
a brother present, he takes up his tearcup or cover (Chinese tea-cups 
n^ve alwdys a cover), with the thumb, ihefore, and middle fingers, or 
with the ybre, middle, and ^AiVcf fingers, and which, if perceived by an 
initiated person, ib answered by a corresponding sigh* It does not, 
however, follow from this that every Chinese who uses three fingers, 
taking in up, or holding, his tea-cup, is a mtmher of the Ban hoh hwui, 
for'many of them do it from mere habit. But there is a certain way 
uf doing it by the initiated, which they themselves only know. In 


ttibu'i Account of Ikt Triad Socittg. 


lilting tny thing tliat requires both hands, they use three fiiigera of 
each hand. 

They alao have Tecourse to odes and pitcts of poetry, m^khtkI 
marks. — (See below, under "explanation of words within the first 
octangular lines.) 

Sixth, the teal. The seal is a quinquangular figure : this, is above 
noticed, is one of the Society's mystical numbers. From the manner 
in which some characters on the seal were written, it is not impro- 
bable thai some of them have been erroneously explained. The 
following is submitted as the best explaaatioi| of them which the 
writer's present circumstances enable him to furnish. 

Etplaaatioii "f tU characters at the five corners, ia the outer 
or quinquangular lines. 

1. Tu, J;, (he eanh planet, i. «. Satum: which, according (o 
Chinese, especially regards and influeaces the centre of the earth ■ 
also one of the five elements. 

2. Jtluh. >JC. »•'*' *«>^ P'""" "^ Jtpiler. or ihe planet which 
reigns in the eastern part of the heavens. 

1845. Milne's Account of the Triad Society. 65 

3. Shwui, 7|(» the water planet, t. e. Mercury, to which the domi- 
nion of the northern hemisphere is confided. 

4. Kin, ^^j the metal planet, t. e. Venus, to which the care of 
the west is confided. 

5. H6, ^, the fire planet, t. e. Mars, to which the southern he- 
misphere is assigned. 

N, B. The reasons (or some of the reasons) why these planets 
are placed at the corners of this seal, may be, because they are the 
•basis of Chinese astrological science, and because they are considered 
the extreme points of all created things. 

Explanation of the fofcKaraeters which are ■ ^ 

directly under the planets. 

6.' 'Hfing, ^ml, a flood or deluge of waters. One of the secret 

designations of their fraternity is hunghia, literally, "the fiood 

family ;" intended, perhaps, to intimate the extent and effectiveness 

of their operations, that, as a flood, they spread and carry every thing 

before them. 

7. Hdu,T^, a leader; a chief or brave man. 

8. H&n, ^^, the name of an ancient dynasty ; but, in certain 
connections, signifying a bold and daring man, which is most pro- 
bably the sense here. 

9. Ying, d^, a hero. 

10. lirtd,^^'a stand; but metaphorically used to denote a per- 
son of importance to the state, or to society, as we use tropes, and 
say, "such man is a pillar,*' "the stay of his country.". 

N. B. Though this be the ordinary meaning of these words, it is 
possible that they may be used by the fraternity in a mystical and 
occult sense. 

Explanation of the other characters within the same limits. 

Ying, hiung, hwui, hoh, twdn, yuen, shf, ^1^ J^ ^ >^ ffl S H# 

Hiung, tf, fan, kidi, yih, sh&u, shi, ^J, 5^ ^}" |^ ^ t^ *^ 

^ The hero- band in full assembly meet ; 

^ Eaefar man a verse, to make the ode complete.** 
This iff a very probable sense of the wordct as they are placed, es- 
pecially as it is known to be a frequent practice of this fraternity to 
converse together in poetry ; and in order 1o elude suspicion, while 
in company with others, one man takes but a line, or half a line, 
which by itself is utterly uninlelligible to persons not initiated^ but 

VOL. XIV. NO. ir. 9 

H6 Milne's Acamnt of the Triad Society. Feb. 

ivhich, being understood by a brother member, is responded to by 
him in another line or half a line, and, by thu» passing on through 
several persons, an ode may be completed, though not perceived by 
any but the parties themselves. ^ 

Kie ti tui, ^ f^^- "^^^ ^^^^ words are inexplicable in the 
order in which they stand. Kie signifies to tie, to bind, and is 
often used to signify the formation of a secret association. Ti (if 
we be right in the character) signifies a brothert or younger brother, 
tod the sense thus far would be — " to form a brotherhood" Tm is 
a pair of d^ thing, or two things equal to each other. But it is pro- 
bable that these words have a reference to other words on the seal, 
the connection of which it seems difficult to discover. 

Explanation of words within the first octangular lines, 

Hiung titung chin, ^ $^ ^ |$ 

K6h yt2 hdn tdu; ^^ -^ H 

Kau k^i fan pdi, ^ ^ ^ j^ 

Wdn H yH chuen. ^ ^ >^ ^ 

Which thus read : — 

The Brethren all in battle join^ 
Each ready with a chosen sign ; 4%- 
An ancient brook with parting streams, 
Still flowing down firom long-past times. 

In support of thb version it might be urged, that the fratemity 
have certain secret sjgns or marks, by which they make their ideas 
known to each other, and in the tumults which they excite, these 
signs are made use of to encourage each other in the work of des- 
truction: and that they consider their society as of very ancient 
origin, and as spreading through the world from age to age. 

But the words may be read in lines of eight or seven syllables, and 
might begin with k6h, thus : 

Koh yd h4u t4u k&H kn fbn, 
K4u k'i fun pai wan kd yiL 

N. B. This last line shifts back to hdu for iU first syllable. 

In fact there appears scarcely to be a limit to the mutations of 
these numbers; for, like the changes of the p& ibad (Chinese table 
of diagrams), they may contain an infinitude of senses and modifi- 
cations, with which, however, the initiated alone are familiar. 

Explanation of characters within the second octangular lines. 
ChU kih tsing tsdu hiuen hid ^ "^ ?fj ^ ^(1 T^; These cha- 

1845. mhu*i Account of tkt Triad Society. 6T 

racters, as they stand, seems to make no intelligible sense, and from 
the circumstance of their being written with two kinds of ink,4>lack 
and red, renders it highly probable that they are constructed for the 
purpose of local concealment; they are perhaps the name, real or 
assumed, of the officers of the brotherhood ; that half of the charac- 
ter^ in red mk, which seems printed, may be permanent, Hind have 
some general reference to the designs of the society, and to the 
other characters on the seal ; while the yellow part (on the original 
blue silk seal), which is evidently uniiten with a pencil^ may^ joined 
to the printed half, constitute the names or epithets of the .officers 
in some particular place. In another place, where persons of dift 
ferent designations are chosen to be officers, the yellow part would 
be different. This conjecture is confirmed by the opinion of several 
learned Chinese, «yho have seen and examined the seal. 

Wdn Hen wan ti fC^ >^^- These characters have, no 
doubt, a reference to the ultimate view of the brotherhood, viz. univer* 
sal extension and dominion; the 1st is an inverted forn^ of 3d; which 
b an abbreviated form of tMin, a myriad ; Hen (in the quinquangular 
lines) signifies heaven, and ti^ earth. And the position of the two, 
both looking towards the straight line on which the words heaven and 
earth are written, may mystically signify the bringing of myriads of 
nations under the society's influence. . 

Explanaiion of eharcuiers within the square Knes. 

Chung i fik, w6 chuh tung, ,^ ^ ;^ ^ JiJ j^. ^^ thefaith^ 
ful and righteous unite so as to form a whole (i. e. an universaf em* 
pire). This seems the plain sense of the words, according to this 
arrangement of them; but it is impossible to ascertain whether 
something else may not be intended, as they are susceptible of as 
many meanings as arrangements. This version, however, agrees 
with the general views of this dangerous fraternity. 

Characters within the oblong square. 
Yun shing, ^/^ ^; supposed to be the name of the chief of the 
fraternity, some think the founder; but, the character being written, 
and in yellow ink, 4<^ is more likely to be the chief for the time 
being, at whose death the blank space in seals subsequently issued 
could be filled up with the name of his successors ; whereas the 
name of the founder, never changing, would be more likely, to be 
printed, in some permanent fprm. 

If any weight be due to the scattered hints that have been given 

68 Milne's Account of the Triad Society. Feb. 

above, there will appear to be a striking resemblance in some poinu 
between the San hoh humi, and the society of freemasons. The 
writer would not be understood, by so saying, to trace this resem* 
biance. in any. of the dangerous principles of the San hoh hwuty for he 
believes that the society of British freemasons (and of others he 
knows nothing) constitutes a highly respectable body of men, whose 
principles and conduct are friendly to social order, regular govern- 
ment, and the peace of society. The points of resemblance, then^ 
between the two societies, appear to the writer to be the following. 

1. In their pretensions to great antiquity, the S&n hoh kumi proteas 
to carry their origin back to the remotest antiquity. Tsz* yik 
Chung Kwohf t. e. "from the first settlement of China;" and their 
former name, viz. ** Calesto-^errestrial Society,'* may indicate that 
the body took its riseHfrom the creation of heaven and earth,; and it 
is 'known that some freemasons affirm that their society " had a being 
ever since symmetry and harmony began," though others are more 
moderate in their pretensions to antiquity. 

' 2. In making benevolence and mutual assistance their professed 
obfect, and in affording mutual assistance to. each other, in whatever 
country, when the signs are once given. Notwithstanding the -dan* 
gerous nature of the SAn hoh hwui, the members swear, at their ini- 
tiation, to be filial and fraternal and benevolent, which corresponds 
to the engagement of the freemasons, to philanthropy and the social 

3. In the ceremonies of initiation, e, g. the oath, and the solemnity 
of its administration, in the arch of steel and bridge of swords. These 
.are so singularly striking, that they merit the attention of those es- 
pecially who think freemasonry a beneficial institution, or who deem 
its history worthy of investigation. 

4. May not the three ruling brethren of the San hoh hwui be 
considered as having a resemblance to the three masonic orders of 
apprentice, fellowcraft, and master ? 

5. The signs, particularly " the motions with the fingers," in as far 
as they are known or conjectured, seem to have some resemblance. 

6. Some have affirmed that the grand secret of freemasonry 
consists in the words '* Liberty and Equality;" and if so, certainly 
the term hiung ti, (i, e. "brethren") of the San hoh hwui may, 
without the least force, be explained as implying exactly the same 

Whether there exist any thing in the shape of" Lodges" in the 
Sin hoh hwui, or not, the writer has no means of ascertaining ; but 

1845. Illegal Associations, 69 

he believes the Chinese law is so rigorous against this body, as to 
admit of none. Nor does there appear to be a partiality among 
the members for the masonic employment. Building does not appear 
to be an object with them, at least not in as far as can be dis- 


Art. in. Evils of forming illegal associations ; prohibition of 
magicians, leaders of sects, and teachers of false doctrines; re- 
nuneiaiion of allegiance ; the tea sect, i^c. 

" In the reign of his present majesty, the celestial powers oversha- 
dow and nourish all things, the sun and moon cast forth their radi- 
ance, the uniferse is regulated in peace, and the tribes of men are 
also unifersaily tranquil. Of the people who live in this age, the 
scholar discourses of propriety, and enforces the irtiportance of the 
ancient odes ; while the illiterate cultivate their fields, and dig their 
wells, without attending to extraneous affairs all their lives long, en- 
joying soft andluxurious ease, in peace and tranquility. Truly we know 
not why it is that the people, wrought upon by foreign means, have 
been induced to fall into the net of delusion ; but constantly searching 
into the matter we find, that the generality of disobedient and law- 
less persons, are at first nothing more than worthless characters 
without any dependence ; being poor, and having no fixed object of 
pursuit, they seducingly establish some corrupt dogmas, in order to 
obtain a livelihood : the stupid, they move by hopes of happiness 
and fears of misery — the vicious, they blind by charms or spells— the 
strong and vigorous, they teach gymnastic feats — the weak, they 
subdue by blustering strength — and the poor, they tempt by bribes 
of money, — until their disciples and followers become numerous — 
then in their excursions, they plunder; and in their assemblies, they 
gamble ; they flock into the markets to drink, and roar and bawl in 
the open fields; the lesser among them entice dogs and chuck fowls 
(in order to steal them), and the more practiced in villainy drive 
away oxen,, and rob the graves; so that honest and virtuous families 
in the villages connot but fear them, and cannot avoid relying on 
ihein. These pernicious evils are what the names of sects engender, 
and are produced by the influence of illegal associations. 

7(^ Illegal Associations; Feb: 

" To the south of the mountain Sin, a common belief in ghosts 
and demons prevails, and conjurors and necromancers are encou- 
raged; the spirit of the people is hardened and insubordinate, and 
they are pleased with frothy and self-complacent things. Also on the 
coast, the foreign merchants of the ocean carry on their trade : and ai| 
to the Portuguese Roman Catholic religion, who can insure that it 
will not roll on, and spread by degrees, till it enter China ? We also 
hear that on the northwest of the province, which is a very moun- 
tainous district, there are continually poor people who having no pos- 
sessions come from a distant part, and bringing their instruments of 
husbandry with them, cultivate the waste crown lands : some of them 
erect cottages by the banks of rivers, and form habitations in the 
sides of the mountains, where they harbor banditti ; these banditti 
go forth by day to plunder and return in the evening ; and although 
the civil magistrates and military officers have united in order to ap- 
IM'ehend them, yet the woods being deep, and the jungle thick, when 
ihey pursue them on the west they fly to the east ; there are some 
kannts probably which have not come to the knowledge of the magis^ 
traftes, but the observation of the people is more certain and real. It 
therefore rests with you, people, strictly to distinguish between cor« 
rupt and correct doctrines, and seriously to consider the misery or 
happiness attending them. Do not covet a bully's fame; be not 
laoTed by strange and new sayings ; thirst not for present gain, and 
^o not remove future calamities from your sight. Awaken the 
Btupid, reject the disorderly, suppress the boisterous, assist the weak, 
pity the poor ; and then your persons and families will obtain uninter- 
rupted tranquillity, and villainy and corruption will have no means of 
recess among you. If you do not act thus, then corrupt teachers will 
deceive the people, notwithstanding the enlightened instructions of 
the sages; and the multitude will be turned aside into devious paths, 
notwithstanding the express injunctions of the laws. 

" Examine now in succession former generations, and you will find 
that those persons who have subsisted by a stick of incense and a 
measure of rice, have without exception come to an ill end, and their 
adherents and descendants have been exterminated; for instance, 
formerly, in the provinces of Sz'chuen, and Hukwing, the plun- 
dering sect of the water-iily over-spread three provinces, and were 
confessedly numerous ; but when the great army arrived, they were 
aii put to the sword. And lately, another instance occurred in the 
case of the rebel Lintsing, who had formed a band and excited in- 
surrection : long before the appointed time for commencing their opep 

1845. Illegal Associations. 71 

rations arrired, the principal ringleader was cut into samll pieces, 
and the rest of the conspirators were slain. Also Chu MauH, of 
Yuk&n, in the province of Kiingsl, and F&ng Yungshing, of Hoch&u, 
in the prorince of Ngdnhwni, having rebelled, before the affair 
was brought to any head, their viliainj was instantly defeated. You 
inhabitants of Canton province, have also been frequently injured by 
these disorders : for not long ago, the plunderers of the brotherhood 
society, having collected together a multitude of persons, excited an 
insurrection at Yangshf Sh&n, in Pohlo ; but those who associated 
with and followed them, were all of them instantly put to death ; 
many of you peaceable people were on account of them, obliged to 
leave your families, and indeed the whole neighborhood was disturb- 
ed. I would only ask, with respect to Chinl&nkf hsz' (the foreign lea- 
der of this band) where is he now? Last year also, the vagabonds who 
collected bands and formed confederacies, with a design to plunder 
and rob, have all been apprehended and punished. Hence we may 
see, that this kind of pilundering banditti, certainly cannot by any 
lucky chance escape, and whoever it is that excites insurrection and 
rebellion, the powers above will not suffer him to escape. Even those 
who in common convene meetings and collect money, with a design 
to obtain a paltry livelihood, when once information of it is obtained, 
will be punished either with sword or saw, or be bound with ropes 
*^and cords : their accomplices also will be banished to some distant 
part, where they will not be able to cherish their aged parents, to 
take care of their wives and families, or to overlook their houses 
and fields. Their regrets may be poij^nant, but their is no deliver- 
ance. Alas ! alas I is not this dreadful V* 

Extracted from a prize essay, written at Canton in 1819. 

The following is from sir George Thomas Staunton's translation 
of the Penal Code, book I., section CLXII., entitled: '* Magicians, 
leaders of sects, and teachers of the false doctrines" 

*' Magicians who raise evil spirits by means of magical books and 
dire imprecations, leaders of corrupt and impious sects, and mem- 
bers of all superstitious associations in general, whether denominat- 
ing themselves JtMihfuh, ^1^^; Peh-Uen sh^, |^ ]£ |i; 
Ming'tsun kidu, ^ ^ ^ ! Peh^yun tsung, j^ ^ ^ ; ^x* in *ny 

other manner distinguished, all of them offend against the laws, by 
their wicked and diabolical doctrines and practices. 

" When such persons, having in their possession concealad images 

73 Illegal Assoeiaiiom, Feb. 

of their worship, burn inceose in honor of them, and when they 
assemble their followers by night in order to instruct them in their 
doctrines, and by pretended powers and notices, endeavor to invei- 
gle and mislead the multitude, the principal in the commission of 
such offenses shall be strangled, after remaining in prison the usual 
period, and the accessaries shall severally receive 100 blows and be 
perpetually banished to the distance of 3000 IL 

** If at any time the people, whether soldiers or citizens, dress and 
ornament their idols, and after accompanying them tumultuously 
with drums and gongs, perform oblations and other sacred rites to 
their honor, the leader or instigator of such meetings shall be pun- 
ished with 100 blows. 

" If the head inhabitant of the district, when privy to such unlaw- 
ful meetings does not give information to government, he shall be 
punished with 40. blows. 

'* The penalties of this law shall not however be so constructed 
as to interrupt the regular and customary meetings of the people, to 
invoke the terrestrial spirits in spring, and to return thanks to them 
in autumn." 

Again from the same work we quote the following, being a trans- 
lation of clauses annexed to section 255 of the Penal Code. 

" All persons who, without being related or connected by inter- 
marriages, establish a brotherhood or association among them- 
selves, by the ceremonial of tasting blood, and burning incense, shall 
be held guilty of an intent to commit the crime of rebellion ; and 
the principal or chief leader of such association shall, accordingly, 
suffer death by strangulation, after remaining for the usual period in 
confinement. — ^The punishment of ^the accessaries shall be less by 
one degree.^— If the brotherhood exceeds twenty persons in number, 
the principal ofiender shall suffer death by strangulation immediately 
after conriction; and the accessaries shall suffer the aggravated 
banishment into the remotest provinces. — If the brotherhood be for- 
med without the aforesaid initiatory ceremonies of tasting blood and 
burning incense, and according to the rules of its constitution, be 
subject to the authority and direction of the elders only, but exceed 
forty persons in number, then the principal shall still suffer death by 
strangulation, as in the first case, and the accessaries a punishment 

less by one degree. 

*' If the authority mtd direction of the association is found to be 
vested in the strong youthful members, that circumstances alone shall 

1845. Illegal Associations, 73 

be deemed a sufficient evidence of its criminality ; and the principal 
shall accordingly suffer death by strangulation immediately after 
conviction : the accessaries, as in the preceding cases, shall undergo 
aggravated banishment. 

" If the association is subject to the authority and direction of the 
elder brethren, arid consists of more than twenty, but less than forty 
members, the principals shall be punished with 100 blows, and sent 
into perpetual banishment to the distance o( 3000 li. If the a^ocia- 
tion under the last mentioned circumstances, consists of any number 
less than twenty persons, the principal shall suffer iOO blows, and 
wear the cangue for three months. — In both cases, the punishment 
t>f the accessaries shall be one degree less severe than that of the 

" Whenever vagrant and disorderly persons form themselves into 
a brotherhood by the initiation of blood, as aforesaid, apd endeavor 
to excite factious or leading men to join them, or tamper with the 
soldiers and servants of public tribunals, with the same intent, hav- 
ing for their ultimate object, to injure the people, and disturb the 
peace of the country ; and further, when such criminal practices 
have been duly reported by the country-people and head of villages, 
to the magistrates and governors of the division or district ; if the 
-said magistrates and governors refuse or neglect to take measure for 
-suppressing such proceedings , or rn any other manner countenance 
or connive at them, so that in the end an open sedition breaks out, 
and rapine and devastation ensue, such culpable officers of govern- 
ment shall be forthwith deprived of their dignities and employments, 
< and' prosecuted for their misconduct, by accusation laid before the 
'supreme court of judicature. — Nevertheless, if, after such associa- 
tions had- been suffered to take place, through the neglect or conni- 
vance of the magistrates, those magistrates exert themselves success- 
fully in sloping the progress of the evil, and in preventing the com- 
mission of any act of open violence, sedition, and rapine, and arc, 
moreover, active in seizing the criminals, and bringing them to 
justice, their former neglect and omission shall, in such case, be 

" All those inhabitants of the neighborhood, and heads of villages, 
who^ when privy to these unlawful practicv^s, omit to give informa- 
—tion thereof to government, shall be punished according to the 
degree of their responsibility, and the other circumstances of the 
case; but, on ihe other hand, those who give timely notice and infor- 
mation, shall be proportionably rewarded: — if, howevf^r, the charges 

VOL. XIV. NO. II. 10 

74 Illegal Assbciaiions\ Febl 

are found to have been made under frivolous pretexts, the informers 
will be subject to punishment as calumniators. 

" The punishment of the brotherhood associated by the initiation 
with blood, which exists in the province of Fukien, shall be confor- 
mable to the afore-mentioned regulations; and further, when the 
persons thus guilty, take up arms in order to resist the magistrates^ 
and a tumult ensues, all who are concerned in such resistance, shall, 
if considered as principals, suiTer death by being beheaded ; and 
by strangulation, if considered as accessaries to the offense. 

"All associations connected together by secret signals, whatever 
be their extent^ are obviously instituted with the design of oppress- 
ing the weak, and injuring, the solitary and unprotected. — Where- 
fore the leaders or principals of all such societies, shall be held to be 
vagabonds and outlaws, and accordingly be banished perpetually to 
the most remote provinces : the other members of such associations 
shall be considered as accessaries, and • punished less severely by 
one degree. 

"Those persons who, though not regularly belonging to, had suf- 
fered themselves to be seduced to accompany such associated per- 
sons, shall not be banished, but shall suffer the punishment of 100 
blows, and wear the cangue for three months.^-AU persons who, 
after having been employed as soldiers or civil servants of govern- 
ment, enter into any of the said onlawful associations, shall be pun- 
ished as principals. 

" Any inhabitants of the neighborhood, or heads of villages, who 
may ^e convicted of being privy to, and not reporting these practices 
to government, shall be punished more or less severely, according' to 
the nature of the caae.^ — Magistrates^ neglecting to investigate and 
take cognizance of the like offenses; or from: corrupt and sinister 
motives, liberating and pardoning offenders after examination, shall 
be punished as the law applicable to similar cases directs. ' 

"Notwithstanding the aforesaid, persons assembling for the sole 
purpose of doing honor, or returning thanks to a particular temple 
or divinity, and immediately afterwards peaceably dispersing, shall 
not be punished by any construction of these prohibitions. 

" All those vagabond and disorderly persons who have been 
known to assemble toct.^ther, and to commit robberies, and pther 
acts of violence, under the particular designation of " Tien it Hwui,*' 
or "the Association of heaven and earth,", shall immediately after 
seizure and conviction, suffer death by being beheaded; and all 
those who have been induced to accompany them^ and to aid and 
abet their said practices, shall suffer death by b^ing strangled. 

1845. Illegal Associations. 75 

•'*This law shall be put in force whenever this sect or association 
msv be reviTed." 

Notices of the tea seet^ extracted from the Peking Gazettes for 
the'27th day, 5th moon of the 21st year of Kicking, June, 1816. 

'*~Tsingchdng, of the imperial blood, and general, in command 
of the city iSAtn^, together with Ymng Tsii, holding the otfice of 
shUdng, kneei down and report. Profoundly honoring the imperial 
mandate to assemble and rigorously investigate, and determine on 
punishments proper to be inflicted, we respectfully present this do- 
cument, praying that it may please his majesty to examine it. 

" We have examined the case of the criminal Wang Yungtdi^ that 
is Wang Sdnkti, the deader of the sect, and also the case of Wang 
Cku*rhf Wang King-tsidng, and Wang Tsopik, to be banished on 
his account. We immediately took the sum of their testimony, and 
in a former statement reported it. At the same time, we command- 
ed Wang Kingyu the tungchi of Sinmintun, to proceed quickly to 
the district of T, and, with Tohsangd, the military commandant 
of the town, to investigate with rigor and secrecy, whether Wang 
Yungtdi had delivered his doctrines and made proselytes there or 
not. We also ordered them to call Ch&uhing and Kwok Ch&ulung^ 
the masters of the inn in which Wang Yungtdi resided, together 
with Hidng and Pan, superiors of the people, to appear and give 
evidence. Shortly aller this the officers whom we thus ordered, 
reported, saying, *' we have secretly searched and found out that 
Wang Yungtdi fled from the border, and came to the country of T, 
where, after remaining for six days, he was taken up. We still 
more minutely examined and found that the said criminal had not, 
after his return to T, either delivered doctrines or made disciples." 

" In the present year, the fourth month, and the twenty third day, 
while engaged in judging of this affair, an official document was sent 
to. us from one of the imperial counsellors, noticing that he had 
received the sovereign's decree, stating his majesty's pleasure which 
was to this effect : '' We have seen the statement of Tsingchang 
and his constituents, reporting their examination of a criminal call- 
ed Wartg Yungtdif the principal leader of a corrupt sect in Sdn* 
chiu, and reporting also the sum of evidence obtained in the exami- 
nation of three other criminals, his accessories. Moreover, in course 
of examination they had discovered that there were yet remaining in 
the province of Hupeh, two criminals, disciples of Wang Yungtdi. 
Now we have alreadv sent down an intimation, of onr will to Md 

76 lilegal Assdciations. FkvL 

HwuiyUf requiring him and his constitutes to take and examine with 
rigor these persons. As it appears from the examination of the eri* 
roinal Wang Yungidi, by Tsingekdng and others, that he has r^ 
ally made proselytes in Hupeh, the testimonj;^ the three others 
agreeing thereto. It appears also that the said criminal on returning 
from Hiipeh to Shihfuh k^u, heard that the unauthorized sectaries 
were being brought to trial, was afraid, and fled to F, and other 
places where he concealed himself only for a few days; and more- 
over that he did not deliver his doctrines in F. Also that Wang 
Chii*rh and the other two criminals have not themselves been guilty 
of practising the rules of the sect or of making disciples (but they 
are involved in consequence of being related to him). Wang 
Yungtdi is ordered to be executed, and his body to be cut into small 
pieces. Wang CMt*rk and the other two are ordered to be dealt 
with as the law directs, in cases where persons are involved by the 
crimes of others. Take this edict and mske it known. Respect 

" In obedience to the imperial mandate, it was immediately for* 
warded to us. Teh'kih-tsin-^di, the governor of F, sent forward to 
us Ch&uhing and the other, masters of the inn. We again assembled 
[n court, called, and strictly examined them. From the examination 
it appeared, that this Wang Yungtdi otherwise called Wang Sdnkd 
belongs to the village Shihfuh kiu, in the district Lan, in the pro- 
vince of Chili ; and is the descendant of Wang Tdusang. But that 
he removed to the village Ngankialu in the district of Luling. 
That his ancestors had delivered down the dogmas of the sect, called 
Tsingckd Man, That on the first, and fifteenth of every month, 
the votaries of this sect burn incense; make offerings of fine tea; 
bow down and worship the heavens, the parth, the sun, the moon, 
the fire, the water, and their (deceased) parents. They also worship 
Budhas, and the founder of their own sect. In receiving proselytes, 
they use Choh'kwdi (i. e. bamboo chop-sticks) and with them touch 
the eyes, ears, mouth, and nose, of those that join their sect, com- 
manding them to observe the three revertings and the five precepts. 
They lyingly and presumptuously affirm that the first progenitor of 
the clan of Wang resides in heaven. 'I'he world is governed by 
three Budhas in rotation. The reign of Yentang FViA, (otherwise 
called Omito Fuh is past ; Shihkid Fuh now reigns and the reign of 
Mdih Fuh is yet to come. These sectaries affirm that Millh Fuh will 
descend and be born in their family ; and carry all that enter the 
sect, alter death, into the rerrions of the west, to the palace of the 

1846. List of Chinese Officers. 77 

Immortal Sien, where they will be safe from the dangers of war, of 
water, and of fire. Because of these sayings they deceive the stinple 
people, tempt them to enter the sect, and cheat them out of their 
money. Those who join them are all called " Yay." That the cri- 
minal had two brothers, now dead, who formerly promoted the sect 
in Htipeh and in Shensf . That in the 6th month of the 15th year of 
Ki&king, the criminal being poor and finding it difficult to live, 
went to H&nkau in the province of Hupeh, where he resided for a 
time, telling the people the advantages of entering the sect; hoping 
to gain proselytes and cheat them out of their money. Accordingly 
Sichdukwei, Fang Wanping and others, of that place, honored him 
as their leader, expecting to receive the doctrines of his aacestors. 
Every person that joined him gave money, of the current coin, from 
several times ten to upwards of ten thousand wan,** 


Art. IV. List of officers belonging to the Chinese government^ 
extracted from the Red Book for the Chinese Repository, by 

a correspondent. 

Referring our readers to former volumes of the Repository, especi- 
ally to the IV. and XII., for detailed accounts of the constitution of 
the Chinese government, the duties of its officers, dec, d&c, we pro- 
ceed at once to give the list of office-bearers as they now stand in 
the Red Book. 

The Tsungjin fu. 


1. ^ ^ Tsiitsiuen, the tolo ting kfunwing. 


2. ^ ^ Jinshau, the hoshih juy ts6ngwiing. ' 

3. j^ i^ ^ p^ ITrhungi, the hoshih, chingtsung. 


4. 1^ "fffl Miens^i, a tolo beile. 

5. j^ ||]^ Miensiu, a Kush^n beitse. 


^- ?'| I& ^'" ^ of Chungtsiing hien, Hupeh, an inspector of the 
school of the left wing gioro. 

87 List of Chinese Officers) Few'. 


2. '^ 1^ Jinshau. 

7. 1^^ Jjd^ Ngankwei, a Manchu of the bordered blue ; of the impe- 
rial kindred, a sh&ngshu of the Board of Civil Office. 

The Inner Council^ or Nuikoh. 


8. ^ ^ SbT Much^gi, a Manchu of the bordered blue; a jih- 
kiing of the kingyen (classical feasts), an officer of the Kfkluchu 
office, a principal guardian of the heir apparent, minister of the 
Wanhwi tien (Hall of literary adornment), a principal tsungtsii 
of the Kwohshi kwan, (national historical office), an instructor of 
the Shukiehsz', a reviewer of troops, superintendent of the Board of 
Works, tutung (general) Manchu bordered yellow banner, an ins- 
pector of the imperial edicts, a president of the wanyuen koh (Cabi- 
net of literary treasures), a president of the Hinlin yuen (imperial 
academy), a hingtsau of the Nin Shufang, (South Library), and a 
Tsungsz' chuen of the Shdng Shufang (Upper Library). 

^' ^ tl£ <& Pw&n shing&n, of Wu hien, Kiingsu ; a jihki^ng of 
the classical feasts, an officer of the Klkfnchij office, a principal 
guardian of the heir apparent, minister of the wuying tien (Hall of 
Martial Heroism), an inspector of the imperial edicts, a president of 
the Hanlin yuen, a president of the w&nyuen koh, a tsungsz' chuen of 
the shdng shufang, a ching tsungtsii of the Kwohshi kwan, superin- 
tendent of the Board of Revenue. 

10. w IPl Pauhing, a Manchu of the bordered yellow ; a gioro^ 
minister of the Wanyuen koh, and governor-general of Sz'chuen. 


11. ^ ^^ Kingching, a Manchu of the bordered white; of the 
imperial kindred, a shangshu of the Board of Revenue, and t(itung 
Manchu bordered red banner. 

12. jM ^^ 4£ Choh Pingtien, of Hw^ying hien, Sz'chuen ; a shing- 
shu ot the Board of Civil Office, and superintendent of the prefecture- 
ship of Shuntien. 


13. -^' ^ Kingting, a Manchu of the bordered yellow. 

14. -p^ 1^ Kingking, a Manchu of the plain yellow. 

15. d^ 1^ Tsaitsang, a Manchu of the plain blue; of the imperial 
kindred, fu tutung Manchu plain white banner. 

1845. List of Chinese Officers. 70 

16. ^ ^ Suichang, a MoDgol of the bordered red ; principal 
chrik&n (examiner) of Fukien. 

17. |(^ ^ Yihyuh, a Manchu of the plain blue; of the imperial 

^^' in $§ Kingaih, a Manchu of the plain blue; of the imperial 
kindred, an inspector of the Chungshu koh (office of patents). 
19* ^^ yf^ Ch&u Kwing, of Hwanming hien, Yunnan ; and inspec* 
tor ot the Chungshu koh. 

20. JHI ^ ^ L6 W^intsiun, of N^nhii, Kwingtung. 

21. ^^ Chang Ff, of Kingy^ng hien, Shensl; Hiohching or 
Literary chancellor of Ki^ngsu. 

22. 5E 1^ 1^ W4ng Kw^ngyin, of Tungchau, Kiingsu ; literary 
chancellor of Shuntien. 

The Imperial Academy^ or Hdnlm yuen. 


8. i^ ]^ ppf Muchang^. 

^' ^ IH: .1 ^'^^^ ®^^"«^- 

Board of Civil Office^ or Lipu. 


7. BI j^ Ngankwei, a Manchu of the bordered blue ; of the imperial 
kindred ; a speaker of the classical feasts, a controller of the Nuiwii 
fu (imperial household), superintendent of the Tsing-f gardens, the 
Yuenming gardens, the Pin( of the three imperial banners, the 
school of the Hienin kung, the Ningshau kung, the Wuying tien, 
the treasury of the Tsungjin fii, the national college, the board of 
music, tiJtung Chinese plain yellow banner, and . commander-in- 
chief of the fukiun (foot brigade). 
12. ^ ^ *|"f Choh Pingtien . 


23.' JGR ^ Pehtsiun, a Mongol of the plain blue ; fu tutung (lieut.- 
general) Manchu plain white banner. 

24. ^ ^ ^ Li Chfching, of Kiingyin hien, Kiangsu, literary 
chancellor of Ngflnhwui. . 

25. ]^ ^ Hwuifung,ja: Manchu of the bordered yellow; fu tutung 
Chinese bordered white banner. 

26. 1^ j^ Hautung, of Wuydng hien, Kidngsu. 


60 List of Chinese Ojficers. Feb. 

Board of Revenue^ or HupA* 


^ jH tfr S ^^*" ShfngAn. 

8U AN08RU« 

11. ^ ^ Kingching. 

27. ^ ^ j^ Kf rtfliu, of Shauyang hien, Shinsi. 

28. K ^ Tw&nhwi, a Manchu of the bordered blue; of the im* 
perial kindred, a guardsman of the imperial presence, a speaker of 
the classical feasts, a superintendent of three treasuries, a president 
of the lw4ntwei, a hilkwoh tsidngkiun, a fu tutung, Manchu plain 
blue banner, aud a tsungping of the left wing. 

29. ^)[ ]^ ^ ^^"^ Kingfdn, of KuchI hien, Hon^n ;' a superin- 
tendent of the three treasuries. 

30. f^ nj Chingk^ng, a Manchu of the bordered blue ; of the im- 
perial kindred, a fu tiitung, Manchu plain yellow banner, and a su* 
perintendent of tsienfa tang (Hall of coinage laws). 

31. (pT ^tt ^ Ho Julin, of Kiingning hten, Ki&ngsu ; a super* 
intendent of the Tsienfi tang. 

Board of Ritesy or Lipii. 


32. 4^^ ^ BpT Tehtanga, a Manchu of the bordered ted a speaker 
of the classical leasts, a tsungts^i of the Wuying tien, tQtung, Chi- 
nese bordered blue banner, superintendent of the t&iching sz', and 

hungloh sz*. 

33. ^ ^ ^ Li Tsungfing, of Shingy&ng hien, Kiingsu ; a 

speaker of the classical feasts. 

34. ^ -^ Lienkwei, a Manchu of the bordered red ; a f ii tutung 
-Chinese plain blue banner, and superintendent of the tdichang sz'. 

35. ^ jjijg[ ^ Chau Tsupei, of ShAngching hien, Hon&n. 

36. ;tt" irl; ^ Hwishdn^, a Mongol of the plain yellow; a fu t(itung, 
ChinSe plain yellow banner, a superintendent of the t4ichang sz'. 
37^,jD ^E^ Wu ChungUiun, of W<i hien, Ki&ngs6; literary 

chancellor of Chehki^ng. 

Board af Musicy or Yohpu. 

S U F E R I N T E N D E N T . 

38. jfa^ IJ^ Mienyu, the hohshih hwui tsinwing. 

7 Jg. W Ng^nkwei. 

1845. LUi of Chinese Officers. 81 

The Board of War^ or Putgpu, 


99. is ^ Yiihshing, a Manchu of the bordered yellow ; a speaker 
of the classical feasts, a chancellor of the imperial household, Tutang, 
Chinese plain white banner, a superintendent of the three treasuries, 
and the grand medical college, and a first class noble of the first 

40. pf Jtj 9 Hii N4ip(i, of Tsient4ng hien, Chehkiang; a speaker 
of the classical feasts. 

8HIL A NO . 

41. ^ R^ Tiuking, a Manchu of the bordered blue; of the impe- 
rial kindred, a fii tiitung, Manchu plain yellow banner. 

42. ^ 1^ Chu Tsun, of Tunghii hien, Yunnan. 

^*^* ^ ^' W^ Weishihndh, a Mongol of the plain yellow ; a fu 
tutung, Chinese plain yellow banner, a first class hereditary noble 
of the second order. 

44. ^ f^ {^ Sun Suichin, of Tsining chau. Shantung ; literary 
chancellor of Kiingsi. 

Tfie Board of PimishmeniSj or Hingpii. 


45. B^ ^ y£ BpT A'lihtsing^, a Manchu of the plain blue ; tu- 
tung Chinese plain red banner. 

46. ?J?^ jjf]^ LI Chinku, of Taihii hien, Nganhwui. 


47. JB IS Kangfuh, a Manchu of the bordered blue ; a ^d tutung, 
Chine9e bordered white banner. 

48. ^ 7t >l^ Wei Yuenldng, of Chdngli hien, Chihii. 

49. j^ ^Pinliing, a Manchu of the plain red; a fu tutung Chi- 
nese plain red banner. 

50. ZE 2^ d3 Chang Lfchung, of Chdngkdi ting, Slieusi. 

Tlie Board of Works^ or Kungpii, 

S U P B R I N T E N I>>E.N.T . 

®- S i^ 1^ Muchdngd. 


51. ^^ ra SpT S^ifthdiiga^ a Mongol of the plain blue; a speaker 
of the classical feasts, au assistant tsungtsdl of the kwohsh;i kwdu^ a 

VOh. XIV. NO. II. 11 

S'2 List of Chinese Officers. Feb. 

superintendent of the three treasuries, tutung, Manchu plain yelluw 
banner, superintendent of Lff&n yuen. 

52. H^/ll* j^ Chin Kwiiutsiun, of Wei hien, Shi^ntung: a speaker 
of the classical feasts, an inspector of the school of the right wing 
gioro, and a superintendent of the three treasuries. 

8 H I I. A N G . 

53. ^ ^ |!pJ Shuhingi, Manchu of the plain blue; a fu tutung, 
Manchu plain red banner. . 

^' ^^ db vF ^^^ Sz'fan, of Pinghu hien, Chehki^ng; a speaker 
of the classical feasts, a hingtsau of the shang shilfiing. 
.55. I{3 ^ [[5f A^lingi, a Manchu of the plain red ; a superinten- 
dent of the Tsienfah t^ng« a fu tutung, Chinese bordered blue 

56. ^ j^ Vixk Ching, of Hw^ng hien, Shantung. 

The Colonial Office^ or Lifdn yuen. 


51. gfJ,"JJ{^'S^ish5ngl 


57. "^ ^ f^ Kfhluntai, a Manchu of the bodrered yellow; tii- 
tung Chinese bordered white banner. 


58. S 1^ Nganhw^, a Manchu of the bordered blue; of the im- 
perial kindred, a guardsman of the K&ntsing gate, a fu tutung, Man- 
chu' plain red banner. 

59. ^ BB Yuhming, a Manchu of the plain yellow; of the imperial 
kindred; a guardsman of the imperial presence, a president of the 
Lw^niwei, a fu tutung, Manchu plain white banner. 


60. tfc >i^ ^ ^ tL If) L'^hmuhkwanpuch^pii, a Mongol of ihe 
Ch'a laiteh banner; a dzassak tolo beilf. 

The Ceiisornte^ or Tiichd yuen. 


(51, "^ ^ Wanking, a Manchu of the bordered red; and instruc- 
tor of the Shukihsz', t«'itung. Chinese bordered blue banner, a con- 
troiier of the imperial household. 

^2. it ^ IB '^^ Shautien, of Pinchau, Shantung, a speaker of 
the classical feasts, a hingtsau of the sh'ing sliufang, a superintendent 
of the three treaburies. 

1845. List of Chinese Officer 9 83 


■ * * 

One vacant. 

63. j|?|l 2 fSk LiiJ Chunglin, of (^h&uyih hicn, Shensi. 

64. j^ iK Kwinglin, a Mongol of the plain yellow. 

65. ^ ^ ^^ Chin Fungan, of Sinching hien, Ki&ngsi. 

The Couri of Representation^ or Tungchmg «r\ 


66. ^ ^ Hochun. a Manchu of the bordered blue; of the impe- 
rial kindred. 

67. ^ '^ LI H4n, of Pauchi hien, Shuntien, Chihii. 


68. ^1 ^ Chungsi^ng, a Manchu of the bordered yellow. 

69. ai 2^^ P^ng Wanching, of Chingchau hien, Ki&ngsii. 

The Criminal courts or Tali sz\ 


70. ^k "fzl Weijin, a Mongol of the plain red. 

71. IfRjGS |1{ Hing Fuhsh^n, of Sinching hien, Kiingsi ; an in- 
spector of the school for the imperial kindred of the led wing. 

The Sacrificial courts or Taichdng sz*. 


32. iff 3g^ jlpf Tehtangi. 
34. ^;g; Lienkwei. / 


72. fi^ ^ Kw&ngching, a Manchu of the plain red 

73. IS" H^ Tingkien, of Fiching hien, Shantung. 

The office of the Imperial study or Taipuh sz^. 


74. ^ jj^ Kingki, a Manchu of the plain blue ; of the imperial 

75< ^ {^ Hwing Tsung, of Hwanming hien, Yunn&n. 

The Ceremmual courts or Kwangluh S2\ 


23. |g ^ PehUiun. 


76: ^ i^ Lingkwci, a Manchu of the plain blue: of tie imperial 

84 List of Ckinne Ojfirers. Frb- 

77. K lH ;^ Ching Tingkwei, of W(i hien, Ki^ngsu ; inspector 
of the school of the right wing of the gioro. 

The National collegCi or Kwohisz^ kien. 


32. J^igp^Tehtangi. 


78. "^ ^ Kihming, a Manchu of the bordered blue. 

79. ^ 1^ ^ Yeh Kinf, of Luhhoh hien, Kiingsu ; chief examiner 
of Ki^ngsf. 


80. j^ ^ YingBui, a Manchu of the plain yellow. 

81. >^ H^ ^ Tehchingngeh, a Mongol of the bordered white. 

82. ^ H Ch^ng Hung, of Ninpl hien, ChihH. 

7^ Sacrificial court, or Hunglo sz^m 


32. ^ g Ppf Tehtangd. 


83. 1^ $& Kweiteh, a Manchu of the bordered blue. 

84. ^R j^ Chiu Tsin, of Yuy^u hien, Chehkiing. 

The Astronomical Board, or Kifitien kien* 


11. ^^ Kingxshing. 

^5. v^ ^ Tai^Rgtii, a Manchu of the plain white. 

S6. ^ ^ ^ ^^^" Yoking, of Tdhing hien, Shuntien fu. 

The Grand Medical Boardj or Tdii yuen. 


39. ;g ^ Yiishing. 

87. |&^ Su Yuh, of Tubing hien, Shuntien fu. 

Office of the Imperial Carriages, or 1 




g gP Ig Tsaiysen, a Manchu of the plain blue ; of the imperial 
indi^d. Tareat minister of the imperial presence, a hingtsau of the 



List of Chinese OJlrers. 


sh&ng shiifang, an inner great minister commanding the bodyguards, 
tutung, Chinese plain blue banner, the H«»shih i tsinw^ng. 


28. ^ 1^ Tw4nhw4. 
59. 51 B^ Yuhming. 


89. y» w jsk Mw&n Chingsii, a Chinese of the bordered red. 



12. ^ ^ *|f Choh Pingtien. 


90. ^ {£ Li Hwui, of Hwijin hien, Shensf. 

Assistant mayor, vacant. 


''• S 4^ Ngankwei* 




91. ^1^^ Kwanshingpiu, a Manchu of the bordered blue; 
a fu tutung, Manchu plain red banner. 

Titung of the eight banners. 

28. ^ 


Bordered yellow. 

^- ^ # M Muching^. 

Pkdn yellow. 

51. ^f/!i|{Spf Siish^ng&. 

Bordered red. 

11. ;55[^ Kingching. 


Flain yellow. 

7- S tt Ngankwei. 

Plain white. 

29. i^ 1^ Yiishing. 

Barekred white. 

57. ^ ^ ^ KiUunt^i. 

Plain red. 

45. ppj 1^ ^11 |IPf A'lihtsingiS. 

Plain blue. 

88. ^ jg Ts^iyuen. 

Bordered blue. 

32. igp ^ g Tehtangl 
61. 7|^ jH Wanking. 

F& lutung of the eight banners. 

MANCHUS. Plain white. 

Plain yellow. 33, ih Ub Pehtsiun. 

30. ^ HI) Chingking. 59. 1 ffl Yuhming. 
14. m IS Tduking. ■*- *^* 

WJ List of Chinese Officers. Feb. 

Plain red. Bordered white. 

•'^- iS ^ Nganhw4. 35. jg ^ Hwuifung. 

^*- Bl ^ iS^: Kivinshingpiu. 47. § |g Kaiigfuh. 

^3. fjf* ^ |IPj Shuhinga. Plain red. 

Plain blue. ,49. |^ g Pingliing. 

CHINESE. i^- M # Lienkwci. 

P/atit yellow. ^Pordcred blue. 

36. ;|^ ^ ij^ Hwish&ni. ^' imS.M ^'^°S^' 


JJS "^ Shingking, or Moukden. 
General commander-in-chief. 

92. in. ]D Hingan, a Manchii of the plain blue; of the imperia] 
kindred, general in chief of the Manchus. 

Fa tfitung, at Moukden. 

93. Jb {^ Kingchu, a Manchu of the bordered blue. 

Pa tittuny at Kinchaufdt. 

94. jSf'. IS Tsi^nghau, a Manchu of the bordered red; of the im- 
perial kinered, superintendent of the naval affairs of Moukden. 

F& tutung at Kinchau fH. 

95. jj^ 1^ Kitsiun a Chinese of the bordered yellow ; superinten- 
dent of the Chw^ngti, and pnsang of the government posts, and 
overseer of the herds of the Tiling river. 

SkMang of the Board of Revenue. 

96. flj^ ^)]| Minghiun, a Mongol of the plain yellow; superinten- 
dent of Fungtien fu. 

Shildng of the Board of Rites. 

97. ^ jJjpi Chunyfj, a Manchu of the plain red. 

Shmng of the Board of War. 
96. 1^ ^ FuhtsI, a Manchu of the bordered white. 

Shildng of the Board of Punishment. 

99. ij^ IM Tehhau, a Manchu of the plain blue; a gioro. 

. Shildng of the Board of Works. 

100. j^ j^ Peiching, a Manchu of the bordered yellow. 

^ 1^ iS^ ^ # Ningk6t5h Kirin. 
Tsidngkiun of Kirin oula and its dependencies. 

101. i^ ^h iifi Kinngehpu, a Manchu of the plain yellow. 

1^5. LUt of Chinese Officers. 87 

FA tvtung of Kirin and its drpendencies, 
102. 1^ jlp^ PP) Saping^, a Mongol of the plain blue. 

Fu tatung of Ningkutdh and its dependencies. 
^^^' Ml S^ iU ^ Urtehshen, a Manchu of the plain blue. 

Fu tatung of PetAni and its dependencies. 
J04. f^ 3^ ^ §5 Weikihtsingft, a Chinese of the plain yellow. 

FA tatung of Sdnsing, and its dependencies. 

105. ^ ^ ^ ppf riihtiing^, a Manchu of the bordered blue. 

FA t&tung of Artchauki and its dependencies. 

106. ^ ^ ppj Kwoshingd, a Manchu of the plain blue. 

^ m JX Hihlung kiing, and its dependencies. 


107. ^ ^ ^ ^ ;^ Hwantsuktsihiing, a Manchu of the bor- 
dered yellow. 

Fti tatung of Tsitsihar and its dependencies. 

108. ^ 1^ Yinglung, a Manchu of the bordered blue; of the im- 
perial kindred. 

Fii tdtung of meighen and its dependencies. 

109. ^ ^ DdJ Ulinga, a Manchu of the bordered yellow. 

Fangtien fu. 

8 U P E U I N T £ If D E If T • 

96. ^] 111 Minghiun. 


110. '^ ^ Kilinien, a Manchu of the bordered blue., 


111. ^ ^ )!§f Hw^ng Tsanting, of Lnling hien, Kidngsi, literary 

The eighteen Provinces of China Proper. 

Government of Chiuu W ^, 
Govemor-general, resident at Pouting fa. 

112. ip^ JH ^ P^ Na'riikingi, a Manchu of the plain white; a 
principal guardian of the heir apparent, superintendent of the ri?er 
communication, commander-in-chief of the forces, head of the com- 
missariat department in charge of the passes of Chdihing, and Nih- 
yun, and entrusted with the duties of the governorship. 

Literary chancellor^ resident at Pduting fA. 
22. i ^ 1^ Wdng Kwaugjin. 

83 List of Chinese Officers. Feb. 

Treasurer y resident at Pouting fu. 
1 13. Rg^ J^ jjS Luh Kienying, of Mieny&ng hien, Hupeh. 

Judge, resident at Pduting fa. 

^^^' ^S.Y^'Si ^^'^ Yinkwei, of Hwinming hien, YunDin; su- 
perintendent of the provincial posts. 

Director oftkegabelle department , resident ai Tientsin, 

1 15. i^ nS Tehshun, of the imperial household of the yellow 

Salt commissioner, resident ai Tientsin. 

116. pfcl jb Sc ^^^ ®^''*"' of Ninling hien, Nganhwui. 

Government op Liangkiano ^ jT!. 
Gooemor^eneral, resident at Nanking. 

117. ^ ^ Pihchang, a Mongol of the bordered yellow; comman- 
der-in-chief of the forces, director general of the commissariat de- 
partment, charged with the maintenance of the rivers in Kiingn^n, 
and superintendent of the salt transport of the Liing Hwii. 

Province of Kiangsu VTI ^* 
Governor, resident at Stichau fv. 

118. ^ ^ S^ Sun Shenpiu, of Tsining hien, Shantung; com- 
mander of the forces, and director of the commissariat department. 

Literary chancellor, resident at Kidngjin hien. 
21. 51 ^ Chdngfi. 

Chihtsdu, at Nanking. 

119. £$ ^IC'^ Kingwantu, of the imperial household, of the plain 
yellow banner; superintendent of the Lungki^ng and Sfsin custom- 

Chihtsdu at SHchau fH. 

120. T^ ]^ Suiking, of the imperial household, of the plain white 
banner ; superintendent of the Husz' custom-house. 

Treasurer at Nanking. 

121. ES i^ ^ ^^^ Kiching, of Linkwei hien, Kw^ngsi. 

Dneasurer ai Siichau fu. 

122. ^ 3|^ Wankwei, of Suiching hien, Kiingsi. 

Judge, ai Suchau fu. 

123. |1R ^^ fl^ Kwoh Hiunfei^ of Wei hien, Shintung ; provincial 

post-master general. 

Grain commissioner, at Nanking. 

124. jjt ^^ j£ Shin Tauyin, of TieuUin hien, ChilUi. 

1845. List of Chinese Officers 89 

Cfrain commissioner, at SHchau fu. 

125. iffi ^ Yingpei, of Kweichuh hien, Kweickau. 

Salt commissioner at Nanking, 

126. ^ M ^ P^ Tsihlihrningi, a Manchu of the plain white. 

Governor of the canal transports, resident at Kwdingdn. 

127. ^ ^ Hwuikfh, a Manchu of the bordered yellow, comman- 
der of the forces employed in the transport of the grain, and cUrector 
of the commissariat. 

Governor of the rivers, resident at Tsingkidng pu. 

^^' iS^ S ^^^^ Sihngan, of King hien, Nginhwui; com- 
mander of the ri?er forces. 

Salt commissioner of the lA^mghw&iy resident at YAngchanfU. 

129. ^ '^ M LI Yohtung, of Kiuydng hien, Chihll. 

Superintendent of customs at the port of Suchau fi, 

130. Q ^ 3\ Kung M uki6, of Tungping chau, Shantung; mi- 
litary intendant of circuit of Suchau fu, Sungkiing fu, and T^i- 
tsing chau. 

Overseer of eo mmerti ed affairs at ShAnghdi, 

131. ^ ^.Jg Shin Pingyuen, of Tunghiing, Ghebkiang; a sub- 
prefect and superintendent of the grain department at Suchau fu. 

'Magistrate of ShAngk&i hieh. 
132 ]^^^ Lin Weiwan, of Tinghiii ling, Chehki^ng. 

Assistant' Magistrate. 
138. ^ ^ ^ Wu Pihkwing, of Niinh^i hien, Kw&ngtung. 


Governor resident at Nganking /rf. 
134 ^ig| WingChih, of Tsinjgyucn' hiien, Chihlt; commander 
of the forces/director of the provincial eommimriat. 

Literary ckanceUor, 
24. ^ ^ ^ LI ChlchAng.- 

135. ^ ^ ^ Su Piusan, of Jinho hien, Chehki^ng. 

136; ^ ;^ }$ Cliing Tdshwo,.of Harigynng hicny HunSn. 


Governor at Jfdjtchdng fi, 
137. &'^^ ^" Wanyuiig,. of fcfiing Men, Kidngsn; com* 
wander of the forces, and director of the provincial cominissaritt^. 

VOL. XIV. NO. II. 12^ 

90 List of CkiuettV^efrs. Feb. ; 

/.iterary chancellor. 

" ¥; T& ^ S'" s-i^hin- , / .'/i ; ; . i 

I3S. g []|] j^ Fei K'Sishiu, of W6uin bi^n, KUng«i. 

'39. ^,=f HlVw Vi>sun,pfH4njrintiiig„JS)wiwi. ■ 

140. ih M F&hli&ng, a Manchu of the plain red. ' -' ' 

SaU ttmrnisnoner. ' 

Ml. ;^^ ^,ll 'Chii dhbgUeh^ Df SuhRing hien. Chihif. 

Tht prefect of KtodvgsiiiJ^. ' ' ' ' ■ ■" 
142.' ^ ^ Linkwei, a Manchu oflh^ bordered white. 

UTagistrate of Yahshdu AiVrt, 

143. J£ jS.^ ^^"S TSusan.'of Jlnho Chehkidngt. '''"' . 

, ifagislrale of Yuens/iorf Ai'cjt,; ' '" 'j ' ' . , i 

144. ^ ;t|c )t ^^'' Litikwang, ofNinhSi. KwSngtu'ng: ' ' ' , 


I iGootmor gentral- rtsideid >fii'i''!theh6tufb.\ , ■ '■ ' 

145. ^qp Jif Lid Yupkoi of Wansh&ng hienv Sh^tang ;' conf 
mander in cliief of th»lof;c«B'and. director. gmsral or the commis- 
sariat depa»is«ilt,ci£the provJBcea'Ctf Fulikien/aodCEelilciing. 


146. I^^^tliag Pinching, of Tientsin hien, CbihUl^cdm. 
mander of the several naval and military brigafl^saod in charge of 
the provincial commisaaript depar,tn]ent: . , .. i 

37. ^l^^iW.u Cb^ngtaiun, .ol; Wg t^ien.Kijlngsu; 'a hiphsz'. 
or the inner council anc|: vice pr^i^qnt fif the board 9C rifea. . ' , 
Chihtsiu at HAngchauf^. 

147. S, "^ Ngankib, of the imperial houwiipUIoE the plqin yellow; 
charged vviih the superiatendenqe of the northern and soiitbehi in- 
land cuatom-houaea. ; , , .., . , |., : ; ' ■; , . 


148. ^ ^ Taunking; n, Manchmof'th^ bordered blue; li gioro^ 
charged with the aea defonaef. . , ^ . , , 

!.. J¥4gf: . . . ., 
140. ^ ^ ^ Tsi.'ing:WankiMg, a Chiueite of the plain white; 
jiroviucial poat-mastcr general. ■.'.■■'' 

1845. List of Chinese Offieerft. Oi 

•'• ' 'Gjrtiitt rbrnmissionrr. 

150. £^^ Kijchun, of Linkwei hien, Kwangst. 

Salt commissioner, 

151. ^ ]^ Tsikiung, of Tsin-oingchau, Yunnan. 

Intendant of circuit at the port of Ningpofu. 

152. [j^ ^ ^ Chin ChU^fVof Sbilngyuen hien, Kidngsu; inten- 
dant of circuit of NmgpQ fu, Sh&uhing fu, Tdicbau fu, U^ifing, 
and Superintendent of customs. 

Prefect of Ningpo fH, 

153. 4^ ^ ^ Lt Julin, o^ Liiuching, Shantung. 

Afajristrate of Yiit Hien. 

154. Vacant. \ \ , 

iOdgistrctie of CXinhAi hien, 

155. H ^ L^> Tsln, of Wahkidiig, l^z'chuen. 

Magistraie of Tinghdi, Chusan. 

156. 7{;|^ ^ {[^ Liri Chipping, of KiJtien, Fuhkicn. 

Police inspector at ^inkdng. 

157. ^ ^ {g ^'i^u Kuhgldng, of Hw&h hien, Hon^n. 

PoUce inspector at Sinkid mun, 

159. ^ 1^ 1^ Chang Yehtsu; of Kingchau, ChihII. 


^59. ^)J ^ ^ Liu Hungngiu, of Wei hien, Shantung ; comman- 
der of the. forces and director of the provincial commissariat de- 

Literary chancellor. 

160. Z|E ^ ^ Li K'litw^n, of T&hing hieh, Shuntien ; deputy 
shensz' of the school of the Shensz' fu in the Uiinlin yuen. 


161. ^^ .^ H* Sii Ktyu, of Wutdi hien, Sh^nsi. 


162. ie§l j^ Yiiking, a Manchu of the plain red; and provincial 

post-master general. 

, ] ' Gtoin commissioner. 

163. fm B^ 7|SC Sh4ng^pan, a Manchu of the plain blue; superin- 
tendent of the water carriage department. 

Salt commissioner. 

164. "^ '^ Wu Chdng, of Y^ngkau hien, Sh&nsi ; superintendent 

92 . 1,15/ of Chinese Officers. Feb. 

of the salt stores at Fuhchau, and the works connected with its 


Prefect of F&hchdufu. 

165. I^t i^^ ^^'^^ Yuhan, of Fungsin hien, Kiingsf. 

Magistrate of Yin hien. 

166. ^ jX W&ng Kiing, of Sh&nyin, KiSngsf. 

Intendant of circuit at Amoy. 

167. 4g[ M^ Hangchang, a Manchu of the bordered white; inten- 
dant of circuit of Hinghwi fu, Siuenchau fu and Yungchun chau, 
charged with the post office department 

Formosa ^ |B« 
Intendant of circuity at Tdito&n f&. 

168. RE — ^ Hiung Yihpan, of Luhhin chau, Ng^nhwui; su- 
perintendent of the judgeship and literary chancellorship. 


Governors-general^ resident at Wuckdng fit, 

169. 2& ^ Yiitii, a Manchu of the bordered red, principal guar- 
dian of the crown prince ; commander-in-chief of the provinces, and 
director general of the commissariat department 



170. ^tl^'^ Ch4u Pingyuen, of Kweingdn hien, Chehki4ng; 
literary chancellor, commander of the forces and director of the pro- 
vincial commissariat department 

Literary chancellor. 

171. 3E ^ ^ W&ng Llkien, of Taking hien, Shuntien; a pien- 

siu of the H^nlia yuen. 


172. ^ i 3^ Chfi Sz^tdh, of Piujring hien, KiAngsu. 


173. ||^;^Chin Kung, of Hiukwdn hien, Fuhkien; provincial 


Grain commissioner {Ya,cuni). 

Salt commissioner, 

174. ^ j^ ^ Ching Hwiinto&i, of Sinkien hien, Kiingsf ; charg- 
ed with the immediate control of Wucfaing fiJ« 



175. {^ j|^ 1^ ^'Uh Fitsiuen, of Tunghiang hien, Chehkidng; 

1845. List of Chinese Officers, 93 

commander of the forces, and director of the provicial commis- 
sariat department. 

Literary chancellor. 

176. ^ ^ Chin T&n, of Sh&ngkiu hien, Hon&n. 


177. ^ ^ ]^ W&n Kungchin, of Thing hien, Ki&ngsrj. 


1 78. j||^ ^ |Sp| 86 Ch^ngd, a Manchu of the bordered red ban- 
ner, provincial post^master general. 

Grain commissioner, 
1*^- ^ ® IE '^^^ Yingtii, of Kinkf hien, Ki&ngsf. 

Salt commissioner, 

180. ^ jM^ H&Q Mei, of Siiu8h4n hien, Chehkiiing; in charge of 
the two prefactures of Chingshlk fii and P&uking fu, and superin- 
tendent of the water carriage communication. 



181. ^ l|^ ^ Oohshun-ng&n, a Manchu of the plain white ban- 
ner ; commander of the forces, superintendent of the river navigation, 
and controller of the military lands appointed for the rearing of 


Literary chancellor, 

182. ifll ^ |§ Liu Tingyii, of Hi^uk^n hien, Hupeh: a piens&u, 

of the H&nlin yuen. 


183. S^ P M^ Ch&ng Jihching, of Kweichuh hien, Kweichau. 


184. 3E fS^ W&ng Kien, of Ng^nkiu hien, Sh&ntung; provincial 
jjKMt-master general. 

Grain and salt commissioner. 

185. Ej^ -^ Kangchang^ a Manchu of the bordered yellow banner. 


Governor, resident at Tsindn fa, 

186. ^ ^ Tsungngan, a Manchu of the plain red banner, a gioro, 
in charge of the military lands for the rearing of horses, and com- 
mander of the forces. 

Literary chancellor. 
^^' filt ^ ^ ^'" Shaupdng, of Wuki^ng hien, Kiingsu ; a 
shikiing hiohtsz' of the H&nlin yuen. 

94 List of Chinese Officers. Fr.i. 

Treasurer: ' 

188. ^ ^ Wing Tuh, of Punching hicn, Shiitaf. 


189. 1^ )^ |i^ Chin Kingkiii, of Hwuiki hi'en, Chehki^ng; pro- 
vincial post-master generaJ. 

Chratn commissioner. 

190. '^,^ Kinglin, a Manchu of the plain white. . 

• 1. ^ 

Salt commissioner. 

I 1. 

191. 1^ -j^ j^ Chin Sz'mei, oi'Pm'gting chau, Kiingsi; saJt com- 
missioner, of both the provihceis of ^hihll and Shdntung^i . 

irovemor of rivers. 

192. ^ ifcJE Chuntsi^ng, a Chinese of the bordered yellow banner; 
governor of the water conimuhicatioii of Horiin and Shdntung, com- 
rfrtander df the fbrcdi embloVed 6h the rivers. ' ' 

Intendant of ike water transport, 

193. ^ ^ Tsrrigpiug, a' Man<^hil of (he plain white. 


Governor of Shdnsi, resident at Tdiyueh fu, 

194. ^,JS^ ^^ Liang Goh-hdn, of Yungching hieny Shintiing; 
commander of the forces employed at the military post of Yenmaur, 
and director of the commissariat department. 

Uierarj/t ckancelhr.^ ' - • « 

195. j^ JiM^ S^in Tsumau, of Jinho hien, Chehkiing; a piei^ 
sau of the U4nlin yuen. 

Tfeasureir, > v^ 

106. ^ EH }^ Kiau Yungtsien, oPHiiuk&n hien, Hupeh. 

Judge. ' •'■ "'■■'■• ■ ' 

197. '1*3 ^ Hangchun, a Manchu of the plain white baYmefc*; pro!- 
vincial post-master general. 

Soli commissidner^rcsidmt di PH'chaufu, . * 

198. 2& "g ^ Li P^hlingC, of Tsi^ngwu hien, Kwdngsf ; superin- 
tendent of the salt department of Sh4nsi, Shensi, and Uon&n. 

Gt)tfeltN!i^ENT OF BIIEN KAN 1^ •y*'. • ; ' 

OaveHim^eilieral\ fesiditnt at Kdhchccic fu\ * :^ 

^^- ^ riS ^^ P^ Funiy4ng4, a Manchu of Ae bbrdfei^' red 
banner; in charge of the governorship, commander-in-chief of the 
forces, director general of the commissariat drid superintendent of 
the frontier trade in tea and horses. 

1845. List of Chinese Ojficers, 95 

. Literary chancellor. 

200. ^.^ ^ Kin Kwohl^iun, pf Hwingpf hien, PITipeb, a tso 
chungyuq of the Chinaz' fii. 

• i • - > PROVINCE OP SHEN8I DJP ^. 


201. ^ j^ ^ Li Singyaen, of SiAngyin hien, Hun&n, comman- 
der of the forcer, and director of the provincial commissariat de- 
partment. . 

■ ^ Treasurer^ ^ .':.''.'• 

202. ^Sljfe T$" Tingiieh, of Triyuii hien. KWeichaa. 

. * ' ' Judge. 

203. ^^^ W4ng Yunjin, of Hfitii hien, Ng.^nhwui; pro- 
vincial post-mister general.' ' .^ \ 

Chain commissioner. 

204. ')j ^ ^ F4ng Yufigf , of Ninch&ng hien, Ki&Dgsf. 

205. ^^ Tsunglun) a Manchi^ of tj^Ci plain white banner. 

.!.' . ^,, T^ttptsurpT. ,. .... 

206. ^ ^ ^ Tang Ting;ching^, of Hi^ngning hien, Kiangsii. 

207. ;K ^J[ jS. Y^ng J^'tsang, of Li&uching hien, Sh^iitung; pro- 
vincial post-master .g^nml. ' '• • ' ' 

8aU commissioner. 
206. ^ ^ Wei Si^ng, of Tihiitg hien Shuntien; resident at 
Kuyen chau. jV '* , ,. v . / • . jlj 

sinriaWg, qr new frontier ^S^» 

J'l^i^r I1f andiitaP^pendipcieSr,,- ^ ,: , 

209. ^ j^ ^ Puyenllki;.ja Mflpchq pftfee plain jj^Mow banner. 

T^i^s^n tdchin. 

210. ^ )lb Tdhhung, a Manchu of the bprdered yellow banner. 

^^^Me0 ^^^ ^" • • • 

211. J§ P Ts^whj^ig^ 1^ »f,P^^. pf the,b9rdf?red rec}. - ^ 

212. ^ J^ Tukwing, a Mancl^u of the, plain red. 

213^ ^i& ^^! ^^^'^K?^^^^''^ Msuichu off the, plain^ white; 
of the ini peri il kindred. , , 

96 Liist of Chinese Officers, Feb. 

214. ^ m Fungshin, a Maticha of the plain yellow. 
21^- ^ ^ll? >^ Hwdshdpu, a Mongol of the bordered red. 


Ts&nts&n idchin. 
216.^^ 7f|i Tw&ntopij, a Mongol of the bordered blue. 

Lingsui tdchin. 
^^'^' WlS^^ N4hfuhteh, a Manchu of the plain white. 

218. ?lfi^>^ HiUhpu, a Mongol of the plain red. 


: Lingsui tdchin, ' 

219. ^ BH PSf K4iming4, a Manchu of the plain white. 

Hwdnfdng tsungping. 

220. ^ ^ Hungshin, a Manchu of the plain white. 

h'hARASHAR and its DEPENOEl^ClES TJyT. ^\f S@ Wt* 

PdnsT^ tdchin. 

221. ^^ Tsiuenking, a Manchu of the plain white. 


PdhsT^ tdchin. 

222. ^ ^ CbdngUing, a Mongol of the bordered blue. 


Pdnsx* tdchin. 

223. ^ Jjj^ Tsf faewr, a Manchu of the plain blue. ' 


Lingsui tdehtn, 

224. ffl ^ Hinjgkwei, a Manchu of the plain red. 

Pdngpdn tdchin. 

225. 4^ JJeS^ Weiluhy a Mabcbu of the plain yellow. 


Tsdntsdn idchin. 

226. 2^ 1^ Yihking, a Manchu of thfe bordered red ; of the im- 
perial kindred, governor of the MoTiamniedan Rentier. 

Hiehpan tdchin. 

^'^ ^ ft S^ tfc ^ S^i8hihy4Uht4i, a Manchu of the plain 
yellow; superintendent of Khoten. i < ; 

1845. List of Chinese Officers. 97 


Pdnsz* tdchin, 
228. ^ Jj Yihshan, a Matichu of bordered blue; of the imperial 


Lingsui tdchin, 
^2^* ^ ]^ Pif Tsitsingi, a Mongol of the plain blue. 



230. ^%l Weikin, a Manchu of the bordered blue, of the im- 
perial kindred. 

Lingsui idehin^ 

231. ^ m Chingsh&n, a Manchu of the plain blue. 


Pdnsz' tdchin. 

^ilS2. w y^ Chingfang, a Manchu of the plain yellow. ' 

Hitpdn tdchin, 

233. '^^ Hangyuh, a Manchu of the brod'ered white. 


Lingsui tdchin^ 

234. ^^ Hiimei, a Manchu of the bordered blue: 


Lingsui tdchin. 

235. ^ ^^p Pehwancbl, a Manchu of the plain white. 


Lingsui tdchin. 

236. ^ ^ Yushu, a Manchu of the bordered yellow. . 


Lingsui tdchin. 

237. ^ ^ ^ ^ Tehkitsichun, a Manchu of the bordered yellow. 


Lt. -general of the Tingpien Uft, 

238. ifi$B Kweilun^, a Mongol of the plain while. 

Tingpien tdchin. 

239. ^ (^ ^ t^ i^ Chelunordji, an outside borderer. 


Tddif^^an tdchin, 

240. s^ )t^ Lohpin, a Manchu- of the bordered ^elUtvf. 

VOL, XIV, NO. u, 13 

98^ List of Chinese Offirers, Fee. 


PoHsz* idchin. 
241. *&i Bfi Yungcbau, a Manchu of the plaia white. 

Tdngpdn tdchin, 
^^^* M^^^^W^ Tahlihkihtortsi, a Mongol of the bor- 
dered yellow. 


^ Tsdnisdn idchin. 

^^' y^ Wi ^fi 1^ KwohHhniing4, a Manchu of the bordered blue ; 
of the imperial ikindred. 

Pdngpdn tdchin, 

244. -^ ^ ^ >yp TJ^ |)t Tortsinamukii, a Mongol of the bor- 
dered yellow. : . :' ■ f - | j 


10. ^ ^ Piuking. 

LiU^tary. chancellor. 

245. ^ ;^ j^ Tsl Chinwu, of Jinho hieii, Chehkiing; censor of 

the Ki'angn in province. , ,..., ;.,, 

• « . : Treasurer. . 

246. 3E 5/^ SR W4ngT4uyin; of Fuhshin hien, ShAntung. 

247. ^ ^'P^^^ 4k>h, of, Ri&ngn^n iiien, Ki^ngsu; provincial 
post-master general.. 

'Sati and T^ea commissioner. 

248. ^ ^j W6 Hang, of Jinho hien, C^^hkiAftg. 



249. ^ jjt. Kiying, a Manchu of the plain 4>lue; of the imperial 
kindred, commander-in-chief of the forces and director general of 
the commissariat department. ^^ ^ 



250. fS "f^ ^^ Ching Yuhtsii, of Sinkien hien, Kiingsu ; com- 
mander of the forces and director of the provincial commissariat 


Literary chancellor. 

251. ^ ^ K^ Li Tangkiai, of Honui hien, Hon5n; a shduking 
of the Taichang bz'. 

1*45. List> of Chinese Officers 99 

Superintendent of meantime customs, 
.252. ^ ^ Wanfung, a Manchu of the plain blue, ' ' . 


253. ^ ]® ^ Hw^ng Ngantung, of Ningy^ng hien, Shantung. 


254. TT l^g ^ Hung Hiyin, of Tungh^i hien, of Yunnan, provin- 
cial post-master general. . 

: ; Grain commissioner. 

.255. ^ ^ W4np4u, a Manchu of the plain yellow. 

Salt commissioner. 

256. ^^ f^ Weitehching, a Chificse of the bordered yellow. 

Assistant salt commissioner, , ■ 

257. ^ 3S Yii Yuen, ofYiiyiu hien, Chehkiang. ' 

Prefect of Canton. 

258. J^ # i^ Yih Ghinghw4-, of Shingyuen, Kiangsu.. 

Sub-prefect at Tsien shdn, 

259. "^ ^ Kihtai, a Manchu of the plain blue. 

' ' - ' Atagistrate of Ndnhdi hien 

260. ^j^ Shi Poh, of Tsunhwa ohau, Chihli. 

Magistrate of Pwdnyu hien/ 

261. "yT ^ Wanshing, of Pinghiing, Kidngsi 

Master of the anchorage. 

262. ^ jt ^ ^^ Kwanghw4, of Shihtii, Ng^nhwui. 

Magistrate of Hidngshdn hien, 

263. I^J^J^ Luh Stinting, of Ts'ingyuen, ChihH 

Magistrate of ,Sinngdn hiek. Vacant. 
Siunkien of Ki^lung. 

264. pf ^ ]^ Hiu Wanshin, of Heih hien, Ngiinhwui. 

Intendant of circuit of Haindn. 

265. ^ "^ ^ Su Kinghang, of Ghinhwi hien, Shantung. 



266. IS ]^ I^ Chau Ch^hf , of Tsiingfti hien, HonAn; commander 
of the forces and director of the provincial commissariat department. 

Literary, chancellor. 

267. ?^ ^ ^ L^ Chinglihi of Tdutu hien, Kiangsn, member of 

the Hjniin yuen. 


268. S£ jjjjp ^pT Chang Tsi^ngho, of Lau hien, Kidngs''. 

100 List of Chinese Offir.trs. Fkr. 


269. 9 y|a P^utsing, a Mnachu of the brodered blue ; provincial 

post-master general. 

Soli commissioner. 

270. ^3i.jKB Yuen Yuhlin, of Sinch^ng hien, Ki^ngsf. 


Govemur^eneralf resident at Yunan/ii. 

271. jM| M Kweiliing, a M anchu of the plain red ; commander-in- 
chief of the forces, and director general of the commissariat de- 


272. ^ ^ j@ Wil Htsiun, of KuchI hien, Hon&n; commander 
of the forces, and director of the provincial commissariat. 

Literary chancellor. 

273. & ^^ ^^ Tsuni, of Hifining, Nginhwui; belonging to 
Taihing, Kiingsu, a piensiu of the H^nlin yuen. 


274. ^ Sj^ mj Chuen Shinghiun, of Liiuching hien, Shintung. 


275. ^ jlj^ jjiJl Ch&u Kw&ngt8(j, of Ldlung hien, Chihif ; provin- 
cial post-master general. 

Grain commissioner. 

^'^^' i!St i^ ^ ^^^^ Lansang, of Pihghu hien, Chehkidng. 

SdU commissioner. 

277. 1^ @S Chau Goh« of Kweichuh hien, Hweichau. 



278. ^ -^ ^^ Kidchangiing, of Shinvra hien, Hon^n; comman- 
der of the forces aod director of the provincial commissariat. * 

Literary chancellor. 

^'^- 1^^ ^ 1^ ^^ Kidyuh, of Suikien hien, Kinngsl ; a piensiu 

of the Ilinlin yuen. 


280. M i^^ ^ L^ Jiutien, of Nganhwi hien, Hiinan. 


281. ^M^^^ Chinyih, of Tsientdng hien, Chehkidng; pro- 
vincial post'omaster general. 

Grain commissioner. 
2'*2 m Jife 'Ir^ Ping Teh-hing, of TsSning chau, ShAntung. 

184S. Chinese word$ fur God and Spirit, 101 

Art. V. Remarks on the translation of the wards Ood and Spirit ^ 
and on the transferring of Scripture proper names into Chinese ^ 
in a letter to the editor of the Chinese Repository, 
Mt dear 81R, — As the revision of the Chinese translation of the 
New Testament is now going on, a few thoughts bearing on the 
work have occurred to roe which, with your approbation, I will lay 
before your readers. 

The first relates to the mode of translating the word god. What- 
ever words or phrases may be used in conversation and preaching, 
it is evident that in a translation the word should represent the ori- 
ginal. Now it is well known that the original term for God is not the 
ntane of any one deity, but a term signifying deity itself; and is 
applied both to the true God and to false gods, to gods celestial and 
terestrial, and is used both in the singular and plural number. 

The term shdngii, ^ ^ff, which has been somewhat extensively 
adopted, if used as in * the ancient classics is one of the names and 
titles of an imaginary deity, holding in Chinese mythology a rank 
somewhat similar to that of Jupiter in the Roman : this term cannot 
therefore be applied indiscriminately to celestial or terestrial, to 
true and false gods, nor cau it be used in the plural number ; and 
hence in those versions where this term is adopted, wherever the or- 
iginal word is thus used, some other term is employed. See John 
10 : 35. Acts 14 : 1 1 ; 17 : 23 ; 19 : 26; and Cor. 8 : 5, in several of the 
latest versions. These passages clearly show how inadequated is 
the term in question to represent the original word fur God in all its 
various uses. If instead of considering the term as a proper name 
it is used in its natural signification, ' High Rules,' it certainly does 
not come up to the idea of the original. Even if it be contended 
that the ancient Chinese had an idea of the true God, and that they 
spoke of him under this name, yet since this is only the name or 
title which they applied to him, and not a term involving the idea of 
deitjr .itself, it does not represent the original word. Thus in English, 
speaking of God, we often say, * The Lord ;' this is well enough in 
conversation and in preaching, but no one would think that because 
the term was applied to God it would answer to the original word in 
a translation. 

What has been said respecting the limited application of the 
above term, may also be said respecting Shin-tien, pp ^, and Chin- 
shin, ip^ ij^ : they cannot be used with the same latitude as the 
original term, and therefore very imperfectly represent it. It sec^wA 
strange then that these words have been adopted 'wi^Ve^d o^ ^^ ow^ 

W4 Ckinist words. for God and Spirit. FrU. 

originally used by Morrison and Marshman, which is free from all 
the above objections, and which answers so exactly to the original 
words. It i» true that sAtfi^jjjlb* in connection with qaalifytng ad- 
jectives may be applied to the human mind and soul in a manner of 
which the original word is incapable; but I believe" thut by itself 
alone, without qualifying words, it necessarily refers 'to what' the 
person who uses it regards as Ood. Its use as an adjective corres- 
ponds very exactly to the adjectives formed in Greek by a slight 
change in the original word. But I apprehend the chief reason why 
this word has not of late been used for God, is that it is needed a^ 
a term for the Spirit. This leads to 

The second point of remark, viz.: the term to be used for translat- 
ing SPIRIT, considered as the third person of the Trinity. Skin, ^-, 
in connection with qualifying particles may answer very well for this 
purpose; but without a qualifying particle it would naturally mean 
God. Hence those translations which use thisterm always say holy 
spirit, whereas in the original the word spirit' is as of>eh used alone 
as in connection with holy. This fact is a decided objection to the 
tsse of this word ; and besides, this is, as above stated, the true cha^ 
racter by which to translate the word God. Cannot then some other 
character be adopted ? There seems to be a general and a reeuonabrE 
dissatisfaction with the term used by Morrison; though it answers t6 
one signification of the original word, it does not to that which is ge- 
nerally supposed to belong to it in cases now under consideration. It 
does not mean immortal spirit or soul. Permit me respectfully to 
suggest, for the consideration of those cor^erned in the work, the 
word lingf SB, to be used alone when aldn^ in the original, and to re- 
ceive the appellation of holy when it has it in ihe original. This word 
when used as a name means the soul or spirit of man ; and when useii ad- 
jectively gives an idea of power prevading and operating, much in the 
same way as we believe God works by his spirit. Thus it is applied 
to some of the ancient emperors, implying that they were ab]e (o exert 
'an influence throughout their dominions, renovating the wicked, con- 
ferring favor on the good, and even causing the brute creation to listen 
to their commands. That this word is applied simply to the spirit 
of man, and not to the spirit of God, may very naturally have resulted 
from the fact that the Chinese have no knowledge of the spirit of God. 
They do however in various ways apply the word to Gc'id. Thus 
"a native work entitled King sin luhi ^ ^ ^, speaking of th6 
l)les8ings which a good man enjoys says. Shin ling wei chi^ jA ^B 
A'h ]^ : such expressions shbw'thai the word in question may be u.sed 
for the .spirit of God in as stl-ict accordance with the native idion\ as 


1845. Chinese words for God and Spirit, lOil 

could be expected in a heathen language, and I think that this word 
correponds to the original term more exactly than any other which 
has yet been proposed. It is true that when the Chinese apply this 
word to God their idea is in many respects different from the Scrip- 
tural account of the HoJy Spirit. And so also when they use the 
word God, their idea is very different from the God of the Bible; but 
this is no reason why we should not employ the word which their 
language furnishes as the appropriate term to convey either of these 
ideas, and then correct their false apprehensions respecting them. 
Having thus suggested this subject, I will leave it for the considera- 
tiofi of those engaged in the work of revision. 
* One other topic of remark refers to the transferring of Scripture 
proper names into Chinese. This is a difficult work, and when 
done in the best possible manner the names will appear awkward in 
their new dress. It is therefore desirable that careful attention 
should be directed to this point, and that so far as practicable the 
names be so transferred as not again to need alteration. I have but 
one. suggestion to make on this subject, viz.: that instead of attempt- 
ing to represent in Chinese the Utters of the original name, the 
syllables only should be represented. The Chinese have no letters, 
all their characters are syllables; hence it is impossible to represent 

' the letters of a name, and by attempting to do so we only increase 
fta awkwardness without making any nearer approximation to its 
sound. When we have found the Chinese syllables which must 
represent the syllables of the original name wc have, in most cases, 
done all we can do. Thus for example Petrus (Peter), a word of 
two syllables, stands in most versions a trisyllable, and I will ven- 
ture to say that a stranger hearing it would not recognize the name. 
If the first syllable Pet were represented by peh, lb, and rus by io 
\S; (unless some better character can be found) there would be a 

. name of two syllables; and would not the sound of the original name 
be represented Better than by the characters now in use ? Similar 
remarks might be made respecting the names of Jacob, Joseph, &c. 
There are doubtless syilable to which no one Chinese .syllable would 
make even an approximation, but which may be tolerably well repre- 
sented "by two. Such cases form exceptions to the above plan, and 
require the e.xercise of discretion on the part of the translator. It is 
aldo worthy to be borne in mind, that while the Chinese characters 
must b6 selected according to their sound in the court dialect, yet 
among the various characters of the same sound in that dialect let 
those be adopted which have the most approprite sound in the other 

104 Journal of Occurrences* 

Art. VI. Journal of Occurrences; secret associations: revolution 

in Nipdl; council at Peking: governmental embarrassments: 

the five ports ; Macao ; Hongkong ; new puhUcaiions : ProteS" 

tant missionaries, 

Rboardino secret associations in China, the reader is referred to 

vol. IV., p. 421, and to vol. V., p. 94, for information in addition to 

that given in the first pages of this number. 

In Nipdl there has been a revolution. " A son of the late reigning 
prince has deposed his father, and seated himself on the throne." 
The Friend of India, in addition to this information, reports revolu- 
tionary movements in " the Punjab." 

A Nefo council^ it is said, has been appointed at Peking, *' which, 
will transact all important matters:" but qf i^ orga^izatiQQ,. ftinc- 
tions, and so forth, we know nothing. 

The government of H. I. M. is evidently not a little embarrassed, 
by want of revenue, by overflowing of rivers, by breaking down of 
embankments and dykes, by famines, and last, — but not least — by 
want of good-faith in its officers. Every year and month gives ad- 
ditional proof of the correctness of his majesty's remark, that '* his 
servants, do not know what truth is." 

At the five ports, affairs continue gradually to improve. At Can- 
ton a more pacific spirit prevails among the Chinese ; the re-build- 
ing of the foreign factories progresses ; and a recent fire, which 
broke out in one of the factories, was extingushed with promptness, 
the Chinese officers and people rendering every possible assistance. 
At Amoy and Fuchau " fitting official residences" are at length ob- 
tained for H. B. M.'s consular establishments. From Ruling su, the 
British troops are about to withdraw. 

Of Macao we ought to have, or at least might have said a word 
more in commendation,. when referring to it in our last number. As 
a place of residence none is more or even so healthy in all the east ; 
and in no other perhaps can individuals or families reside more 
economically or comfortably ; and its inhabitants too are not wanting 
in kind offices. 

Hongkong is improving and rising rapidly ; but the fear is that 
it will '* out-grow itself." Time will show the truth. 

Several new publications are claiming attention — we have space 
now only to give their names: a new edition of the Pei Wan yun 
fu^ in 140 volumes; thefkst volume of Callery's Dictionnaire Ency- 
clop6dique de la Langue Chi noise ; a Christian Almanac in Chinese, 
for the year 1845; the China Mail,.Nos. I and 2; and, (quoting the 
words of a correspondent at Shanghai,) '* Lin's Geography, a hand- 
some book in 20 volumes, with plates. Price $8.00." 

The following Protestant missionaries have proceeded north from 
Hongkong: the Rev. W. M. Lowrie, in the Rob Roy, on the 17th 
instant; and the Rev. M. S. Culbertson, the Rev. A. W. Loomis, 
and D. J. Macgowan, m. d., and their wives, in the Isabella Auua, 
on the 20th instant. 



Vol. XIV.— March, 1845.— No. 3. 

Art. I. Notices of the Midu Tsz\ or Aboriginal Tribes ^ inhabit* 
ing various highlands in the southern and western provinces of 
China Proper. 

Once, and only once, do we remember to have seen any of these 
rude people. The readers of our first volume will remember the 
wars in which the Chinese authorities of Canton were engeged dur- 
ing the year 1832, and in which some tribes of the Miiu tsz' took 
part. Lienchau on the frontiers of this province, and adjacent dis- 
tricts on the borders of Huwing, were the principal scenes of those 
wars. After their subjugation parties of them came down to the 
provincial city, and individuals visited the foreign factories. Those 
we saw were exceedingly rude, in manner somewhat resembling the 
American aborigines, but in their persons less stout and athletic. 
They could speak Chinese, but had a language of their own, differ- 
ing not a little from that of the flowery people. They came to 
Canton in small rude boats, and brought with them only a few of 
their own native products, — mats, baskets, 6i,c. Budhism and the 
other religions of China, seem* not to have obtained footing among 
them ; but what their religion is we know not Probably they are 
without any very well defined religious system, and on that account 
perhaps would be more ready to receive the plain and simple pre- 
cepts of Christianity than their more polished neighbors, the sons of 
Han. Du Halde alludes to this fact; but whether the Roman Ca- 
tholic missionaries have found these ** children of nature " more 
teachable than the Chinese we are not informed. We do not re- 
member ever to have seen notices of any efforts made to propagate 
Christianity among them. In the late war with Great Britain, tht» 

VOL. XIV. NO. III. 14 


Notices of the Aiiau Tsz\ 


Chinese had among their troops some of these people, but in no 
case, that has come to our knowledge, did they distinguish them- 
selves by valorous acts. 

The word JIftdti, A^, is a compound term, formed by the two 
words /sdti, j^, plants, void tien, ^, fields; and Morrison in his 
Dictionary defines it thus, ** grain growing in a field ; the first bud- 
ding forth of any plants ; numerous descendents,'' 6lc. 

One of Ou Halde's editors complains of him because he did not 
give the names of the many tribes of Mi&u tsz', whose manners, 
habits, 6lc», he described. We will here introduce the names of 
some of the tribes found in the province of Kweich&u, and then sub- 
join brief descriptions of the same. 

1. ^ P^ Kuhlun, 

^k^MMM Yungtunglo- 


3- ^ :S tt ^ Kihmang ku- 






Luhngeh tsz', 

Yenki4 m&n, 

7. 4 

1. 7^^ 

^ JL^ ^ jl^Kiumingkiu- 


4. m %~ 

8. MvM 





L<ikii heh, 
Pahchai heh, 







































AtIhI 1^ 


\% '^ 




Lfmin tsz',^ 

Peh'ur tsz', 

Pehlung kiiy 


Tukih lau, 












Luhtung I, 


1845. Notices of the Midu Tsz\ 107 

Many of the foregoing names are significant, and some of them 
will be translated in the following notices, written by a native tra« 
▼eler, who thus prefaces his sketches. 

Whenever I have extendend my rambles to other provinces, and 
noticed remarkable views or objects, I have always taken notes and 
sketches of them, not that I snpposed these could be called fine or 
beautifulj but becuase they gratified my own feelings. Still, I think 
that among all these views and natural objects, — the fiowers, birds, 
animals, d&c, there were some singular and rare forms, which* may 
be called curious. Moreover, having seen the people in Kweichaa 
province, scattered in various districts and places, — both those whose 
customs are unlike, and also the different customs in the same tri* 
bes, havmg utensils of strange shapes and uses, not discriminating 
in their food between that which was ripe and the raw, having dis« 
positions sometimes gentle and at other times violent, — having seen 
their agriculture and manufactures, — having noticed that the men 
^ played and the women sung, or the men sung and the women danced ; 
also having viewed their hunting deer and trapping rabbits, which 
are the products of the hills, and their spearing fish and netting crabs, 
the treasures of the waters, their manner of cutting out caves in 
the hills for residences, and of framing lofts from bamboos in trees 
for lodgments, all of which usages were unique and diverse :— -these I 
thaught were still more remarkable. Then I perceived that there 
are both common and rare things in the world, and races unlike com- 
mon people ; I therefore sketched their forms on one page, and gave 
the description on the opposite, in order to gratify my own feelings 
and those of others who wished to see these things. The following 
are some of these descriptions. 

1. The.ytiA/fm. Many of these live in Tihgfin. Their dispo^ 
sitioii is rude, and overbearing, and they are skillful in throwing ja- 
velins; they constantly carry spears,. bows and arrows, so that all the 
other Mi4u fear them. The men follow agriculture, and the cloth 
they weave is in great request for shirts and trowsers. 
. .2. The Ydngtung Idhan, These are found in Lipingfu. The 
men are farmers and traders, the women rear silk-worms and weave 
flowered-silk. They tie their hair in a slovenly manner, wearing 
a wooden comb on their foreheads. ' The rich females suspend 
silver rings in their ears; their garments are short, and bound with 
a double girdle; an embroidered square is placed on the breast, and is 
trimed with siJFer or copper. Sometimes they wear long trow- 
sers and short petticoats, and sometimes no trowsers ; every few 

108 Notices of the Midu Tsz\ March, 

days they wash their hair with scented water to keep it clean. 
Among all the tribes, few are comparable to these for goodness. 

3. The Kihmang kU ydng. These live in a town, belonging to 
Kwingshun chau. They select overhanging cliffs, where they dig 
out holes for habitations ; the higher ones are more than a hundred feet 
high, and are reached by bamboo ladders. Instead of the plough they 
employ iron hoes. The sexes marry without midsmen. After the 
birth of a child the mother goes home to her husband. When their 
parents die, they do not weep for, but eulogize the dead in songs 
and smiles. They put away the corpse, and where the goatchaffer's 
cry next year is heard, the whole family raise a lamentation. " The 
birds come back with the year, but our parents will never return." 

4. The Tung Midu reside in Tienchu near Kinping. They select 
level lands near the water courses for residences, and are occupied 
in the cultivation of cotton. Many of the men hire themselves out 
as laborous to the Chinese; the women wear blue clothes round their 
heads, and dress in flower-edged petticoats. The figured silk they 
weave is called, *'Tung silk." Many of this tribe understand Chi- 
nese,and submit to be bound to service them ; there are some of them 
residing in the capital of the province. 

5. Shwuikid Midu, i. e. the Water Family Mi4u — are also found 
in Llpo district in Tuyun fu; they all moved hither from Kw^ngsl 
in the 10th year of Yungching. The men take pleasure in fishing 
and hunting, and the women are skillful in spinning and weaving. 

6. The Kingkid reside in Lfpo hien. On the last day of the tenth 
month they have a great festival* and sacrifice to demons. Both men 
and women bind blue flowered handkerchiefs on their heads. Before 
marriage, they wear this kerchief rather long. In the eleventh 
month, the unmerried youth dance and sing in the fields, when the 
girls chose whom they please and wed them ; after a child is born, 
they return to see tbeir parents. This custom is called " marrying 
at sight." If no child is born, they do not return home at all. 

7. Tsing Midu. These live in Pingyuen chau. They do not 
excel in agriculture ; and boih sexes dress in cloth of their own 


8. Luhngeh tsTf. These live in Weining district in T&ting fu ; 
there are black and white. The men have a srlender headdress; the 
women wear long petticoats and no trowsers. They bury the dead 
in coffins, and after a year's interval, they choose a lucky day, and 
invite their relatives and friends to come to the grave, where they 
make a sacrifice of spirits and flesh; they then open the grave, and 

1845. Notices of the Midu Tiz\ 100 

taking out the bones brush and wash them clean ; and then wrap 
them in doth and reinter them. They do thus once eTery one or 
two years, taking them out and cleaning them, for seven times, when 
they cease. Whenever any one in the house is sick, they say " The« 
bones of your ancestors are not clean," and therefore take them out 
and wash them. Wherefore they are sometimes called waskbane 
Mi^fOL. Owing to the strict prohibition of the authorities, this bad 
custom is gradually going into disuse. 

9. Pehngeh tss^^ or the White-foreheads, are situated between 
Yungfung and Lokuh. They wear their headdress done up spirally 
like a lymnea shell ; they dress in white, the men in short and the 
women in long petticoats. Their customs resemble the preceding, 
but when sick they invoke demons and do not wash bones. 

10. Yenkid Man live in Sz'ndn fu, and take great delight in tak« 
ing fish and crabs. Their customs and manners are similar to those 
of the other tribes. 

11. Tungkid Midu also inhabit Lfpo hien. Their dress is usually 
blue, and oidy reaches down to the knees. On new-year's day, they 
put fish, flesh, spirits and rice in wooden trenches and gourds and 
worship. They dwell near the water, and are skillful in cultivating 
cotton; and the women are industrious weavers. Both sexes under- 
stand Chinese, but cannot read it ; they use notched sticks as letters 
when they have any business to transact. 

12. KUkming kivsing, or the Nine named and nine surnamed 
Miau, live in Tuhshdn chau. Their disposition is treacherous and 
violent; many falsely assume other people's names and surnames. 
At weddings and funerales they kill oxen, and come together to 
drink; when drunk they get to fighting, and resort to spears; those 
who are wounded settle their disputes by giving or receiving so 
many oxen. Men and women get their living by cultivating the 
hills. Their customs resemble the Tsz'ki^ng Miau. 

13. The Mautau Midu live in the region of Hiiyu and K<j chau, 
and are of the same sort as the Tungchdi Mi^u. They employ hu- 
man labor instead of oxen in agriculture. The 1st day of the 11th 
month is a great festival. The women braid their hair into a head- 
dress, and put on a garlands made of silver thread in shape of a fan, 
fastening it with a long skewer. They wear two earings from each 
ear, and a necklace on the neck. Their clothes are short, and the 
cuffii and selvedges are worked with figured silk. In marriages pa- 
ternal aunt's daughters must marry their cousins, but if they have 
no marriageable child, or no child at all, they must give the bridg- 

110 Notices of the Midu Tst^. March, 

room's father a sum of money, which is called the niece's dowry ; 
aAer which they can marry her to any body. If they give no money, 
the uncle will not permit her ever to marry. 

J 4. The Tungchdi live in Kuchao, and are divided into two 
tribes. Those who live in large cantonments exercise authority over 
those who live in small ones, the latter not venturing to have inter- 
course with the former. If they are guilty, their property is all 
taken away, or their lives destroyed Of all Miiu tribM, these are 
the^ most skillful in boating and sailing. 

15. Tsingkidng heh^ or the Black tribe of Tsingki^ng. The men 
bind their hair with red cloth, put silver chains round their necks, 
and hang large rings from their ears. Their trowsers are large and 
they go barefooted. They have dealings with the Chinese, and the 
two salute each other thus, " Same age brethren." Unmarried boys 
are called Biidhas, girls are called *' old. sorts." On pleasant days 
in spring, they carry wine to the hills, where men and women sing 
in harmony ; those who are mutually pleased drink with each other 
out of a horn, and at even the woman follows her lover and is mar^ 
ried. After the birthday of a child, they learn agriculture. 

16. The lAkii keh^ or Black Miiu who live in houses. These live 
in Pihch&i and Tsingkidng. The men are deligent in agriculture and 
of violent dispositions. The women dress their hair like rams horns 
in shape ; they like to dwell in high lofls. When any one dies, the 
corpse is coffined and kept ; after a lapse of twenty years, the can- 
tonment select a fortunate day, and at once bury from ten to a hun- 
dred coffins. An ancestral shrine is erected by the public, called 
'' Demons' HalL" This tribe delight in rearing cattle. The men 
live in the loft above, the cattle are stabled below. 

17. Pdkchdi heh^ or the Black tribes of the eight cantonments^ 
reside in Tiyun fu. Their disposition is violent. The men fringe 
their sieves with flowered cloth, and put a piece of embroidered silk 
on their bosom called, a stomacher. Every cantonment erects a 
bamboo house in the fields, called a mdl&ng^ in which at evening; 
unmarried men and women assemble; those who mutually please 
each other present a wedding gift of a horn of wine ; on the 3d day 
the bride returns home, when the bride's parents demand " head 
money" of the son-in*law; if he have none, they wed their daughter 
to some one else ; if the son-in-law and the daughter die, they de^ 
mand the money of their son. This money is called '' demon-head 



18. The Hehshdn, or Tribes of the Black hills, live in T^ikung, in 

1845. Notices of the Midu Tsz\ 1 1 1 

the department ofTsingkiiDg. They bind their hair with blue cloth, 
and live in the recesses of the mountains. They despise agriculture 
and get their livelihood by plundering. They are expert in divining 
by reeds, and in ascertaining lucky and unlucky times. Latterly 
they have been more peaceable than formerly. 
. 19.. Hehsang Midu, or the Black Subdued tribes, live within the 
borders of Tsingkiang. Their disposition is fierce and murderous. 
Ascertaining where the rich live, they collect in bands lAd come by 
night with torches, long spears and sharp knives, and rob them. 
They were subdued in the 13th year of Yungching, and now are 

12(k Hehchung kid^ or the Black Reptile Families, appertain to the 
Tsingkiing clean, and sell wood for a living ; these families are rich ; 
Chinese have much intercourse with them, knowing them all, so 
that they, call them companions, and even borrow money of them ; 
and if at the proper time, the borrower cannot repay, he does not fear 
to state the reasons therefore truly ; and if he has been unsuccessful, 
he can even borrow again. If persons have been swindled, they do 
hot pursue them to recover the debts, but after their death finding 
out where their graves are, they open and take out the skull and 
bones. This is called seizing the white (innocent) and letting go 
the black (the guilty). This causes the people, whose graves have 
been, rifled to search out and seek the swindler and compel him to 
i^fiind the borrowed money, in order to ransom the bones. The 
contiguous graves always receive these injuries, so that now it is 
customary for the people to become surety for each other. 

21. The- Kdupo Midu^ also called Crown-board tribes, live in 
Pingyuen. They are usually black, and prefer to cultivate high pla- 
teaus. The women tie up their hair a foot or more in length, and 
with it wed their husbands. 

22; The Ydf&h Midu live in the Sientien garrison in the district 
of Kweiting. The men cover themselves with grass clothes, wearing 
short petticoats ; the women have short garments, with long-body 
petticoats; and tie their hair to a long bodkin. At marriages and 
at religious rites, they sacrifice dogs. 

23. !The Tsingehung MiduXive in Taikung ting. The women deli- 
gently plough and weave ; the men wind red cloth round their heads, 
and suspend bow-knives from their girdles, and go out in bands, to 
rob lonely travelers. They make cangues of wood, and bring their 
victims bound into the lodge, where they extort money, *' called ran- 
sum body." If the prisoner has no jnoney he is never set free ,* 

1 12 Notices of the Midu Tsz\ March, 

Since they have been punished and soothed , their dispositions have 
become more mild. 

24. Limn iss^^ i. e. the Lf people, live in T4ting fu, Kiens! chau, 
Kweiyaug fu, Nginshun fu, dLC. The men trade for a living, many 
rearing cattle and sheep. They wear finely woven sandals. After 
the labors in the field are over, they spin and weave cloth out of 
wool. These are among the best of the Mi&u tribes. 

25. PeVrh tsz\ or the Whites, live in Weining chau ; they drive 
cattle and horses to market for sale. Their customs resemble the 
Chinese, and many of them intermarry with Chinese. 

26. Pehlung kid, or White Dragon families, live in the district of 
Pingyuen in Toting fu. Their dress is white; many of them col- 
lect lacker among the hills for a livelihood. They retail their ar- 
ticles, carrying them on their backs. They understand the rules of 

27. Pekchung kid live in Lfpo ting. The men wear a foxtail on 
their head, and get their living by agriculture. The women are 
small but clever, have a white complexion, and many of them are 
handsome. Their dress is blue; they wear petticoats of watered 
silk, with small folds ; red ambroidered shoes ; trowsers of various 
colors bound on the calf. ' In the first month of every year, selecting a 
level spot, and taking a hallow stick (called pdtsdu) they erect it in 
the midst, and men and women, each having a bamboo slat, strike it ; 
the sound is like that of the drum, and the exercise is called '' united 
play." The Chinese, who understand their language, also play with 

28. The Tttkih Idu live in K&nning chau. The men weave grass 
into garments. They hire themselves out to the K616 people as 
laborers. The children sear their feet with hot oil, and run amcmg 
the hills like monkeys. 

29. Chichdi Midu live in Ku-K^hau ting. The men have many 
occupations ; the women embroider. The unmarried collect in the 
fields, which they call the ** moon arena," where the men play and 
the girls dance. Their music is clear and sweet. They mutually 
choose and marry. This is called " dancing to the moon." Their 
parents stand by and do not forbid it. This tribe formed part of 
M4 Sin piu's army (in the time of T^itsung of the Ting dynasty); 
and 600 of the men fled to this place, where they settled with Miiu 
wives and dwelt there; they are therefore sometimes called the 
six hundred wild Miiu families. 

; 30. The Siki Midu live in Tienchu district. The petticoats of the 

1845. NoHus of the Midu Ts:^, 1 13 

women do not reach below the kneea. They have green cloth boand 
roond their thighs. Unmarried boys carrying reed organs, and the 
girls taking some provisions, they go into the fields, where they give 
pledges to each other, and are betrothed, and the girls taken home 
to their husband's housei After the birth of a child,- amarriage pre- 
sent of a cow is given.: ^ 

. .' 31.' The H&lu live in Lokok in Tingpw&n chau district Their 
dispositioQ is fierce and violent. Collecting in bands their only busi- 
ness is to plunder and kill, caring nothing for agricultural pursuits. 
Lately many of them have subinittod to lawful rule. >'■■■ ' - • '^ 
- <3S^.'Tlie HungckauMi&u live in Lipingfu. The men arelikeChi- 
neee, and follow farming for a living; the women are skilled in spin- 
ning and weaving cotton garments and grasscloth ; the latter of which 
is pretty fine, whence it is called Hungchan grasscloth. 

33. The Hehlau Midu live in tlie eight encampments ofTsingki^ng 
ting; they 'are neighbors to alt the ienoampments on* the- elevated 
]>lateaii.' They unitedly build a house*, and callit the Assembly 
Hallv which is several stories high. A long hallow stick, called 
' hmg' dram,' is suspended in the topmost story ; when persons have 
any altercations or strife they go up and strike it, and the men of 
every cantonment, seizing their spears and sharp kreeses.'assemble 
below the hall and wait for them to come down' and prepare an ox 
and wine, when the elders of the cantonment decide the* business. 
Those whort have,- without good reason,, assembled the people, are 
inalcted an t>x, which is appropriated to pubUc use. * 
' 'M^'^^he^HekUok, or Black leg Mt&u, live in Tsin^kiiing ting and 
Taihung.* The 'men 'have short garments and broad trowsers ; 'they 
pot ' U ' wbit6 'plnme onf their heads, add ever carry long spears in theit 
hands,' with'sharp kniies' in th^ir girdte's ; ttiey go in bands of three 
bf'fite, androb and plunder. When they have any altercation they 
pUt^wo crabs (volutes) into^a bowl and look at their fighting, from 
'whieh they divine good or bad luck ; they are very skillftll in doing 
tlliis:' ' Thh'crabis: from this called '* the general." Widows cannot 
iniirty.' if -a man' ded tries being a robber and a marauder, no one 
"will give his daughters to him to wife. Latterly they have become 
somewhat tractable and- subject to rule. -^ * 

35; The' Wild Midu live in Taihung, K^ili, Hwingniil, Shfping, 
6lc\ Their habits are wild, and they eat all manner of raw thihgs. 

36. The Twdnkwan Midu dwell in the eight cantonments in Tdyuh 
fu.' Tfie men have short -dresses and broad trowsers; the women 
iiaveino sleeves nor lappets to their dress, so that their bosoms and 

VOL. XIV. NO. III. 15 

114 Notices nf the Midu Tsz\ March, 

their waisU are not covered ; they wear no trowiers, and their pet^ 
tiooats have many foida. They collect a aort of red graaa which 
they aelJ for a living. They love to drink immoderately, and when 
drunk go to aleep in the cavea of the mountains ; when very cold 
-th^ wash themselves in the riverlets, to get warm. 

37. The Narrnw headed Mi&u live in KweiyAng. Men and women 
dress their hair in a peak ; they observe the first day of the 1 1th month 
as a great festival. Husband and wife plough together in the fields. 
. 38. The Umgtn^ Midu live in Weining. The customs of this 
tribe are very singular. After the brith of a child, the wife herself 
■goes abroad and works, preparing rice, which she offers to her hus- 
band, and then gives suck to her child. When a month has elapsed, 
the husband first goes abroad. When a parent dies, as soon as life 
is extinct, they twist the head round backwards, so that, as they say, 
he can see who is behind him. 

39. The L6kdn Jftdn live in T&u Kiing end P4hoh&i ting. The 
men wear a foxtail on their heads, letting their hair float loose. behind. 
They worship Budha, and commencing on the 3d day of 3d month, 
men and women, old and young, all carry food to oflfer to him, sing^ 
iiig and playing for three days, during which they eat nothing 
dressed with fire. This resembles the festival of eating cold food 
just before Tsingming. 

40. The Lukiung i, or the six valley barbarians, live in Lfping K. 
The women are fond of wearing clothes with folds of many cdcurs, 
and painted shoes. Their legs are bound round with cloth, instead 
of buskins ; unmarried persons cut girdles out of their dresses, and 
exchange them ; after which they select a fortunate day and marry i 
inviting all the neighboring damsels, each carrying a blue umbrelUi 
they accompany the bride home ; this is called escorting the bride. 
Taking hold of each other's sleeves, they dance and sing, and when 
arrived at the bridegroom's house, they joyfully sing snd give pledges 
with three cups. When night comes, they conduct the bride home 
to her father's house. The bridegroom privily repairs to his father- 
in-law's every night to keep compsny with his wife, who after 
the birth of a child, returns to her husband's own dwelling. The 
bride's family make a marriage present of several pieces of cloth, to 
the extent of several tens of pieces. The women spin and weave 
deligently ; the men study books and are able to write. Their fii- 
neral rites are like those of the Chinese. 

41. The Craw MiAu live in Kweiy^ng. Their speech resembles 
the cooing of crows. They fringe their neckerchiefs and lappells 

1845. Notices of the AHdu Tsz'\ 1 la 

with white cloth, and both vleeves likewiae. For this they are call- 
ed f Crows." They prefer to live on high hills, and cultivate some 
sorts of millet for food. They choose the summits of the hills to 
bury their dead. All disputes are referred to the magistrates, but 
they investigate and decide contraversies according to the declara- 
tion of the village elders. 


Art. II. Essay on the justice of the deahngs with the Mi&u Tsz* 
or Aborigines who dwell on the borders of the provinces, TranS" 
laiedfrom the Chinese for the Chinese Repository. 

Within the borders of the provinces lying in the western part of the 
empire— Hukwing, Sz'chuen, Tunnin, Kweichau, and Kwdngsf— 
a mixed people are found, who are known under the various epithets 
of Mi&u Yin, Tung and Kehliu, but who all belong to the races 
of ^he Midu barbarians. Some of them, who are designated, sang^ lj^% 
or unsubdued, reside in the deep recesses of the mountains. Over 
these the magistrates of the country exercise no jurisdiction. Those 
who live in the open country near the towns and viHages, and who 
pay the usual tribute of grain, d&c, are called shuh Midu, ik m, 
or subdued Mi-iu ; and are in no respect different from the common 
Chinese, except that they are of a perverse disposition, and much 
addicted to revenge. And perhaps it was on account of their sinis- 
ter feelings towards them, that they collected a large force of men and 
chariots, and taking advantage of the darkness of the night surround- 
ed their abodes, burned the houses, and slaughtered the inmates. 

The unsubdued Miiu taking advantage of a favorable opportunity, 
whenever the Chinese left their villages, descended from their retreats 
and went four or five miles into the villages of the people, when, trem- 
bling and apprehensive, they were set upon with spears and not allow- 
ed to return; which is the reason of their dread of the Chinese, and 
their great veneration for the magistrates. Now if these men had been 
instructed, treated with kindness and properly ruled, they would have 
become docile and obedient. But instead, the folly of the Mi^u in- 
creased by seeing the example of the gentry, their superiors; for the 
majority of the latter were doltish, not exercising a proper supervision 
over them, but driving them to plunder. These malpractices aAer 
a while became known abroad, and high officers were sent to ex- 

rt6 Noiiees of the Mian TsxW March , 

MBine ihe deKnqueiitB, but they did not'molest them, or deprive* 
them of their* dignities. The gentry, therefore, did not fear the 
officers, but ventured to continue their bad practices. 

The multiplied and 'bitter grievances which the Mi&n tsz' have 
received from the gentry excite my utmost commiseration, that they 
have no regular government over them; they have for many genera- 
tions been used as slaves and menials, and not even their wives, their 
children, or their property could they call their own. I have heard 
that the gentry of Kweichau province made* every year three exac- 
tions, when they took cash ; and once in three years, a grand exac- 
tion, when they levied taels; and the annual tribute of the Yiu tribe, 
iftrasten times as much as that of the Chinese. Whenever one of the 
gentry wished his son to take a wife of the Mi^u, he did so; but for 
tl^e space of three years, none of the. people durst bring home a bride« 
if one of them broke; the laws, the gentry would seize and execute 
the criminal ; and in a case of murder, it was customary for each one 
of the relations to contribute a sum of money to be presented to the 
ge^ntry, sometimes amounting to sixty taejs or to forty, but -never less 
than twenty-four; this sura was called "the money to scrape the 
knife." Thus were . these poor people peeled and fleeced in many, 
ways,, without having any means of redress or complaint. I have^ 
heard, that on a former year, thjB inhabitants of a whole village left 
their dwellings and petitioned the higher officers of tlie department 
to reform their modes of paying taxes, and to send regular magis- 
trates to rule over them. But, although there was a temporary con- 
gratulation among tliese people, yet only a short time ela{>sed before 
the gentry were again bribing the officers to keep silence, and re- 
turning to their oppressions; and iTtlie wrietched Miiu tsz' resisted, 
they would destroy their houses, kill |the. inmates,' and seize their 
wives and children for slaves. How could they, refrain from swal- 
Towing their complaints, and drinking their teara? While, with forti- 
tude they bore their multiplied grievances, they almost forgot to 
behold the light of day ! The thousands of people living in the four 
or Ave provinces were like other loyal subjects, unanimous in their 
deitire to implore the mercy of the emperor. 

I would recommend that the various tribes of the Midu tsz' be 

incorporated with this other subjects of his majesty, having with 

them the same rule ; and then, if the various officers over them che-' 

: rish and instruct them kindly, I think they will become peaceable 

Mand tranquil. They can be taught the filial and fraternal duties; 

. tlie requirements of propriety and urbanity ; how to respect their 

1845. Notices of the Midu Tsz\ 117 

superiors, and obey the laws ; and then of themselves they will not 
venture to act perversely, killing and plundering. But if the gentry 
are exceedingly tyrranical, and their people are permitted to harrass 
and plunder the Mi4u tsz', then the gentry must be dealt with as 
other delinquent officers are ; their dignities taken away, they mulct 
in fineSj and their cases reported to the emperor. Chinese officers, 
when they do wrong can be thus punished, but how shall the gentry 
be chastised, who have no salaries to be deprived of, no button to 
take away, or perquisites to be molested ? For if they be degraded, 
and their children or relations put in their place, then the old ones 
will become greater personages, and still more oppress the poor 

'. I would propose a new law to be made for reducing the possessions 
of the gentry, and they will then, in knowledge of it, become careful 
and cautious. Just look at it, and see if it would not be efficacious 
to punish them in proportion as their crimes were light or grievous. 
If several miles were cut off* and taken away from their villages, it 
would be equivalent to fining and degradation together ; let those 
who were great , offenders, be deprived of everything. If the lands 
thus confiscated are near, the chief officer can govern them himself; 
bat jf distant, and the people obstinate and vicious, let a proper ma- 
gistrate be sent to rule them, and the people will return to their 
homes; and there will be no changing of governors. If those who 
were so disgusted with the oppressions of the gentry had united to 
petition the magistrates to reform the mode of paying taxes, a nd 
make it like the Chinese ; and rulers, who understood their disposi- 
tions, had made the reformation, then they would have returned to 
their several districts. Those secluded retreats in the mountains, 
where the influence of the laws, or the presence of the officers did 
not reach, and which have been confiscated, could be put under the 
supervision of a native of wealth and respectability, and he appoin- 
ted the headman. These districts would be small in extent and 
resources, and the power of the new gentry unequal, and they could 
not oppress ; and in course of time they would all be reformed, and at 
no distant day become like other Chinese. Even the predatory abori- 
ginal Mi^u tsz', wha live in the fastnesses of the mountains, being 
acquainted with the gentry, would gradually be induced to leave 
their lawless habits, and unite under one kind soothing sway. In 
this way. in a few years, the aboriginal Miiu tsz' would become sub- 
dued Miiu, and the subdued would be improved into quiet and 
good people. 

118 Views in CAina. March, 

Art. III. China, in a Merits of views displaying the scenery^ 
architecture t social habits ^ 4*^*» ^f ^^*^ ancient and exclusive 
empire. By Thunnas Allom, esq.; with historical and descrip* 
tive notices, by the Rev. G. N, Wright, m. a. London. 

Our notice of tlii« work shall be short. Whether it was uodertaken 
from a desire of pecuniary gain, or from a sincere wish to extend 
useful knowledge, we need not stop to inquire. It was to appear in 
monthly parts, quarto size ; *' each part, price two shillings, con- 
taining four highly-finished engravings and eight pages of letter- 
press." The engravings, so far as we have seen them, are well ex- 
ecuted, and worth all they cost the purcha9er. The form and style 
of the work is " Uniform with Mr. AUom's splendid and popular 
work, ' The Turkish empire illustrated.' " The publishers, Fisher, 
Son, 6l Co., herald their work with the following paragraphs. 

" The histories of all other nations disclose successive revolutions 
in government, in morals, and in civilization, — the prostration of 
thrones, and the dissipation of tribes; while that of the vast Empire 
of China, extending over ten millions of square miles, and sustaining 
three hundred millions of inhabitants, has enjoyed an uninterrupted 
perpetuity of political existence for upwards of four thousand years. 
This nation has been stationary, while all others upon our earth have 
received an impulse, advancing to civilization, or sinking in the 
on-rolliug tide of time. 

" Warpt in the dark mantle of idolatry, a population, one third of 
the whole amount that animates the surface of our globe, have re- 
mained, from the first unit of recorded duration, ** the abject, beaten 
slaves," of arbitrary rule. Each subject is a subordinate automatic 
piece of imperial mechanism, to which the director assigns its 
specific duty, by the performance of which such excellence is at- 
tianed, that Chinese industrial productions have reached the climax 
of human perfection ; notwithstanding the neglect of mental cultiva- 
tion, and prohibition of the diffusion of knowledge. Amongst the 
celebrated monuments of China, with which travellers are acquaint- 
ed, those that have excited the highest astonishment, are their great 
roads, numerous canals, immense single^arched bridges, and pyra- 
midal towers; but, above all, " the Wall of the ten thousand Li," 
which traverses high mountains, crosses deep valleys, spans broad 
rivers, and extends to a length of 1,500 miles. 

1645. Views in China. 119 

• "Obstinate adherence to national customs, love of antiquity, pre- 
valent in all oriental countries, and repudiation of intellectual inter- 
course with foreigners, have given such peculiar moral and physical 
characters to this " teeming population," as render their history the 
most unique, original, and extraordinary of all the nations of the 
earth. Their agricultural system is unequalled ; their manufactures, 
the models of other nations ; their architecture, elaborate and fan- 
tastic ; and their plans for economizing labour and redeeming time, 
admirable. The first light of those three portentous discoveries- 
printing, gunpowder, and the mariner's compass^-disooveries to 
which modern times owe all their boasted superiority over the 
earlier ages of the world, are known to have emanated from China. 

" The struggle in which England is now engaged with this gigan- 
tic empire, the anxiety naturally felt for the issue of a contest appa- 
rently so unequal, and the consequences of that issue to our commer- 
cial prosperity, are powerful stimulants to national curiosity ; but, 
independent of these contingent causes, there is a laudable inquisi- 
tiveness inseparable fVom the growth of knowledge, that creates in 
educated society an appetite for every species of imformation cal- 
culated to develope the workings of the human mind, under new 
and different circumstances from those to which they have been 

** To illustrate the scenery, customs, arts, manufactures, religious 
ceremonies and political institutions of a people so unlike the rest of 
mankind, so attached to established usages, that they exemplify the 
mode of living of thousands of years back-^so jealous of intru^on, 
thai a foreigner has always been held by them in execration-*— " Ate 
iaboTy hoe vpus est," In promoting an object of such surpassing 
interest, no expense has been declined, no exertion evaded ; nor is 
it the least amongst the Publishers' causes of self-gratulation, that 
thej have secured Mr. Allom*s valuable cooperation. This gentle- 
man's connection with their House enabled him, while travelling 
through the scenery of many lands, to cultivate his professional 
taste by studying the great architectural monuments of Europe and 
of Asia. Remembering this inestimable benefit, and influenced 
by early associations, although now eminently and extensively en- 
gaged as an architect, he consents to devote his varied talents once 
more, and exclusively, in their service, to the production of a work 
illustrative of CAtfia oimI Me CAtne^e." 

These enterprising gentlemen, in the commencement of their 
work, have labored under some very erroneous impressions, and 

120 Views in CkttuL March; 

their work will serve to perpetuate the same:* The chief of th^ne 
iropresaioQS is embodied in the following olaosec ike 9a$i empire of 
China has enjoyed a perpeiuity^ of political exisienet-^kas been static 
nary, comprising one third of the animal creation^ from thejirst 
unit of recorded duration-^eaeh suhfeet being' a mere auiomatie 
piece of mechanism, - so that Chinese industrial productions have 
reached the cKmaz of human perfection, notwithstanding the neglect 
of mental cultivation and prohibition of the diffusion of knowledges 

-From time immemorial there- has been, on the eastern side bf 
Asia, a Chung-kwoh; but it has waxed and wained» and, like all thei 
other kingdoms on earth, been subject to- constant changes. There 
are now extant, in China, thousands of Tolurhes of historical records 
toproTC this. Changes here have been frequent and great, andthejr 
wHI- continue to be so, we doubt not, in time to come. ^ .-!:.':.';'{} 
• While many of the views and descriptions are verfgood, being 
both accurate and elegant, such are not those given of Hongkong? 
Wesubjoin Mr. Wright's notices of the island. > He says^^ ' i.i 

! I'^There is an archipelago of rocky islets in the estuary -of Cantov 
fiver,«long known, but only lately- visited byEuropeans^^ Of ithesep 
Hongkong, one i of the most easterly, and^'onlj^ forty -miletf dtitant 
frooa Macao, possesses- a harbour so sheltered, -commodioua, and ise«i 
cure, that during the repudiation of our trade from Cantonby oouh 
missioner Lin, it became the. favourite rendezvous of Britishiiner- 
chantmen. Hither mariners have been attracted by the -facility, of 
procuring a supply of the purest water, which is seen falUog from 
thetliflb of the Leong-teong, or two summit, in a series of cascades,- 
the last of which glides in one grand and graceful lapee into a rookyr 
basin on the beach, whence the waters rebounding are widely. acat<« 
tered in their unrestricted progress towards the^>open» sea.^. It^'ia 
from this fountain, Heang-keang, the fragrant stream, or Hoaagi 
keang, the red or bright torrent, that the island is supposed to dertvis 
itS'iname; and it is:: little less probable, that iihisTery 'name is the 
grateful memento of some thirsty, marinera who^-: ages ago,/ obtained 
here a seasonable supply in time of need. Theimaxihoumlengthr 
of the isle is about eight miles^ its breadth seldom exceeding five^^ its 
mountains of trap-rock, are conical, precipitous, and rsterrle. in as- 
pect^ but the valleys that intervene are sheltered and fertiiey and the 
gisnial' climate thiat prevails gives luxuriance and^prcidHCtrveness to 
every spot, which, by its natural position,, is susceptrbleiof agricuhu^ 
ral fi Improvement! -tTbei aboriginal inbabkanta,abaiit four thousand 
in BumbeFj arerpoor,- but -contented and industrioua^iand^ whoever has 

1845. Views in China. 121 

experienced the insolence of office, in the treatment of the mandarins 
at Canton to British subjects, is alone competent to appreciate the 
innate gentleness, and disinterested hospitality, of the farmers and 
the fishermen of Hong-Kong. On the south, the sheltered shore of 
the island, are several hamlets, and the town of Chek-choo, the lit* 
tie capital, where a mandarin and his myrmidons usually resided. 
Within the last half century th'^se industrious islanders have seen 
their picturesque harbour twice occupied by large fleets of European 
vessels riding securely at anchor; in 1816, the expedition under the 
conduct of Lord Amherst visited their shores for the purpose of wa- 
tering, and of receiving interpreters ; and, at the commencement of 
the recent Chinese quarrel, this was for many months the chief opium 
mart The opium brought from Hinddstan was here transferred to the 
Hercules and Lintin storeships,. respectively representing the inter<p 
ests of Great Britain and of America, and reshipped on board vessels 
destined for Chinese ports. By an arrangement entered into between 
the British superintendent and commissioner Keshen, during a cessa- 
tion of hostilities in the Chinese war, the Island of Hong-Kong was 
ceded to the Queen of England, and, in a few months after, the po- 
pulation of the new settlement of ''Queen's Town" was estimated 
at eight thousand souls, and the grand total of the island at fifteen. 
This cession received a final confirmation by the treaty of the 29th 
August, 1842, when the British army, at the gates of Nanking, dic- 
tated terms of peace to the Celestial Empire. 

"As a commercial entrepdt, as a safe asylum for our shipping in 
the oriental seas, as commanding the estuary of the Canton river, and 
•as a military station, Hong-Kong possesses the utmost value; it never 
can become a port for the direct and immediate shipment of Chinese 
exports, the mountainous an<l inhospitable character of the coist 
between it and the productive provinces of the empire, completely 
intercepting communication. The harbour, however, the subject of 
the accompanying view, is one of the noblest roadsteads in the east ; 
situated between the north-west extremity of the island and the main- 
land, it may be entered southward through the Lamma Channel,— 
westward by the Cap-sing-mun passage, and from the east by vessels 
sailing close under the peninsula of Kow-lun,<r. When Capt. Elliot's 
proclamation declared Hong-Kong to be a part and parcel of the 
British dominions, he marked out the site of Queen's-Town on the 
southern shore, and here, around the standard of freedom, whole 
streets started into existence as if raised by the wand of the enchan- 
ter. \ broad hard ro^'id now extcmlb to the harbour of Ty-taru, 

VOL. XIV. .NO. III. 16 

122 Views in China, March, 

around which marine Tillaa are in progress of erection, commaiiding 
the grand spectacle of Hong-konj? harbour, and enjoying the refresh* 
ing breezes that blove from the unbounded sea. At the base of th^ 
lofty mountain-chain; that margins the Chinese coast for many t 
league, is the Cow-loon (kow-lung, the winding dragon) peninsula; 
which, like the isthmus at Gibraltar, was to have been considered 
neutral ground, but the enemy having violated the treaty, it was 
seized by the British, who garrisoned the fort and named it Victoria; 
in honor of her Britannic majesty.. 

' "Besides the usual products of Chinese soil, climate, and industry; 
which are very prominently and meritoriously raised in this pleatnuit 
islet, there is a valuable export of granite, and a large proportion of 
the natives have long sustained themselves by the profits of hewini^ 
this primitive stone. In the structure of the district, the trap-rocks 
hold the hi^rher position, while the granite is found in huge debris 
scattered over the level and the lower regions. As there is no ne^ 
cessity for blasting or quarrying, the masses being detached and ac- 
cessible on every side, it only remains for the labourer to hew or 
split each bolder into blocks easy of trausport to the shore. This 
process is performed by the maul, chisel, and wedges, in a manner 
long practised by the granite hewers on the shores of Dublin baj, 
and in the mountains that rise at a little distance from them. With 
the maul and chisel, shallow holes, at equal intervals, are sunk in a 
right line along the surface of the rock, into which iron wedges are 
subsequently driven, which rend the mass with an extraordinary 
regularity. The rent blocks of course present a rugged surface, but 
the ineqaulity is soon reduced ta sufficient smoothness by the appiin 
cation of keener-edged tools. 

" In every sheltered nook along the coast a lonely cottage makes 
its appearance, close to the margin of the water, and before the door 
stands a piece of machinery consisting of a bench, raised a few feet 
from the ground, with foot and back board, to give the occupant 
complete control over his movements, besides two upright posts co»* 
nected by a windlass with -a wheel at each extremity. This con- 
struction is a regular accompaniment of every fisherman's hut, and 
completely characteristic of Hong-kong scenery. The elevated stage 
forms part of an apparatus for fishing which none but Chinamen 
could ever have contrived, and none else have continued to use, 
after they had witneHsed the more simple means employed by fo. 
reigners, to obtain the same conclusion. The radii of the wheels, 
attached to the extremities ol' the reel or windlass, are so many 

1845. Views in China, 129 

levers, which, by the operator pressing with his hand and feet, coil 
up or release a set of ropes tied to takes stuck into the muddy hot* 
torn of the shallow sea. Between these stakes a net is suspended, 
BO nicely adjusted that its weight depresses their heads below the 
surface whenever the ropes are relaxed. The net being immersed, 
the partners in the stratagem, who are provided with a boat, row to 
the seaward of it, and, by striking the goug, by vociferating, and by 
beating the surface of the water with their oars, affright the fish, and 
drive them into the space immediately over the secret snare. The 
person stationed at the windlass paying the most vigilant attention 
to these proceedings, and feeling the vibration produced in the 
meshes by the effect of the fish to descend, slowly turns bis levers 
until his net is brought near the surface, where the boatmen are waitr 
ing to" secure the draught. Two. principles in philosophy seem to 
have been fully understood by these children of nature, one is the 
e^ctraordinary power of conveying sound which is possessed by water; 
the otber» that fish, prompted by instinct, always endeavour to escape 
from danger by diving down into deeper water, but never rise to the 
surface for that object. The supply so procured is not sent to the 
market of dueen's Town for sale, the quantity sought and obtained 
being seldom more than sufficient for the wants of the fisherman's 
family: and, it is by means of this wholesome fare, together with the 
whitest and firmest rice in the Chinese empire, that the inhabitants 
of this sea-grit isle succeed in presenting an appearance of rude and 
never-failing health, that visitors universally remark." 

Regarding." the view" of Hongkong harbor we will say nothing, 
and but few words regarding the Toregoing description. Good 
water and granite and in large supplies are procurable ; and the 
moides of working the rock and of taking the scaley tribes are 
very well described. But the series of cascades, the productive- 
ness of erery spot, the little capital with its mandarin and his 
ifnyrmidons, the broad hard road to Tytam, d&c, d&c, are mere 
fancies ; and the description, taking it ail in all. is more false than 
true. The winding dragon is Kau lung^ yL^> Nine dragons; 
and as for the ihajidarin and his myrmidons none of any descrip- 
tion ever resided on the island. 

^>^^<^^^^*»rfy ■ »^^#i^%*%#»^rfM<^<MN^MMMMMN^.^^ 

124 Chimse Divisible 'type, March, 

Art. IV^ Characters formed by the divisible type belonging to 
the Chinese mission of the Board of foreign missions of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. Mar 
. caOf- Presbyterian press, 1844. 

On the last page of our last volume allusion was made to this type. 
We now proceed to give the promised details. Two pamphlets on 
this subject have been issued from the same press. The second 
bears the title which forms the heading of this article, and is com- 
prised in 110 quarto pages, presenting to us impressions of 22,841 
"Characters, as the sum total of those which can be formed by the divi- 
sible type now ready for use in that office. The order in which these 
characters are presented is the same as that in Kanghl's dictionary : 
it commences with the first of the 214 radicals, and by the synthetic 
method, gives in regular succession the twenty-two thousand and odd 
characters, specified above. The sum total under each radical is 
given at the end of the list : thus under the first radical, yiA, — ', one-, 
are 23 characters ; under the ninth, jtn, J^, man, are 658; under 
the sixty-first, iin, ((j,, the heart, are 769; under the seventy-fifth, 
muh, '^\ wood, are 840; under the one hundred and ninety-fifth, 
y?i, ^^tfsh, are 417; and so of all the others. It is supposed, by 
those who have got up this work, that, from unavoidable omissions 
and mistakes, several characters may have been lefl out of their list 
so that the sum total may in fact be somewhat greater than that 
stated above, viz.: 22,841. 

It is not easy to give a perfectly fair and full account of this 
font, la saying, as we did in our last volume, that this type " seems 
likely to be of great advantage, superior to anything yet devised for 
Chinese printing," it has been thought that too high commendation 
was given. It may be so, though the experiment has not yet been 
carried far enough, we thiak, to enable any one to determine very 
definitely what will be the exact capabilities of the font. That 
our readers may judge of it «cr themselves, we have been at some 
piins to procure a specimen, composed of characters taken up at 
random, which is given on the opposite page. 

So far as it regards the number of characters, and facility of com- 
position, the experiment with metaiic type may be considered com- 
pletely successful. 



^ ID 

ft Jf 




W I 

^ it 

Chineu DivisihU Type. 

* * « ts 

ft M 

m ^ ^ 9^ m 

a i li w 

t M ^ .3C 


7h tt 


51 « @ ;t ^ 

*s ffe fe ^'P e -2: 

* P M S H^ i*c 

# s * 



ft tfi; 


:^ n| }# Jt IS 4* 


I ifei 


pf >li^ tti *$ St ± 
ft ^ 11 ft 

a. ^r pf ft 

1 w ^^ X 


til ^ 







m & 


126 Chinese Divisible Typt, Marcv, 

If our readers, who have it in their power, will please compare 
this specimen with Chinese books, carefully observing the formation 
of each character, they will be enabled to estimate the true merits of 
the new type. This specimen gives a few verses of our Saviour's 
sermon on the mount, commencing at the 22d verse of the 5th chap- 
ter of Matthew; and the comparison will be more fair and easy, per- 
hapSy if the same portion of reading, furnished from Chinese blocks, 
be brought into view. Of these blocks there have been at least three 
sets prepared, all of different sizes, from each of which good impres- 
sions are still extant, and may be found in the hands of most of the 
Protestant missionaries, now in China. 

Those gentlemen who have been at the trouble of getting up this 
font, give us their views of the same in some " Introductory Re- 
marks,'' from which we quote the following. 

^' The attention of oriental scholars has often been turned to the 
subject of printing Chinese with metallic type The greatest difficulty 
liea in the number of the characters, for those in comparatively 
frequent use are upwards of five thousand, and a work on botany, 
zoology, or medicine would require hundreds which a font of even 
that number could not supply. But the space occupied by ten or 
Afleen thousand characters, and the difficulty of using them would 
be so great, that many have thought it impracticable to print Chi- 
nese, except in the accustomed mode of cutting each page on wooden 
Mocks. Ten years ago some Chinese scholars in Paris, conceived 
a plan of dividing the characters, by which any work in the lan- 
guage may be printed without requiring a very great or inconve- 
nient number of different type. The Board of Foreign Missions of 
the Presbyterian Church, at that time contemplating a mission to 
China, determined to procure a set of the matrices, and by a fair 
experiment to test the practicability of the plan. Ailer several 
y«ars of labor, (a large part of which was performed by the Corres- 
ponding Secretary of the Board,) the plan has been matured to a 
considerable extent, and the press and matrices having this year 
arrived in China, the type have been cast, and the office is in readi- 
ness to execute work in Chinese or English. A very little ex- 
peitience, however, has shown that the workmen in the printing 
office must have a correct printed list of all the characters, otherwbe 
much time will be lots by beginners in looking for them. For this 
purpose, and also to gratify the numerous friends who feel inter^ted 
in the experiment, this: specimen book i» prepared. ' Its object is^o 
show; at • glance, every Chinese type in the office^ and the casern 
which it is contained. 

1845: Chinese DiciuhU Type. 127 

/ ''The .Chinese type are of two classes: Ist whole^ which form 
tlie character by a single type. 2d divided^ which form it by the 
uaioQ of two. The second class is again sub-divided into two: 1st 
korixantally divided; ^perpendicularly divided: and each of these 
roust be arranged in cases by themselves. • • * 

''That part of this arrangement which we deem particularly 
worthy of notice, is the concentration of the characters that occur 
most frequently, in cases by themselves. Every Chinese scholar 
knows, that while such characters as ^ ^ ^ are found on 
every page, there are many others, such as £t! 1^ ^ which are 
scarcely met with in the perusal of a volume. A list of characters 
arranged according to the frequency of their occurrence, which 
was prepared by the lamented Mr.- Dyer, has been of essential ser- 
vice in this part of the work. By the aid of this list about two hun- 
dred and. fifty characters have been selected and arranged (accord- 
ing to their radicals) in four cases. These comprise about one half 
of those used in printing common Chinese books. 

"The horizontal characters being few, it was not thought ex- 
pedient to have more than one arrangement of them. They are 
accordingly placed together in four cases to the left of the whole 
characters, and are arranged according to the number of strokes in 
each, beginning with the fewest. 

"The perpendicular characters are more numerous and in more 
frequent use. Those that occur most frequently, (marked thus"") have 
been selected and arranged in four cases, just opposite the cases 
eofitaining the <5oncentrated whole characters, while the remain- 
der are arranged in six cases on the left, as shown in the plan. All 
of these, as well as the horizontal characters^ are- arranged according 
to the number of strokes beginning with the fewest. By this ar- 
rangement, the compositor reaches four fifths of the characters he 
has occasion to use without moving more than steps, whtld for those 
that are farthest off, he is not required to walk more that twelve feet. 

"That this plan of printing is now brought to perfection is not 
pretended : none are more sensible of its defects than those per- 
sons who have spent so much labor to bring it to its present state. 
But improvements can and will be made, and considering the dif- 
ficulties 111 ready overcome, and the progress already made, vf^e are 
disposed to thank God and take courage. Macao, Augnst, 1844." 

AUusioa has often been made in the Repository to Mr. Dyer's 
type, a specimen of which we give on the next page. 





Chinese D'visihU Type. 

m M n m fk 

X if 


m ^f M ^ 





^J ^T )^ i 

^ m m ^f 5PJ i Tpj ig 




© ^f ^j '^ II ^j ^j fi^ 


^ © ^^f 


H^f |g 



^j m m # 





M ft ^J 


1845. Chinese Divisible Type. 12d 

By the kindness of the Rev. Alexander Stronach, of Sin^irapore, 
in charge of the foundry, &.C., formerly in the care of the lamented 
Mr. Dyer, we are able to inform our readers that accessions are con- 
tinually being made to this font. At the time of Mr. Dyer's death, 
the variety of characters, according to a list before us, amounted to 
1845. Mr. Stronach informs us, in a letter of January 7th, that he 
has 370 new matrices ; and 1226 punches, from which matrices 
have not been made. These will give a total of three thousand 
andforty'One characters in variety. He has made some progress with 
the smaller font ; but is, at present, occupied exclusively with the 
larger, being desirous of having it as complete as possible. 

Compared with the variety of types, 22741, formed by those in the 
divisible font, the number 3041 is not large, yet with occasional 
additions it will be quite sufficient for all ordinary purposes. Regard- 
ing the number of characters and the facility of composition, as before 
remarked, the experiment may be deemed perfectly successful. The 
two principal points now remaining to be attained, are elegance in the 
form of the character, and facility or economy in printing. In the 
divisible font, very many characters are far from being elegant, and 
they fail to please the Chinese eye. In this particular Mr. Dyer's 
type is nearly perfect, being at least fully equal to the great mass of 
what the Chinese regard as good printing. In manufacturing books, 
after the pages have been composed, there is of course no diflference 
in the two fonts ; but whether the metal ic type and the European press 
will be able to compete with the old Chinese method, of printing 
from blocks, remains yet to>be determined. It used to be supposed, 
by foreigners, that not more than 15000 or 20000 impressions 
could be taken from a set of blocks. But from recent experiments 
it appears that more than 40000 copies may be struck, giving very 
fair impressions. At this moment .different portions of the New 
Testament are being printed by each of these two methods, and 
it will in this way be made to appear which of the two — that of 
Europeans with metalic type and press, or that of the Chinese from 
blocks — is the most economical. 


VOL. XIV. NO. rii. 1:7 

130 Tkt Imperial' Family.' March, 

' ■ ■ • I • • 

Art. F. Tsurig jin Fu, or Board charged with the control and 
' government of the Imperial Family, 

l^fiTAi LED notices of this Board have been given in previous volumes; 
and the names of its leading members, as they appeared in the Red. 
Book at the close of the last year, will be found iii oijr last number, 
at the head of the list of Chinese officers. In future, every year will 
bring foreigners into more and more near and intimate acquaintance 
with the Chinese governmient, and render all information concerning, 
its principal functionaries more and more interesting. Every thing 
giving us knowledge of the various offices and their incumbents will 
be deemed valuable. We have now before us the volumes of the 
Td tsing Hwui Tien, -J^]^"^ !^, "Collected Statutes of the 
Td tsing" dynasty, from which we will select a variety of. particu- 
lars relating to what is called — 

, Tsung jin fu, ^ J\^ Ij^** Clansmen's court. 
. Thp whole body of the emperor's family or clan, are so called by 
way of distinction, and the phrase tsnng j'tit,) clansman or clansmen, 
is commonly and correctly translated. !' Imperial kindreci"; fH is an. 
office, court, or board of control. The members, of this court are. 
five, and are thus designated. . . 

1. ^'sung ling, ^ >|^^ ^ clan director ; 

2. r«j(> <*tiri^c/ii/«^, ^^ij^, left clan controller .^ 

3. Yu tsung chihg,"^ ^jj^,r\ghVehncon\roUe^^^^ 

4. Tso tsung jin, >£ ^ y^, left clansman ; 

5. Yu tsung jin^ y^ ^L y^, right clansman.. , 

Such is the literal designation of the principal functionaries, who 
compose the court, charged with the government of his majesty's 
kindred. The word ling corresponds to chiirman of a committee, 
president of a board, &c.; tso and yii are equivalents for first and 
second ; ching is to put right, to correct, to control ; and the two 
may be considered as first and secondary controllers. The tso and 
yu tsung jin may be considered as first and second deputies, or assis- 
tant controllers, or counselors. These officers are all selected bv 
the emperor, from among those who have the high titles of kings, 

dukes, &.C. 
The duties (»f ihe members of this Board are summarily given in 

rhe following cluube : 

IS45. The Imperial Family. 131 

rhiing hwang tsuk\ ch% chin^ l>ng. 

To manage imperial kindred's government (and) orders : 
or, in other words, to oversee and regulate whatever appertains to 
the government of the emperor's kindred. These are divided into 
two grand branches, tiie near and (he remote. 
The near are called, tsung shih^ jjr^ 

'The remote are called, tciok iOf^j* 

. In the tsung sAt A, or imperial house, are comprised all the bran- 

chies of the direct descendents of Shunchi, the first monkrch of 

the reigihg family. ' •» • » 

In the kioh lo are comprised the descendents of that emberor'^ 

• . • , • _ ■.,,.■••. ^ . . . . , ^ . 

brothers and uncles. Kiohlo, or Ghioro. is a Mahchu word and 
ineahs the * Golden race,' being t|ie Manchu surname of reigning 
family. . ; « 

The names of'allchildreh, male and female, of the imperial' house 
and golden race, must be reported to this court, and be ihik yxi t}^eh\ 
"ft 1^ BB' ^^'"'**®" *" ^^® Registers, of which there are two*; the one 
yellow; for members of the imperial house, the other red ^ for the 
offipring of the golden race. Once every ten years all these names 
must be copied from the Registers, ancl tang yu yuh tick; ^ ff^ 
rE 3^» entered in the PVeciouai Tablets. They are writtfen in both 
the Manchu and the Chinese character. The names of the living 
are in vermilion, .those of the dead' are. in black ink. In like man- 
ner, the names of children who have- been . adopted as heirs in due 
form, also all marriasfes, titles of nobility, d:;o.» must be reported 
and recorded. In recording ^hese names^ &.C., which must be done 
within a limited period, the~year, month and day of the child's birth 
must be specified. So in like manner the dates of marriages, 6lc., 
must all be specified. 

When the period arrives* for transferring the names from the 
ordinary registers to the precious tablets, ot^ynk tieh, the principal 
officers of this court must make a formal report* thereof to the em- 
peror; and when his permission, has been obtained, these high 
officers must lead out their respective subordinates, direct them in 
the discharge of their respective duties, and see that they all ac- 
complish the worlc assigned to them. These subordinates are all 
literary men, some Manchus and some Chinese, and are selected from 
the Board of Rites, the Imperial Academy, &,c. The '* Precious 
Tablets, forming a.s-they do, the permanent Cieiiedlogical Tables of 

13% J%e Imperial Family, March, 

the reigning family, receive every possible attention in their revision, 
and at\er it is completed, and the finishing stroke has been given to 
them, they are then with great formality laid before his imperial 
majesty, who 

kung yueh 'rh ts^&ng chi, 

^ m m ^ z 

respectfully inspects and deposits them. 
Henceforth they become a permanent part of the national archives ; 
and are probably as correct as those of any other nation or people. 
These are deposited in Peking, and copy of them is prepared, with 
like care, and laid up among the state papers in Shingking, the 
capital of Moukden : 

Regarding the manner in which the names are given, and written, 
ve may refer the reader to the Chinese Repository, Volume XII, 
pp. 22,23, where the subject is fully and clearly explained. 

The- two branches of the emperor's family are distinguished by 
their girdles. 

The tsung shih by a kin wdng tdi, ^ j^ ^, or yellow : 

The kioh lo by a hung tdi, j^X i^t or red girdle. 

When members of either of these branches are degraded, that 
degradation is made to appear by a change of the girdle : 
The yellow is exchanged for the red; and 
The red is exchanged for a tsz' tdi, ^ ^, a pale-red. 

Thfe fting tsioh, ^ ^, or ' titles of nobility, which are con- 
ferred by the emperor,' on the members of his family, are divided 
into twelve orders, viz : - -i' 

1. Ho shih tsin w&ng, 

5fp ^ m 3E 


To lo 



^ ^ 




To lo 



^ m 




m shdM 



m }U 




Fung ngan 




^ © 





Fung ngan 




* ^ 




1845. The Imperial Family. 133 




Puh juh 

4^ A 

pdh fan 

A ^ 






Puh juk 

T^ A 

pdh fan 

A ^ 

Chin heoh 

tsidng kiun, 

m 9 

isidng kiun^ 

^ il 

isidng kiun^ 


Fung ngan 

tsidng kiun^ 




Her^» in pames of these orders of nobility, we have a singular 
blending of Manchu and Chinese — with this embarrassing fact, that 
of the Manchu words the sounds only are given and that too in the 
Chinese character^ . Hence the meaning of these names, thus given, 
must remain sealed up from all those who are ignorant of the native 
language of the reigning family. Previously to their conquest of 
China, the Manchus had established eight orders of nobility, and 
from thpse we have the twelve given above, a part of which only we 
are able to explain. 

1. The ho shih are sounds of Manchu words ; tsin means kindred, 
and wang means king : ibus the whole is ho-shih^ kindred king. 

S. The tthlo are likewise Manchu sounds ; kiun means a atate or 
principality, and wdng as above. 
,3. This is wholly Manchu. 

4. Also' Manchu. 

5. This is literally, receive ffnwr guard empire duhe^ i. e. a duke 
appointed by favor for the protection of the state. 

6. This means, a duke appointed by favor for the protection of 
the empire. 

7. Literally, — not tnicr eight divisions guard empire duke: i. e. 
a duke for the protection of the empire^ who has not been admitted 
into the eighth orders. 

8. Like the preceding. 

9. General for protecting the empire. 

10. General for protecting the empire. 

11. General serving the empire. 

1^-4 The Imperial Family, March; 

12. General serving favor. 

The ladies and daughters of the various gcades of the nobility are 
distinguished by honorary titles; and rules are laid down for the 
regulation of these .titles, many of which are Manchu, and the sounds 
given only in Chinese characters. 

Those titles of nobility, which have now been 'enumerated, are 
conferred for various considerations, which: are thua specified. 

1. Fii kung fung, 7^^ ^, conferred for merit ; i 

2. Yu ngan fung, J^ ^ ^^ Qonferred by favor ; 

3. Yu sih fung^ >^ ^ ^,. conferred as hereditary ; 

4. Yu l^du fung, jfe" JjL. ^^ conferred on examination. 
Services done to the state, in protecting or advancing its interests, 

form the ground of consideration for the first named- titles. Nearness 
of . affinity to the emperor gives occasion for the second. The third, 
though styled hereditary, are not conferred ii'respective ofpersdnal 
character; there miisc be 'aliifity and skill fn- hor8emanshi(>, ariihfery,' 
^ c. ,' witii knowledge of ' the - Bfahchu 1 aWgtiage, before' 6be can 
inherit the titles of his ahcestbrs. Candidates for trtles bfthe fobrth* 
are ^iie younger brothers of'th'cwe* Whof receiv'e'the'here;ditkry ; bu't' 
tKese have to depend entirely on their ' ability^^ and ik ill; b6ih for the' 
conferment' and for th^^^^ livin.. : :: . .:. • 

' I'oaH iho^, on who^ titlei'of nbbilitjrarc'tionfeVred, are given' 
either a ts^eh, -HR'i.or a kdu, fn, as evidence of their titles. ' ThW 
first is usually a solden or silver tablet, the latter a scroll. Largesses 
are also conferred. These consist of mohey, grain,' cldihiiig, &.ci' 
T^he living are' sometimes also honored with new dames, and the 
dead with posthumous titles. "; ' * ' ' ' ,,' ' '^ 

These titular dignitaries, tdi *tn^ ^l>^i<, -^'^ J^l^iE! ''are 
all. arranged into distinct orders,'' according to which ' tliey must 
always proceed, when admitted to the presence or banquets of the 
emperor, or are appointed, on, service, such as keeping giia'rd ih the' 
imperial cit)/, iiispectirig and protecting the tombs bf'the '^nrfperors. 


sacrificing to the gods, 6lc. 

, Provision is made for the education of all the junior members of 

the emperor's kindred, in horsemanship, archery, and their vernacu- 
lar tongue. During this period of training they are freque'ntfy ' in- 
spected by high officers appointed by the emperor. " ' ' * 

The punishments, inflicted dri7he imperial kindi^ed, are' lighter 
than those to which the Chinese are subjected. They may Be fined, 
flogged, imprisoned, banished, &.c. ' * ' ' "" ' ''^" * * 

1845.' Tke China Mail. 105 

Art. yi. Literary notices : The China Mail^ Nos.. I-5t ; Chris^ 

. tiau Almanac in Chinese, for IS45; and CalUry\s.Dictipnnair€ 

JSncyelopidique^ Tome Premier. • . • . ; i 

TmB' periodical- press, lika the tract system, is a- powerful engine; 
wheither it be designed for good purposes or for evii.v It roayorigii 
nate and give exteution to the worst of sentiments, distort and* pen- 
veitlthe truth, or heap calumny on the innocent iand.TdeTeiaseless. 
Supported, as it usually is, by the public, its character will .generally 
conform to the sentiments of that public. W6BVLy generally,- be^' 
cause instances may occur in which an individualvor<» number; of 
indifiduals, may sustain a periodical, and it may be-sa ccockieted. as 
ta receive support from large numbers of the community, bc^ aided 
by them in its circulation, and yet be no fair index of the: sentiments 
of the whole. • .Generally, too,, but not always, the liame of > a paper 
is iadicative of its character. ' : •; -. ;t ',•':/. li. 

.. Fivd' numbers of *' the China Mail " aremow .beforeru& .It isia 
weekly newspaper, .'* printed and published by Andrew Sbortfede, 
Hongkong.!' :The first number is dated '.' Thursday, February 2pth') 
•1845;". andi in. it, notice, is given by order, that '^ until further 
orders^ TBB cuiNA MAIL is to be considered this official. organ of all 
government notifications.") Wb wish Mr« Shortrede all success '< in 
him newi-enterprise. He will,, we hope, lexcuse: us for drawing his 
attention to one particular, touching the character of his paper. 
Had'it been called^Ae Hongkong Colonial Governmcni Mail, or 
something of this sort, then its readers would nott have had reason, to 
/SxpectrT-ra^.' the name now warrants them in expecting — that its 
pages: were to be occupied with what relates to. China. .But a name, 
lilMt'Falstaffs honor, * is a word, is air, a mere scutcheon,.' and w6 
.Willi raise n.o> quarrel on this ground. All we wish is that, in future, 
h^iflr'ill.give us,, along with what is colonial and what is connected 
with commercial affairs at the five ports, more regarding the celes- 
tial: empire^ supplying the public with (in matter, if not in man- 
ner,) a true China AlaiL Under the words, *' From the Peking Ga- 
zctie," vfe have had, indeed, a variety of short notices, — some of 
them truly valuable, but others so loose and vague as to make lis 
doubt their authenticity. We will give an example. In the No. 4. 
for the 13th instant, we have under ''the Peking Gazette," the fol- 
lowing notice of Christianity. 

136 Christian Almanac in Chinese > March, 

** Christianity. It is authentically stated that-Kfying has memo- 
rialized the emperor on the subject of the (/hrisiian religion and 
accompanied this paper with copies of Christian tracts and other 
books in the Chinese language. It appears that these have been 
minutely examined, and an answer has been received to the effect 
that the publication of these works proceeded from good motives, 
for they exhort the people to the practice of virtue ; and the religion 
they contain, which has hitherto been interdicted, should be tole- 
rated and allowed." 

Now it woaid be exceedingly gratifying, if the editor would tell 
us the Na and date of the Gazette, in which the ahoire facts ap* 
pear ** authentically stated." On the face of the notice, we have 
a public announcement to all people (at least to all who read the 
Gazettes and the Mail) that the Christies religion is to be henceforth 
tolerated by the emperor of China. We shall recur to this topic 
in our Journal of Occurrences. 

In making his paper the organ of government, the ^itor of the 
China Mail has assumed a difficult task— <)ifficult, if he intends to 
please, and support the interests of both the government and the peo- 
ple of the colony ,-^for we fear the interests of the two ere not, as 
they ought to be. ideatical. Doabiless he has counted the cost; and 
we hope that, by serving the two, he may succeed in blending their 
interests, and have the satisfaction of seeing the rulers of Hongkong 
and its dq>endencie8 become, what the Chinese say all good magis- 
trates and governors ought to be, '* the fathers and mothers of the 

2. Christian Almanac in Chinese for a. d. 184^. Almamios of 
this description were published for 1843 and 1844. This therefore 
is the third in tbe series ;■ and of it 10,000 eopies have been printed^ 
and most of them have already been put into circulation among the 
Chinese, who have sought for it with great eagerness. It is a hand* 
some octavo, of about sixty five leaves, or 130 pages, with four maps, 
the first is a map of the Chinese empire; the seccmd, a mdp of the 
globe, the third is a chart of the principal animals and productions 
of the world in their respective regions ; and the fourth is a map of 
North America. 

On opening this volume of the Almanac, we have first a tabular 
view of the weeks in the current year, and the sabbaths, or the first 
days of each week are indicated according to the European and Chi- 
nese Calendars, specifying the days of the month on which they oc- 
cur. This is followed by a scriptural account of the institution of the 

ld4o. CaUery^s Dictionnaire Encychp^dtque* 137 

Sabbath, and a discourse regarding its obsenrance. This is succeed- 
ed by scriptural instructions for worshiping the true God. Next is a 
treatise on the soul, and two of the parables of our Savior. A brief 
scriptural account of the drunkard is next given^ with a quotation 
from a Chinese author on the same subject. Next we have some 
explanations of the map of the world, with the names of the principal 
kingdoms and states; also an enumeration of the animals and pro- 
ductions represented on the chart. To these succeed a short trea- 
tise on astronomy ; a tabular account of the opiom imported into 
China,, and some admonitions against indulging in its use. Next are 
brief statistics of the U. S. A., regarding their population^ ptodiic- 
tions, manufactures, commerce, revenue, military forces, dcic. After 
these are two short papers, one regarding the nutmeg, and the other 
giving the eclipses for 1845. The Calendar (or the 25th year of 
the reign of his majesty, Tdukw4ng, corresponding to A^ D. 1845 
makes up the last half of the vol ume* * 

3. CalUry's Diciiannaire Entydop^diqut de Id langue ^Ghincist^ 
Tome Premier ; Ifacao ^ Cket L*Aateur ; Paris, Chex Firmh^ Didot 
Frires^ Rue Jatob^ Na 56, 1844, was noticed in our lastnumbet. 
The prospectus of this work our readers will find, in vol. XII. p. 300 
and the sequel. : We now lay before them Mr. Callery's " Avertisse- 
roent," prefixed to this his first vol^imo; 

" It is with a high degree of satisfaction, that I present^ at length, 
to the public, the first volnme of i, work, which was loti<r since 
announced, but being delayed in its pablicAtio^, has been ahended 
wicha degree of impatience on the part of those who have felt an 
interest in Chinese Literature. 

"The nature and occasion of this delay having been already su^ 
ficifcntly ex[^ained in the Prospectus which I published at Paris in 
1842, and having been required besides to furnish matter for the 
two volumes of Introduction which are to follow, I shall do no more, 
in this advertisement^ than notice a few of the difficalties which 
have occurred to retard the publication of the work, and eiroumu 
stances which may possibly defer its completion for an indefinite 

" These explanations are due to the public, both as a shelter to 
responsibility, and a pledge, on my part, that it shall not be owing to 
a deficiency of efibrt, however humble, if the literary world should 
receive in the end, only a portion of the fair treasure, which I had 
promised to bestow in case of success. 

" In undertaking alone to prosecute a work, sufiicicntly extensive 
VOL. xry, NO. III. 18 

I«^ Calkry*s Dictionnaire Encycloptdique. March, 

to engage the attention of many sinologues for the same period, 
and in submitting patiently to the great variety of sacrifices which 
it has imposed, I had reason to expect encouragement from those 
whom their studies, their character, or their social relations would 
naturally have made my protectors. It was with this expectation 
that I left China immediately after the publication of my Systema 
•Phoneticum Scripturae Sinicae, that I might go to Europe and make 
known my project, the means in hand, and those which were want- 
' ing for its accomplishment. 

*' But what were my grief and chagrin, in beholding a frightful 
cloud of obstacles arise in the very quarter from which I had 
expected a powerful support. I will not pause here to mention the 
names of those individuals, who moved by jealousy or some baser 
motive, became all of a sudden the enemies of my enterprise; this 
would tend only to give them a celebrity, which perhaps they covet, 
but do not deserve. I will barely remark, that this array of adver- 
saries, though evidently one in their views and feelings, may very 
properly be arranged under two distinct classes. To discourage me 
has been the object with some, and to effect it, they have represent- 
ed the work' as infinitely too great for the- limited abilities of an 
individual, as about to present only a shapeless mass of useless 
words, as only a copia verborum, and as greatly inferior to other 
works of a similar charact«r^ which, they asserted, would in a short 
time make their appearance;. Others more skillful in their manoeu- 
vres, have repaired to the- source itself whence it was perceived 
the means of accomplishing the task proposed must emanate, and 
have thus thought to dissuade me from my purpose, by insinuations 
of my own inconTipetence to effect it. 

" Having been left for a long time to encounter single-handed 
these combined efforts of my adversaries, I should certainly have been 
worsted in the conflict, had it not been for the timely succor which 
I received from a few powerful and distinguished friends. Their 
interposition has not indeed been attended with all the success I 
could have desired, for it is in all cases easier to prostrate than to 
erect, to wound than to heal ; but they succeeded at length in effect- 
ing my return to China with an official title, and the credit neces- 
sary for the indispensable outlays attending the commencement of 
my publication. 

** Among those to whom I am under especial obligations, I may 
mention with a degree of pride and gratitude, MM. Guizot, Ville- 
main, D'Argout, Al. de Humboldt, Od. and Ad Barrot, Lamartiue, 
B. Delesijert, Max. de Lambert, and A. Firmin Didot. 

1845. Caliertf^s Dictionnaire Encychpidiqne. 139 

" It was under the auspices of these illustrious names, and with the 
hope of a most efficient patronage, that I ventured to purchase and 
bring to China a complete foundry of movable Chinese type prepar- 
ed in Paris by M. Marcellin Legrand, all the apparatus of a printing 
establishment, a library suitable for the vast researches upon which 
I was about to enter, in a word, all that was required for the prepa- 
ration and printing of the first volume of this work. 

'' Such is the present condition of the work ; from the sample pre- 
sented, the public may form their own opinions of its intrinsic merits, 
and of my own competence to warrant the possibility of its execu- 
tion; but at the same time, as the resources upon which I have been 
wont to rely are now spent, and the means requisite for the prosecu- 
tion of the work exhausted, unless I am freed from the embarass- 
ment in which my sacrifices have placed me, by timely and effectual 
relief, I shall shortly find it necessary to relinquish so expensive an 

** In nearly all the branches of human knowledge, which in the pre- 
sent age furnish food for the press in such abundance, the authors 
may hope from the proceeds of their works, to be able, at least, to 
defray the expense of their publication, even if they cannot expect 
to realize anything by way of profit. But in the present instance 
nothing of this kind can be anticipated, because, in the first place, 
the Chinese language having but few attractions, as an object of 
study, the number of those who engage in it is small, and in the 
second place, because people in general are not forward in subscrib- 
ing to works whose publication must- occupy a space of twelve or 
fifteen years, to say nothing of the vicissitudes to which even the most 
sanguine would be liable during the lapse of so long a period. It 
may be proper here to explain the reason why the printing of the 
first volume was extended to 150 copies, while that of the second has 
been limited at 50, though, in all probability, the last mentioned 
will exceed the actual demand. 

'* Whoever will call to mind the plan of the Dictionnaire Encyclo- 
pedique of the Chinese language, such as I proposed in 1842, and 
the long specimen accompanying it, will perceive that in the final 
arrangement of the work there are several important modifications. 
Upon tiiese I may add a few remarks. 

• *' 1. In accordance with the judicious advice of M. Villemain, I 
have in some cases abridged, and in others, suppressed entirely, 
the details relating to the manners, arts, and history of Chinti, which 
belong more properly to works especially devoted to these ^ibjects^ 
than to those which are professedly pUilolog'vci\\. 

140 CqUery's JOieiionnaire Encyclopidique. March, 

'* 2. I have not deemed it expedient to exhibit the pronunciation of 
each character in the Canton and Fukien dialects, seeing it varies 
considerably, according to the locality, and no standard work has 
yet appeared, which might serve as a basis for such an auxiliary. 

'* 3. Having reason, as I think, to believe that it would be useless to 
encumber this work with the ancient and abbreviated characters, 
which are indeed rarely studied by Chinese scholars, and may be> 
slides be found in the dictionaries published for this purpose, I have 
therefore confined myself to the modern classic character. 

" 4. In all cases, wherein a phrase has appeared to present somn 
diffiqulty, I have selected from the most approved authors a variety 
of examples calculated to illustrate the meaning, and show the cor- 
rectness of my own renderings. In the choice of these references, 
I have endeavored to exhibit as great a variety of style as possible, 
both for the purpose of showing the differences in phraseology, which 
appear to have occurred in the written language of China during 
the long period of its existence, and ^Iso to disabuse those of their 
error, who, from the trivial phrases with which some sinologues 
have crowded their voluminous productions, have been led to regard 
a knowledge of tho Chinese written language as a thing very easily 
to be acquired. For is it not as really injurious to the interests of 
a science, to conceal, as to exaggerate the difficulties i| presents? 

*' 5. It was announced in the beginning, that this work would be 
comprised in a compass of 20 volumes, of large size, 600 pages 
each; and such indeed would have been the arrangement, had I 
made use, as in the Prospectus, ^f Chinese stereotype plate, which 
being introduced with the French, would considerably drive th& 
print, and would require also a great number of figures of reference. 
Put by the acquisition of a set of movable Chinese type, each page 
is made to comprise nearly double the amount of maUer, and the 
number of volumes, is reduced to one half as many as were origi- 
nally contemplated. By this process, moreover, the typographic 
execution is suCBoiently expeditious to eo^ure the completion of the 
work in eight or ten years, and furnished to the public at a price 
varying but little from that at which it was originally fixed. 

'' 6. .Unforeseen circumstances of time and place have prevented 
me from availing myself of the hints of foreign sinologues, with 
whose concurrence I had hoped to be favored, at the time of publish- 
ing my^ prospectus, though further experience has shown that the 
singleness of re-sptmsibility to which I have been reduced has con- 
tributed rather to my advantage than detriment ; since the work is 

1845. CaUery^i DUiionuaire Encyclophdique. 141 

thus made to present a much more decided aspect of uniformity, 
and is exempt from the uncertainty which necessarily attends a con- 
trariety of opinions in the persons consulted, without obtaining, for 
the most part, a corresponding advantage to the science itself. For 
similar reasons also, I have had with me only a few Chinese teachers 
of unquestioned abilities; for when more are employed, it becomes 
impotisible to reconcile their differences of opinion, either, because 
some are more advanced in science than others, or because they 
prefer their peculiar notions to a real love of truth. I have made 
it a point, meanwhile, to consult several of the Hanlin, or members 
of the Imperial Academy of Peking, with whom 1 hold certain 
friendly relations, and among others may mention the celebrated 
Huan-gan-tun, already by his great literary and diplomatic talents, 
raised to distinguished eminence, and promising, when age shall 
have been added to his yet youthful experience, to rise to the high- 
est dignities of the empire. 

'* 7. In conclusion, I ^ould desire the public to observe an impor- 
tant addition made to my work, imparting to it a degree of authen- 
ticity with which no other of the kind has yet been imvested. It 
consists, in having cited under each of the phrases quoted in this 
dictionary, by means of a couple of letters used as a mark of refer- 
ence, the title of the work from which^ it is derived, in such a man- 
ner, that the Chinese student, by repairing to the original, may 
judge for himself of the correctness of my assertions, and determine 
with accuracy the epoch, when any form of expression first began to 
be used. It has cost me much labor, to make out in due form the 
long list of authors to which the marks of reference in the aforesaid 
citations refer. God f« bid that I should speak of the peculiar ad- 
vantage it affords, or gratuitously furnish weapons to those jealous 
individuals, whose sole profession appears to be, to criticise severely 
all that lies beyond the compass of their own abilities. For the rest, 
I say plainly, without reserve or pride, that I have no desire to avoid 
criticism, and while I shall always be ready, ingenuously to acknowl- 
edge the errors which may be pointed out in a spirit of c«indor and 
courtesy, I shall aim at the same time strenuously to defend all 
that appears founded in truth. 

•• Macao, 25th June, 1844. J. M. C." 

The mechanical execution of the volume is very fair; and to show 
as fully as we can its method and matter we quote two or three 
pages, commencing, on page 113 with — 

14^ Calhry*fi Dictionnairt EnrycUip^dique, March, 

Order 10. "? 

*' Though this is a radical character, yet I have entirely discarded 
it from my Sy sterna Phoneiicum^ because its compounds are all 
obsolete. But, as it may clearly be reckoned to hold a very natural 
place among the Phonetic Orders, characterized by L^ao its proper 
sound, and seeing it is itself in frequent use, though its compounds 
are not, I deem it proper to restore it to the place which it is wont 
to hold in the general system of Chinese writing. 

" Notwithstanding the simplicity of its form, it does not appear 
that this character has any affinity with the other phonetics : but the 
engravers frequently confound it with T , another radical character 
of three strokes, which will Bnd its proper place elsewhere. 

Order f I^J 4T IF ff ST H' 
Characters most in use "7 • 

*"/ L^ao 
. ** Resolved, determined, not doubting. A man of talents. The 
knowledge of something; to understand. Well-being, tranquility, 
satisfaction. It is finished : a form of expression oflen used in 
French, denoting that there is a termination, that all is spent or 
ended. This last sense, though rarely found in the higher order 
of composition, is yet of very common use in the language. 
^ "T Vain and perishable : epithets which the Budhists apply to 

human existence, id 
^ 'T Absolutely exhausted. L b 

^ Y To comprehend. J. C. 

MJk "Y To distinguish clearly. J V. 

■^ V A mind at rest s f, 

3jS [^ Just finished ; but just completed. H v. 

^^' ^ Finished reading. M t. 

sir T It is done ; it is finished, v z. 

I J Changed, fnf El # ffl f 1: # T ^^ ^***''' «P°^*» 
were they (the inundated lands) changed into plantations 
of mulberries and into fertile fields. Z j. 
^- "7 In peace ; having attained repose, j b. 

T Partly finished, k k, 

rTo have forgotten, g U. "^ 

"T To have surpassed others; to hold a prominent place, g Z 


1845. Caller y*s Dictionnaire EncyclopMque. 143 

"T A complete sentence ; a finished phrase, n t, 

^^ *7 Finished discourse; to have made an end of speaking. 

This answers to the Latin dixi or dixit, V t. 
^ "7 To have cut with scissors, g U. 

^ J Partly finished. M X. 

ly^ "T An intelligent mind ; to have applied the mind, u N. 

— * 7 To understand at once; in a twinkling, j A. 

'jj^ "7 Great talents, genius, h s. 

^ y Debts paid. 1 Y. '• 

^ "jp Not having effected. What is not yet understood. \j. 

^ jT Without end ; inexhaustible. The incomprehensible. Y L. 

yb y Very intelligent; possessing spirit, n t. 

^. *T Business finished. Lb. 

pT y To be able to leave ofT; to be able to refrain from. Q, D. 

ra| "T Difficult to be accomplished./ n t. 

^ y To be able to comprehend.^ g Y. 

p^ T* To have already comprehended. L b. 

~7 y Intelligent ; having a high degree of penetration. K ^j> 

]^^ ^ '^ i^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ It is not said because he 
was very intelligent in infancy, that on arriving at ma- 
ture age he will be a remarkable personage. L b. 

fi^ "7^ To have finished a repast, y S. 

|j-fSee;f.7. Jg. 

yQ jT First completed, g x. 

^ "7 To effect easily : to bring to pass without difficulty. ^ Tt 

A^^^Pl?^TlW*Bl#*^T Touching the 
important matters of the empire, they are not easily brought 
to pass, although many being occupied with each, they 
desire to see them speedily accomplished. L b. 

j^ *7 In peril and drawing near to its end. i M. 

83 "J* To comprehend. 1 Y. 

^ "?* To comprehend the whole. H v. 

^ "7 Actually finished. • J g. 

ibn "7 To perceive at a glance ; to know at once. M Y. 

144 Callery*s Diciionnaire Enryclop^Mqut. March, 

^ jT The work is done, behold the result, here is an end of the 

matter, there is enough of it B r. 
f|g J Hardly finished : what is barely accomplished, o g. 

1^ nr To bring an affair- to its close. Actually to finish. To 

perceive of himself. L b. 
& J Niathliao: thus those are called in the language of the LieU" 

kieu islands who constitute the police of the villages, u N. 
jH. nr All fiuished, all spent. L b. 

^ "j^ To effect all alone ; to be alone in understanding, j A. 

/^ 7 To distinguish clearly, to know how to discriminate with 

accuracy, u N. 
|JS J Just finished ; recently concluded, o ti. 

|tt "l^ Finished throughout ; all completed, u N. 

Ufl "T '^^ '^® clearly. 1 Y. 
Mf t Easy to accomplish. Easy to understand. 
5^ J^ J^ Household matters finished, n n. 
^ J^ ^ Public affairs concluded. Lb. 
§^ W T ^^^ ^^" bring it to an end ? e A. 
-« /fr "y To have attained the great object of human life, z B. 
f Terminated at the third watch of the night. 1 Y. 

1 Name of a bird resembling the paroquet, which possess- 
es the faculty of imitating the human voice, c f, 
I The labors of the spring finished. Reference is had 
here to the labors of the husbandman, h a. 
^ ^ I The spring also ended, b z. 

yj^ Hk I ^^^ y^^ ^^'® ^^ understand. T x. 
IM* ^ 1 Soon finished, s /*. 

1s^ fl^ 1 '^^P^^'^^^^ ^^^'^ ^^^ affairs of the world ; a mundanis 

euris iiher. g U. 
Pl^ th I To have nothing to do ; to be entirely unoccupied, c I. 

^ yj|\ I To dispute perpetually ; interminable quarrels, g.8. 

^ >f\ I What cannot be seen ; that which cannot be fully per- 
ceived, h P. 
4ff fft nr Without means of accomplishing. Litt. in Latin, carens 
. unde.Jimai, y o. 

1845. Remarks on the Wards God, Spirit, and Angel 145 

J^ B^ J '^^ finish in its time ; to finish when the time for it has 

arrived, i p. 

7r fn J Beyond the compass of things feasible ; what exceeds 

your abilities, j A. 

T^ T ^^'^ ^^ ^^®"' ^"^'8*^ ? X c. 

¥i^T ^^^^ ^»" »^ appear? q/ 

f^ tE J '^^^ foxes and rabbits have entirely disappeared, g 9. 

1% 'LC^ 7 '^'^^^ thought has passed ; I think no more of it. c M. 

|l^ jf^ "T Not to have finished drinking ; to drink without end. 

V t. 
^^ "f "J^ To fear to pause here, p L. 

P5 @ Hll 7 '^^ perceive at a glance of the eye. L b. 

/k. P^ 'ffi "y To perceive at once on entering ther house. I X. 

IS ^ |3 T ^^^^"^ ^^ ^^s vie^ a1^ w^ >i vncre vanity. M. T. 

We will not complain of Mr. Gallery for publishing his book in 
his own, the French tongue, though we for ourselves should have 
liked it better in the English or Latin language. In making the 
foregoing translation from the French we hope we have not failed 
faithfully to represent his meaning. The type used in the body 
of his book is like that given on page 125 of this number, both fonts 
we believe having been cast from* matrices made by the same set of 
punches. The work is worthy of patronage, and when completed 
will be a very valuable accession to the means now available to the 
student of the Chinese language. The number of subscribers in 
December was fifty-two. 


Art. VII. Queries and remarks on ike trcanlation into Chinese, 

of the words God, Spirit, and Angel. 
Rbfbrrino to the proposed translation into Chinese of the words 
God and Spirit, given in our last number from a Correspondent, an 
Inquirer desires us to put to him the folk>wing questions. 

'M. Has he ever consulted the passages ni the ShUi King, ^ |^, 

and in Mang tsz\ "^ ^, where Shdngti, J^ ^, occurs; and 

can he quote a single passage in which it conveys the name of an 
imaginary being? 

'*2. Has he ever read in the Tdtsing Humi Tien, j^ ^^ ^ ^, 

VOL. XIV. NO. III. 19 

146 Remarks on the Words God, Spirit and Angel. March, 


Inhere the-same phrase is expressly used to deooie the Slipreme Being ; 
and can he adduce from that work a single passage to establish his 

"3. Has he ever read in Chinese history that, during the H^n dy- 
nasty, some priests of T&u were prosecuted for profaning this name 
by applying it to their idols? 

"4. Can he quote a single passage in which Shin, ^, has the 

meaning, and is suited to the purpose, for which he contends? 
''A mere reference," continues our second Correspondent, *' will 

settle the question regarding ling, flK^ Ask whether Shdng Ji^ 
ih '^ 5 Hwdng shdngH, ^^ Jl ^ ; T'ien ti ch( tdi chu, J^ 
i& ^ :^ i 5 riVn chU tdi chA, 3^ ;^ :^ i; Wdn urtih chi 
chd tsdi, H i^ ;^ i ^ ; Wdn wuh chi yuen ch6, H !^ ;^ 

7C^> 'Sr/uiijgr chu, J^ i? ^"* ^^^ >fe i> ^^'' <^n^®y "«* 
something to the Chinese mind t'* 

H^te end the brief, but pertinent interrogations of our Inquirer. 
•He must know, however, that it is much more easy to make such, 
than to answer them. The answers are what the translator now re- 
quires ; or rather, he needs the results of the most careful investiga- 
tions. The Chinese language is exceedingly copious ; and in a 
work of such transcendent importance, as that of translating or revi- 
sing the oracles of<jod, no labor, no expenditure of time and means 
should be wanting for its most perfect execution. There are many 
words, such as Gc^, spirit, soi^l, conscience, faith, repentance, &c., 
&C., which require particular attetition. We will here instance 
a single word and give something of that sort of investigation which 
we consider desirable, in order to secure a proper translation. We 
will take the word 0177^X0^, commonly translated atigel. 

In the New Testament this word occurs, in its' various forms and 
connections, 186 tiroes; and in our authorized English version, it is 
translated one hundred and seventy-nine times by the word angel 
or angels, and seven times by the word messenger or messengers. 
The latter passages are Matt. 11:10; Mark 1:2; and Luke 7: 27, 
Luke 7 : 24 ; 9 : 52 ; 2 Cor. 12:7; and James 2 : 25. In all these 
cases it is applied to human beings; and is translated sometimes by 

the word chdi, j^; sometimes by ^>'>^; &nd sometimes by the 

two coupled. 

We turn now to the other and larger division, where the word is 
rendered angel or angels. It Will be seen by inspection of the ex- 
amples, given on the opposite page, that diflferent Greek phrases ure 
rendered by the same Chinese words, «nd the same Greek by differ- 
ent Chinese. We have run over the Hf hole list of texts^ 179, and 
if we have not mistaken their meaning, they will all come under 
one or other of the sixteen examplef». 

1845. Remarks on the Words God, Spirii and Angel 









« 2: 

•o » 12 i? .5 \: « «r w 
:5 "S fS f8 -c ^ -S « 15 

JZ n S o o w o J^ 

bo bo -2 





^boSb-^'o «> o'q5ti)^^«'a) 2 bo 
»e bO bobOao ^a o o >^ bo ^ « 

boo; « 4) "■» bo 0) « «"&» bo» 

B ;C j= -c a fie fi-crf5;c£* aa.£ 















^ - I §^ I |: r: 



»3 «* 





5 3 e »- > «; ? 
|: g. I ^ ^ ^ .F 

•* ,2 I i^ t^ ^ 5i S 

"* S 2 a 2 ^' S «> - «> ^ •" 

^* ^ 00 ©< -^ 


H ©I 

2 S 5 

O O fl0 

^ < s 

^ W5 « 

148 Journal of Occurrences. March, 

The reader will see that Nos. i-5, each diflfering from the other 
in the original, are all translated by tHen sz\ ^ ^, heavenly mes- 
sengers ; a phrase used by Morrison, Milne, and most if not all of 
those who have come after them. In Nos. 6, 8, and 10, 8z\ ^, 
is used alone. In No. 7, 5/iift sz\ j|[b ^, divine or spiritual mes- 
sengers occur ; in No. 13, fien shin, ^ iiA, heavenly messengers, — a 
phrase used by the Roman Catholics; and in No. 14, we have kwei, 
l^g, a demon, or evil spirit. In No. 15, ckdi and sz\ ^{$9 
are synonymous, and are the same that occur in Mark 1,2. In No. 
16 the two words sz^ yuh^ /j^ i& are synonymous, or nearly so. 

Lest we weary the general reader, we will not extend our remarks 
any further on this head, and will only add a few of the many Chi- 
nese phrases in which sz\ j|S, is found. 1. l^ien sz\ ^^9 
heavenly messengers; kidng sz\ JX f^i ^'^^' messengers; 5tft^ 
sz\ S wr» ^^^^ messengers; wang sz\ ^ ^t royal messen- 
gers ; Icwok ST^f ^ ^g, national messengers; hwdng sx*, ^^ ^\ 
august messengers; s)\ ^ Wfl, literary, divine messengers, 
and is applied by the Chinese to the tortoise! For full explanations 
of these, and a hundred others, we must refer the Chinese scholar to 
the Pei wan Yun fu of K^nghi. From the investigations, of which 
the preceding notices are but a brief, we are led to this conclusion, 
that sz\ ^S, is the best translation of a^^^Xo^. 

Art. VIII. Journal of Occurrences: Christianity in China; 
Protestant missionaries ; new teacher for the Mor, Ed. Soc: 
assault and battery in Canton; evacuation of Ktddng sit, 
riot there; Hongkong ; Macao, new port regulations. 
Thb Christian missionary enterprise is not one of doubtful issue. 
The uttermost parts of the earth have been given to God's dear son, 
with all power iii heaven and earth, and Be will have the people of 
all lands mme to the knowledge of his truth, that so they may be 
saved. The promises of God assure his people that in the latter days 
the kingdom of Christ shall be universal. The wider the leaven of 
Christian piety extends, the more rapid will be its progress. Its 
incipient advances may be scarcely perceptiblein agreat mass; yet the 
whole will be leavened. No principle is more activejthan godliness. 
Not one rigiitly directed effort, for Christ and his church, will ever 
fail. TlieliOiBmand is universal: go and preach the gospel to every 

1845* Journal of Oceurrenut. 149 

creature,— make disciples of all nations. The promises of success 
are as full and sure as possible. Let there but be prompt and impli- 
cit obedience, and success will be certain and complete. God's 
providence too, like his work, affords us strong grounds of encou- 
ragement. As soon as the churches turned their attention to this 
country, a way was found for the gospel. Protestant missionaries, 
4^^ was supposed, could not secure a residence here. The experi- 
ment showed that such supposition was false. Morrison had it in 
his heart to come ; and he came, labored long and successfully, and 
died in the field, opposition notwithstanding. Others joined him ; 
and succeeded to his labors. And in proportion as the number of 
• missionaries has increased, the field has opened. And so, we be> 
lieve, it will be in future. " Ask and ye shall receive, seek and ye 
shall find," are divine promises, and God's government makes their 
fulfilment sure. As the good seed is sown and watered, so will be 
the harvest. Thus it has ever been. In the church militant — the 
kingdom of Christ on earth — every aggressive movement against the 
powers of darkness will increase the trophies and augment the glo- 
ries of our Great Redeemer. He will provide for his own ; and as 
the captain of their salvation, will lead them triumphantly through 
every scene of trial, giving them abundant success. Why should 
it not be so? Whose are the cattle on a thousand hills? Whose 
is the sea? Whose the earth? Whose are the kingdoms of the 
world and all their vast and varied revenues, armies, navies, and 
treasures? And were these not enough, legions of angels could be 
put in requisition. All things shall work together for good to those 
who love God ; and angels are his ministers, attending continually 
on those who are to be the heirs of salvation. Only a little while 
ago there was but one protestant missionary in China, and he had 
access to but one small* spot. To that he was confined, and there 
narrowly watched lest he should disturb the peace of the empire, by 
publishing abroad the peaceful religion of Jesus. In the course of 
a few years, -what do we witness? When the numbers of missiona- 
ries had considerably increased, and they had prepared themselves 
for active service, the exclusive power of the monarch must be bro- 
ken, and new fields opened for their labors. The gread Head of 
church, in his inscrutable providence allowed the powers that be to 
come into angry collision. An armed expedition, comprising large 
military and naval forces, was collected on the coast of this empire : 
city after city was opened before them ; and the storm of war was 
not hushed, until wide doors were opened for the the gospel. 

Three treaties have been formed, all of which will act more or less 
favorably on the missionary enterprise, by securing some degree of 
religious toleration. Previously to these treaties missionaries were 
liable to suffer death for endeavoring to propagate Christianity. But 
by the provisions of the French treaty, whatever Frenchman may be 
seized in the interior, must be delivered over to the nearest consul 
and is to be tried, in case of offence, by French laws. So with 
others. The policy of the Chinese government towards foreigners 

150 Journal of Occurrences, March, 

has become, not only more tolerant, but more conciliating. That 
lofty bearing, once so characteristic of this government, allowing itself 
to claim universal supremacy, has been changed; and there is now 
a willingness (forced indeed) to yield equality, and treat others as it 
would be treated. The tide has fairly set in favor of reform, and it 
will be found irresistible. The foreign relations of China are now so 
changed, that this government, in order to preserve peace at hom 
or abroad, must consult with other nations and conform, in a greater 
or less degree, to their usages. To retract, and go back to its former 
isolated state, is now impossible; and not many ye^rs can elapse^ ere 
western governments will have their ministers plenipotentiary in Pe- 
king, and, at their owii capitals, representatives from the court of 
China. In a few years, the whole length and breadth of the country 
will- be traversed by foreigners as freely and securely as the continent 
of Europe: So we expect. 

Books and teachers, for the acquisition of this language, once 
contraband and forbidden, are now secured to us by solemn treaties. 
No one now need shrink from the task of acquiring this language, — a 
task which -he may accomplish without encountering any very great 
difficulty. We hope we shall not much longer hear this called -' the 
most difficult of all languages," or its acquisition pronounced an 
impracticable thing. If men have a mind for it, they may acquire 
it, and preach in it clearly, fluently, and forcibly the plain and solemn 
truths of the Bible. Encouragement we also find in the growing 
desire among both the governors and governed to become acquainted 
with whatever belongs to Christendom. This is bringing them nearer 
and binding them more closely to those nations from which the 
blessings of Christianity are to be derived. New arts, new sciences, 
a new literature, and a new religion will soon spread over the Chinese 
empire. The opening of the new ports has served, and will continue 
to serve favorably for the increase of knowledge and the extension of 
true religion. Our greatest encouragement, however, is derived from 
ihe direct efforts now making to give the gospel to the Chinese. Let 
these be continued and increased, and erelong the inhabitants of this 
empire will become a Christian people, and the Church of Christ in 
China number its millions and tens of millions. 

' Regarding the toleration of Christianity, noticed on page 1.%, we are still 
-without authentic information farther than this, that nothing has appeared in 
the Gazettes on the subject. . 

On the J 0th instant, the Rev. Hugh R Brown, missionary of the Am. 
Presb. Board, and Mr. i^muel W. Bonney teacher in the school of the Mor. 
Education Society, arrived at Hongkong, in the American ship Huntress 
from New York. Rev. T. M'CIatchie's name should have been included 
with the missionaries who sailed on the 20th ult for the north. 

On the 18th, at Canton, on the northern side of the city, a rude attack 
was made upon the hon. Mr. Montgomery Martin, Mr. Jackson, H. R M. 
vice-consul, and the Rev. Mr. Stanton. Proper redress wijj be sought, and 
no doubt readily giveiL 

Killing su was evacuated by the British forces on the 23d inst; and 
there are rumors of sOme recent disturbances there among the people. 

The following Regulations are copied from the ^China Mail." 


Journal of Occurrences. 


lUgtUanuHio de a/fandega de Macao. 

Art. 1. — Os capitaens de navios, e 
mais embarcavoena mercantes, nacio. 
naes, ou estrangeiroa que demandarein 
a Rada de Macao ou Taipa, sfto obriga- 
dos a receber o re^isto de Alfandega, e 
bem aasim a vizita do guarda-mor, ou 
de quem suas vexes fixer. 

§ . Os navios que ancorarem dentro 
da Barra coin carga, receberad tambem 
alem 4^ yisita, os ffuardas que o mes- 
mo guarda-mor collocar paim vigia do 

Art. 2. — Quando os nayios tenhAo 
a descarregar meroadorias para alfan* 
dega, OS capitaes sfto obrigados a decla- 
rar no registo, se effectuara a descarga 
dentro do porto, ou na Taipa. 

Art. 3. — Os navios que entrarem no 
anconidouro da Taipa poderfto descar- 
regar para Macao, ou para outros navi- 
os alii estacionados, ou ficarem com as 
mercadorias abordo, nfto sendo permit- 
tido a nenhum fazer leiloens de mer- 
cadoria alguma alii. 

Art. 4. — He exceptuado da regra a 
cinia o artigo Opio. 

Art. 5. — Os nnvios que fundearem 
na Taipa, findos 14 dias, sAo obrigadoa 
a pagar a ancoragem de 5 maxes por 
toneUdas, e esta ancoragem vallera pa- 
ja o navio por hum anno, quer entreoi, 
.on saifto dentro do anno, huma, ou mais 
vexes, B&o sujeitos a ancoragem, so as 
eoibarca^oens de 100 toneladas para 

Art. 6. — Quando ienhfto de descar- 
regar em Macao, os capitaens dos na- 
vios dentro de 48 horas depois de anco- 
rados, sfto obrigados appresentar o 
manifesto n* alfandega, em Portuguex, 
com a divida depcrip^fto dos artigos, 
volumes, marcas, numeros, e nomes 
dos consignatarios. 

Art. 7. — Os capitaens- dos navios 
fundeados na Taipa, ou no rio, s&o 
essencialmente responsavies abordo pe- 
•^la inteira ezecuffto das ordens que Ihes 
forem communicadas da parte d' alfan- 

Art. 8. — He absolutamente prohi- 
bido o dexembarque fora do caes de al- 
fandega, de qualquer volume por pi- 
queno que seja, com laxendas, gene- 1 
ros, ou effeitos sujeitos aos direitos, os 
quaes sendo dexiembarcados em qual- 
quer outro ponto, aerfto por ease facto 
tornados por perdtdos. 

§ . Os artigos de baga^m puraraente 
de uzo serad livres de direitos, ma;» su- 

RtgtdktionM of custom house, at Macao. 

Art. 1. — All ships and merchant 
vessels, wlietlier Portuguese or of other 
nations, that enter Macao Roads or the 
Typa, are required to receive the cus- 
tom house register as well as the sur- 
veyor, or whoever may be sent in his 

Ships with cargo thst anchor inside 
the Bar are required to receive the 
custom house officers despatched by 
the surveyor to see that the vessel is 

Art. 2. — When ships are to dis- 
charge merchandise at the custom 
house, captains are required to declare 
in the register if they are to discharge 
inside the Bar or in the Typa. 

Art. 3. — All ships entering the Ty- 
pa anchorage can discharge for Macao, 
or tranship the cargo, or they may 
keep it on board: but auctions of any 
kind will not be permitted on board. 

Art. 4. — Opium is excepted froin the 
operation of the above rule. 

Art. 5. — All ships that anchor in 
the Typa, are obliged, after fourteen 
days, to pay anchorage at the rate of 
five mace per ton. This' payment will 
clear ships for one year, and they will 
be allowed to go and return cfuring 
that ^period. Vessels under one hun- 
dred tons are exempted from ancho- 
rage dues. 

Art. 6. — When ^ship is to dis- 
charge 'cargo in Macao, captains are 
required within forty-eight hours aAor 
arrival, to deliver their manifests in 
Portuguese to the custom house, along 
with a description of goods, and a speci- 
fication of the bales, marks, numbers, 
and names of consignees. 

Art. 7. — Captains of ships l^ing at 
anchor in the Typa or in the river are 
held responsible for the proper execu- 
tion of orders from the custom house. 

Art. 8. — Psckagcs of whatever size 
containing goods or merchandise sub- 
ject to duties, are to be landed only at 
the custom house, and if landed at any 
other place, will be liable to be seixed 
and confiscated. 

Baggage and articles strictly in per- 
sonal use will be free of duties, but 
are uevertlieless to be subject to era- 


Journal of Occurrences. 

jectiw ao exame dai yigiast « ^ncon- 
trando-ae artigos que deveoi pagar os 
direitos aerad oondasidos a alfaodega 
para alli serem despchados. 

Art. D. — O eapiUo do navio que le 
acliar a deacarga dentro da Barra fard 
aempre acompanhar por huma peasoa 
da sua equipagem cada huma das em- 
barca^oens que de bordo despachar 
com carga para terra, devendo a mea- 
ma eml^rca^fto vir directamente ao 
caes d' alfandega, com a rela^ad da 
carga que tras. Esta rela^ad aeryiri 
para a competente verificaf ad a deacar- 
ga do manifeato. 

§ Fora da Barra as fazendaa aerfio 
acconipanhadas da rela^fto aaaignada 
de bordo, ou pelo patrAo de embarca- 

Art. 10— Todo o capiUo de navio 
mercante darfi parte a alfandega, l(Mro 
que liver conduido a descarga, a nm 
de aer veiiatado pelo guarda-mor, e 
neasa occaaiAo aera franqueado ao ditto 
empregado a acceaao a todaa aa partea 
do navio aem excep^fto alguma, e no 
oceaziAo da' viaite, aendo encontradoa 
effeitoa, que nfto forem declarado no 
manifeato, ou no acto da vizita ao 
guarda-mor, aerfto tomadoa. 

Art. 11. — Nenhom capitAo de navio 
mercante obteni a certidfto do deiem- 
baraco d*alfandeffa aem apprexentaro 
manifeato geral da carga que leva. 

Art. 12. — Oa navioa qoe importa- 
rem aomente carga de arroi aAo exem- 
ptoa come athe agora de ancoiugem, 
c direito d* alfandega, aujeitoa com tudo 
ao regulamento quaoto a tudo o ma is. 

Art. 13. — Os navioa qoe requere- 
rem Franquia, aer Ihe ha concedido por 
6 diaa, e havendo fundadoa motivoa, a 
alfandega podera ainda conceder mais 
diaa, cfurante oa quaea nad podera 
deacarregar mercadoria alguma, aalvo 
aquella ja concedidaa pela alfandega. 

j^tcT. 14. — Acontraven^Ao de qual- 
quer dos artigoa deate regulanientoa em 
oa quaes nfto aeja impoaU apenalidade 
10 a 200 taeis a favor da fazendanaci- 
onal, que aer* aatiafeita pelo capitfto 
contra ventor, respondendo jJor este, 
o navio, e fretes. 

Art. 1 5.— Huma copia impressa dea- j 
te regulamento aerA entergue aoa capi- 
Uiena, na occaziAo do registo, para nAo 
alleirarem ignorancia. 

* * O Director. 

Dcmetrio de Araujo x Silva. 
Macao, I do Mar^o, de 1845. 

mination by the custom house ofBcer; 
who, if he shall diacover any thing not 
duty free, will convey tlie aame to the 
custom houae to be there cleared. 

Art. 9. — The captain of any ship 
discharging inside the Bar, must send^ 
in each boat landing cargo, one of the 
ship's crew direct to the custom house 
wharf with a boat-note, which boat- 
note is to verify the manifest. 

Outside the Bar the goods must be 
accompanied with a boat-note signed 
by the surveyor. 

Art. 10. — All captains of merchant 
ships are to give notice to the custom- 
house as soon as the cargo is. discharg- 
ed, in order that the surveyor may 
visit and inspect the ship, and grant a 
certificate of clearance; and if he 
should then discover anything not de- 
clared in the manifest, the same shall 
be liableuto aeizure. 

Art. 11. — No captain of a merchant 
ahip shall obtain a certificate of clea- 
rance from the custom house without 
producing a general manifest of liis 
ship*s cargo. 

Art. 12. — Ships importing rice are 
exempt, as heretofore, from anchorage 
and custom house duties, but will be 
subjected to all other regulations of 
the port. 

Art. 13. — Ships anchoring in Macao 
Roads will be aJIowed to remain six 
days, and upon the reasons for ao doing 
bein|^ specified, the custom house au- 
thorities may grant additional days, du- 
ring which the ship will not be sufiTered 
to discharge any merchandise except 
what is permitted by the custom house. 

Art. 14— a contravention of any 
of the articles of these regulations on 
which a penalty is not here imposed, 
will incur a fine to the Portuguese go- 
verment of from ten to two hundred 
silver taels which shall be paid by the 
captain, the ship and freights being 
held liable for the amount. 

Art. 15. — A printed copy of these 
regulations will be delivered to every 
capUin, at the time of registering, that 
be may not plead ignorance of their 

The Director, 
DxsiKTRio DE Araujo b Silva. 
Macao, Ist March, 1845. 



Vol. XIV.— April, 1845.— No. 4. 

Art. 1. Embassies to ike court of Peking^ indicaiing the way 
they come^ the period of time^ and the number of persons com- 
posing them. Translated by a Chinese from the Ta Tsing 
Hwui tien. 

Guests' Court; laterally, office of clear officers who regulate the 

affairs of guests at the imperial court. 
Cha Veh tsing li sz\ 

± ^ •» s ^- ^ 

In this office, there are to be three Idngchung^ f^ (p, one of them 
is to be a Manchu, one a Mongolian, and one a Chinese; two 
yuenwdi Idng, Q ^ BR, one an imperial relation, and one a 
Manchu ; and also two chu sz^ "^ ^, one a Manchu and the other 
a Chinese. Its duty is to manage the tributary affairs of all countries, 
and the conferring of titles and gifts on them; also to regulate the 
annual tribute of imperial teas from Hoshin hien of Lungin chau in 
Ng&nhwui province. And whenever the imperial memoirs or the 
precious register of imperial relations are finished, the officers of this 
court have to manage the business of conferring gifts on those officers 
who have labored on these memoirs and registers. 

The countries in the four quarters of the world, which send embas- 
sies to the emperor of China and pay tribute are Corea, Liuchiu, 
Laos, Cochinchina, Siam, Sulu, Holland, Burmah, and those of the 
western ocean; all the other countries have only intercourse and 
commerce. The periods for all tributary countries to send their tri- 
bute, the way for tribute-bearers to travel, and the number compos- 
iug each embassy is fixed. 

VOL. XIV. NO. IV. '^^0 

164 Embassies to China. April, 

Whenever any tribute-bearers arrive, the local officers on the fron- 
tier must immediately report the same to the emperor ; if the emperor 
does not permit the embassy to proceed, the said officers (on the 
frontier) must forward in his majesty the memorial which they have 
brought from their own government, and report the articles of their 
tribute; if the emperor permits the embassy to proceed, the said 
officers must fix its numbers, the ceremonies of their audience, grant 
them gifts according to the fixed rules, provide for them what is 
necessary, (if any of them are sick or die,) show them compassio- 
nate charity ; and an escort of officers and soldiers must be provided 
to protect the tribute-bearers while on their way coming to and 
going from Peking. 

In conferring titles on the kings of foreign countries, an imperial 
edict or order must be bestowed on them ; and if they come for the 
first time to annex themselves to the imperial government, there is 
bestowed on them a seal. These investments are made by sending 
gifts together with an edict, order, or seal. Officers who are sent 
as messengers to go and deliver these edicts, seals, dLC, are all to 
be selected and appointed by a special order of the imperial will ; 
their ceremonial robes and all necessaries must be granted accord- 
ing to their rank. If it is necessary for the messenger to pass over 
sea, then orders for sacrifices to the gods of the sea must be issued. 
If any gifts are presented to the messengers by the kings or officers 
of the country to which they go, they^may either refuse or receive 
the same according to etiquette. When no commissioner is sent 
from the emperor, the edict or seal must be delivered over to the tri- 
bute-bearer of the said country, that he may take it back to his own 

The Chinese and foreign merchants are permitted to trade with 
each other in such things as they have, regard being had to the esta- 
blished prohibitions. Compassion and charity must be shown to 
foreigners who are lost by shipwreck, dec, and they must i>e sent 
away in safety. 

Foreigners of the western countries who are skilled in arts, or 
astronomy, and are willing to go and serve in Peking, must -first be 
reported by the local officers at the place where they arrive, and on 
receiving a reply, they may be sent with a safeconduct, to the capi- 
tal. The following are the countries from which embassadors have 
come with tribute to the court of Peking. 

Carea. This embassy comes to Peking by the city of Fung- 
hwang, through Shingking, entering the Sh^nhai kwao. Its tribute 

1845i Embassies to China, 155 

must be sent once in four years. The numbers of the embassj are 
to be one embassador, one deputy, a secretary, three interpreters, 
and twenty^bur men to protect the tribute. The number of servants 
and others is not fixed, but the imperial bounties are given to only 
thirty of them. 

. LiHeJdii, This embassy comes by the way of Nginchin of Fu« 
kien. Its period of coming is twice in three years. There are one 
embassador, and one deputy ; the number of interpreters and ser- 
vants, dcrC, is not fix^d. 

CockiMekina. This comes from P&ngsi4ng chau of Kwingsf, 
entering by the pass of Chinngin. It comes once in two years. 
There are two or three embassadors; the assistants may be from four 
to nine ; and the servants, d^c, may be ten or more. 

Laos. This comes by the way of Pd'urh fti of Yunnan. The 
period is to be once in ten years. The number composing the 
embassy cannot exceed one hundred; and those who go to Peking 
cannot be more than twenty. 

Siam. This comes by the Bogue of Kwdngtung. The time is 
once in three years. The embassadors may be two, three or four ; 
but the men who go up to Peking cannot exceed twenty-six. 

Siila, This comes by Amoy of Fukien, once in five or more 
years, one embassador, one deputy, one interpreter; but the number 
of followers is not fixed. 

HoUand, The Dutch embassy comes by the way of the Bogue, 
in Kwingtung; it has no fixed time. It may be composed of one 
or two embassadors, one head follower, one secretary; the olher 
followers cannot be more than one hundred, and those going to 
Peking cannot exceed twenty. 

Burmah, This embassy comes by the way of T&ngyuen chau of 
Yunnan, once in ten years. In the embassy there are the embkasador, 
head men, interpreters, and servants; they must not exceed one 
hundred in all ; those that go to Peking, cnnnot be more than twenty. 

The countries of the western ocean, (Europe) are Portugal, Italy, 
and England. These come by the Bogue of Kwangtung, and at no 
fisied periods. One embassy cannot have more than three ships, each 
^ip cannot exceed one hundred men ; the persons going to Peking 
roust not exceed twenty-two, the rest must wait on the frontier for 
their return. 

The foregoing extracts have lieen made from the 31st chapter, 
or kiuen, of the Collected Statutes of the Td Tsing dynasty. The 

156 Chinese Reminiseenees, April, 

original text is very brief, and is illustrated- and explained by very co- 
pious notes. The CAii l^eh sing li sz\ or Guests' Court, is one of the 
subordinate departments of the Board of Rites. Blending the aflfairs 
of the teas from one of the central provinces, with tribute and embas- 
sadors from " the four quartes of the globe," seems odd and incoii- 
graous to barbarians. But so it is in the Statute-book; and so it 
has been in practice. 

Among " the other nations," mentioned in the second paragraph, 
who have only commercial intercourse, we find the names of Japan, 
Acheen, France, Sweden, and some others which we are unable to 
identify with any in our English Gazateers. The reasons why these 
countries have not brought tribute are not mentioned. Great Bri- 
tain first brought tribute in the 58th year of Kienlung, a. d. 1793, 
but no reasons for it are given ; the phrase runs thus, Ying-kih-ll 
kwohj Kienlung urii shi pnk nt€n, kien pei ekin juh kung^ ^hit 

edition of the Collected Statutes, it is to be remembered, was pub- 
lished prior to the late war, and for aught we know, it is the latest 
extant. The publication of another edition, revised and made 
conformable to the new and altered relations of the Chinese empire, 
will be a matter of some interest to those who watch the political 
movements in the east. We remember to have seen it stated, among 
the reasons given by the governor of Canton why Mr. Cushing, 
the embassador, should not proceed to Peking, that the United 
States of America had never sent tribute to the celestial court. 


Art. II. Chinese Reminiscences , compiled from notes made by the 
late Dr. Morrison , in the years 1826-27. 

No. I. 

" Canton, October 27th, 1826. His excellency the governor has 
issued, throughout the two provinces under his authority, proclama- 
tions to the following purport. 

" That, since it is universally known in every province of the 
empire, where he has served, and especially in Canton, where he was 
deputy governor that his practice is, to attend to all aflfairs, whether 
great or small, in his own proper person, and not to depute them 

1845. Ckituit Reminiseeneei, 167 

to the management of others,^— and since his heart and hands are 
pure from bribes— -the friends he selects are honest men, and all 
soothsayers, diviners, and lounging artists are banished from his 
presence— he therefore informs the public, that all persons who may 
pretend to have access to him, and influence with him, are imposters. 
Instead of the people fearing such persons and suffering themselves 
to be intimidated and defrauded by them, he desires that they will 
seize the pretenders and bring them to justice. 

" In another proclamation he says, that in the districts by the side 
of the river — at Canton, Whampoa, and downwards to the sea, — both 
the land and water are infested by banditti, formed into brother- 
hoods, who rob and plunder, and carry off by violence, the persons 
of those who will not give them money, and accept of a pass from 
them. These paper passes are stamped with a seal. To facilitate 
the putting down of these illegal associations, his excellency offers a 
reward to all persons who may seize such criminals, or give infor- 
mation against them in case of their being too numerous for private 
individuals to attack, that the military may be sent to apprehend 
them. A reward for one criminal capitally convicted, and to be 
' decapitated or strangled, immediately on conviction, is one hundred 
and sixty dollars. The reward for those convicted of smaller crimes 
is prqportionably less. 

" It is reported outside-that the governor requires, for the imme- 
diate supply for the grand army now in the field, and in motion 
against the rebel Chingkihurh, from the hong merchants 600,000 
taels, from the salt merchants 400,000 taels, and from the country 
gentlemen 200,000 taels. Whether his majesty will accept of this 
' benevolence' or not is as yet unknown. The daily expense of the 
army is said to be 70,000 taels." 

No. 2. 

" Canton, November 6th, 1826. There is pasted up at the end 
of Hog Lane, a sort of proclamation from the hoppo, prohibiting 
foreigners from presenting petitions at the city gates, as a number 
of turbulent foreigners lately have done. The proper way to present 
petitions he says, is to give them to the hong merchants, to be by 
them transmitted to government, after having translated them into 
Chinese. Traitorous Chinese who assist foreigners to write petitions 
are threatened with punishment. This is a fresh encroachment by 
the local government on the freedom of petition : the city gates hav- 
ing been long considered the proper place to present petitions. 

'* The governor has issued a long proclamation containing regula- 

156 Chinese Reminiscenas. April, 

tioad- coDcerniDg boats on the river ; and the fishing and coasting 
craft; requiring. that they shall all of them have painted j on their 
sails, sides of the boat, and on the masts, in very large characters, 
the name of the boat, according to a previons entry made at certain 
stations appointed for the purpose. 

'* The newly appointed hoppo, Wan tnjin is said to be the 
younger brother of Yingho, the fifth minister of state. At : his 
late appointment there has been a considerable defalcation in the 
revenue, for which he is responsible; on which account his brother 
Yingho has solicited his majesty to appoint him to the hoppoship of 
Canton. . . . i 

. "The Peking Gazettes contain a few documents from the em- 
peror urging the utmost attention and care in providing supplies, 
and sending th^m uninterruptedly after the army that has gone to 

*' About a year agO| the emperor says, he directed all governors, 
deputy governors, treasurers and judges of provinces^ when writing 
letters of thanks, to employ the Tartar term niiisAif -bx^ ^1^, 'slave' 
for the pronoun I ; but on official business of a general nature to use the 
Chinese term, cAtn, ^,* servant.' This rule was, he says, distinctly 
stated to be for civilians; but the governor of K&tisuh, who is a 
Mongolian military offiQjBr, has presumed to drop the term ' slave,' 
and call himself a 'servant' in a late dispatch, sent to his majesty. 
This affectation of Chinese phraseology, the emperor considers very 
improper, and commands that it be not again adopted by Tartar 
military officers. 

" The mountaineers called Miiu tsz' in Kweichau pr6vince, by 
predatory attacks, are giving annoyance to the local government." 

No. 3. 
" Canton, November 8th, 1826. From the Peking Gazettes, it 
appears that the Board of Revenue, have had protracted delibera- 
tions on the state of the finances. By them it is declared that the 
income of government is not adequate to the expenditure. The 
deficit arises from the heavy expenses incurred by repairing the 
banks of the Yellow river ; by insurrections of the Midu tsz\ moun- 
taineers; but the greatest source of expense arises from the move- 
ments of the grand army opposing the Mohammedan rebels. To meet 
the expenditure, the Board recommend his majesty to abandon his 
resolution, not to make any new revenue laws. They suggest an 
increase of the charges paid by those who purchase nominal rank - 


1845. ' Chinese Reminiscences. 169 

and alao to reirive the usage, laid aside by the present emperor on 
his accession to the throne, which allowed those who had been 
implicated and deprived of office, to repurchase eligibility to the 
same office. Now in the time of- financial embarrassment, say the 
Board, it should be remembered that China has been preserved in 
a state of social order and tranquility, by the reigning family, up- 
wards of one hundred and eighty years, and there is not a subject 
living who eats the herbs, and treads the soil of China, who has not 
beea bom and bred under the auspices of the dynasty. It is there- 
fore expected that both the literary class and the common people 
wU] not regret a trifling addition to the taxes, but will rejoice, and 
leap for very gladness, to come forward and assist on the present 
oceasion. Appended to the suggestions of the Board there is a list 
of the items of increased taxes, and the regulations- to be observed 
by those who repurchase official situations.'' 

No. 4. 

" Canton, November 10th, 1826. His excellency Li, the governor 
of Caiiton, has issued a proclamation to the following effisct. It has 
come to his knowledge, that the trading boats on the numerous 
creeks and rivers- of Canton, are greatly molested by piratical boats, 
pretending to the authority of government, and giving out that they 
are in search of opium and other smuggled goods. Undejr the pr' • 
text of searching, they rob and plunder every boat they attack, and 
otherwise misuse the people who at all resist them, and the governor 
acknowledges that the trading people, rather than lose time in vain 
prosecutions, often put up with the injuries received. He threatens 
to punish with the utmost rigor of law— even death, in any case that 
the law will permit any persons who may be brought before him 
charged with the crimes alluded to. 

*^ His excellency is evidently between the two horns of a dilemma. 
He but a few days ago issued orders of the most minute kind for 
numbering, and lettering, and naming, and registering of all sorts and 
kinds of boats; aodthus was raised the expectation of a constant 
and rigid search by government cruizers. The river pirates have 
seized hold on this circumstance, and originated a necessity for the 
proclamation of this day. 

''A rather serious disturbance occurred lately on the Grand 
Canal, the waterman resisted and mocked and insulted the armed 
police usually attached to those fleets of. boats, which made it ne- 
cessary to call in a miKtary force. There is moreover an endeavor 
to restore the coasting conveyance for rice, instead of the Grand 

160 Ckiiuse Reminiscenus^ April, 

Canal, and the conflicting parties as interest inclines are sending in 
conflicting statements. Thej are all accused however of employing 
various expedients to increase the bulk and weight of the grain. 
Some increase it bj *' physic," as the Canton people say, about ten 
per cent. But according to the Peking Gazette the " physic/' in the 
■ space of one hundred days, destroys the grain. 

" There is a sullen silence preserved in the Gazettes concerning 
r the rebellion of the Mohammedan tribes. The local government how- 
ever is said to consider it in every way a serious national calamity. If 
suppressed the expense will be ruinous, and some individuals, who 
read ike starSf think the dynasty is drawing to a close. The replies 
of his majesty to memorials on national affairs contained in the 
Gazette are very laconic, such as, 'Record the document;' *Be 
it so ;' < I know it" 

No. 5. 

" Canton, Nov. t3th, 1826. The space for placards on the walls 
of the city having become scarce, the magistrate of this district 
has caused a square board to be attached to the upper part of a 
pole, so as that a man or boy can carry it conveniently, as is done 
in London. On this Board the magistrate has written — 

** Mind your doors, 
«« Watch your fires." 

** The people laugh- at his vigilance as quite unnecessary, for 
they are deeply enough interested in doing what he exhorts them 
to, to render his admonition quite superfluous. They turn round 
and bid him mind his proper business — for by his neglect and 
cruelty it is said upwards of two hundred persons died in prison 
last year. And many of these were perfectly innocent, being either 
arrested on suspicion or implicated by others. 

" The Peking Gazette contains a long letter from the governor of 
that province on the distress which prevails in the southern part 
of it ; first from excessive rains, and subseqiiently from a want of 
rain. The expense to government in supplying the starving poor 
with rice, water^ d&c., be estimates at several hundred thousand 

** In Ilun&n province the rivers to the southward of the great 
Tungting lake have, in consequence of heavy rains overflowed 
their banks and inundated the surrounding country, carrying away 
cottages, houses, public offices, and the prison of Chdngshi, the 
chief city of the province. The loss of lives is represented aa 
considerable. His imperial majesty speaks of all this distress with 

1845. dtiieje Reminisunees. 161 

coniiiiisseralion, and directs the usaaJ relief, afforded by gOTernment 
io such cases, to be granted to the distressed," 

No. 6. 

" Canton, December 2d, 1826. ExtracU from the Peking Ga- 
zettes, dated at court, October 23d, have been received. His ma- 
jesty expresses great satisfaction on account of a victory over a rebel 
party at Aksu or Oksou, iat. 41* 09' W., long. 79* 13' E. They 
were but a small party ; and, although they opposed the imperial 
troops with musketry, when crossing a river, they were all killed by 
a shower of darts and arrows. A few stragglers were taken, and, 
after having undergone an examination, were hanged and left sus- 
pended in ierrarem. Several thousand muskets, swords, and spears 
were taken, and a thousand head of cattle and sheep. The emperor 
expects that the grand army will erelong concentrate at Aks(i, and 
exterminate the rebels. 

" TM last article in the extracts, of the above date, contains per- 
mission for a European astronomer Kaushau kien^ (whose name 
stands JC^A in the imperial almanac for next year) to return home to 
wait upon his aged mother till her death. The governors and de- 
puty governors of provinces are commanded to furnish him with a 
guide through the provinces, and not to permit his lingering on the 
road, which might lead to some disturbance. Should his aged 
mother die soon after his arrival in Europe, he need not return to 
Peking. On his arrival at Canton the governor is directed to take 
proper care of him and urge his speedy departure." 

No. 7. 

" Canton, December II th, 1826. The regular Peking Gazettes, 
up to Sep. the 25th, and extracts from later ones up to November 
1st, have been received. They are filled with papeis concerning the 
military operations in Tartary. 

" A censor has ventured to write against the new law pro- 
posed by the Board of Revenue. He sent in his paper on the same 
day as the Board did theirs, of which circumstance the emperor 
avails himself to repremand him, and deliver him over to a court of 
inquiry, — for he had no business to know anything concerning the 
project, till the emperor had published his opinion. His majesty 
defends this, or some similar measure, on the grounds of ancient 
usage in time of war ; and the reasonableness of raising fresh sup- 
plies for extraordinary exigencies instead of appropriating the regu- 
lar internal income of the government to the preselit external mili- 

VOL. XIV. NO. IV. 2I> 

102 Chinese Reminiscences. Afkil, 

tary operations. Grain is abundant in Tartary, he says; but the 
transport occasions a very heavy expense. 

" Several of the officers on Formosa, who permitted the burning of 
villages, and other acts of violence by the insurgents, are punished 
by dismissal from the service, and others are delivered over for trial 
to the appropriate Board. 

" Yingho, the minister who was praised by his majesty, for re- 
suming the practice of sending grain to the capital by sea from the 
southward, has written a letter of thanks. In his letter, he says the 
practice had been discontinued 200 years. The dynasty abandoned 
it on account of the Japanese pirates. 

'* There are from sixteen to twenty junks going from Canton to 
Tientsin carrying dried fruits, sugar, glass-ware, camlets, woolens, 
opium, dLC, in small quantities. They sail about the beginning of the 
6th month ; and return in the 11th with ripe fruits, sheep and deer's 
hams, skins, ^lc.^ Each junk invests between 20,000 and 30,000 

No. 8. 

" Canton, January 6th, 1827. His imperial majesty has observed 
and censured certain irregularities in the etiquette of the court, 
which indicate a spirit of assumption on the part of thoee members 
of the imperial family who have the title of wang^ a king. To these, 
ministers of state only bend the knee ; but to the princes of the blood, 
sons of the emperor, they are required to remain on their knees, 
when they present their respects. He has observed this rule violat- 
ed, and blames it. A Tartar writer also has, when addressing by 
petition one of the kings, cslled himself n^tsdi, a slave ; which is 
condemned, as giving too much honor to the king, and as being 
even worse than remaining on the knees when addressing him. The 
court of inquiry recommended that the Tartar writer should be chas- 
tised as well as degraded snd dismissed : but the emperor is satis- 
fied by ordering his dismissal. Part of his crime was getting up a 
document which related to the emperor, on an inferior material, 
under the pretext of economy. It wss found however that he did 
not put the money saved into his own pocket, and therefore he was 

** Duke Ho, of lord Amherst's embassy, has written to the emperor, 
saying, that his present appointment as horse-keeper in Tartary, is 
one of no importance ; and therefore he begs leave to be permitted to 
join the grand army, now proceeding against the Mohammedan 
rebels. The emperor is displeased by the proposal, and denies the 

request : a44>n£^»^hat }W^ conduct is yei^y impfopef. B^t, (is he 

thioks \\\A pre3^t oj^f e of liltl^ i^ippr^i^pce, bis majesty r^lkves hio^ 

from it; apd prd^ra him to coinQ toi ^e)cing apd wait for farther 

order... ..,,,. , f ■• 

. . •• A niiliurs pfficer at 4kai) ip TarUf y,, .in fjpnseqnence ofbin 

fillher^a d^a^lv, ha^ reque^tfid penpi^qn |p return fiqipe, i|nf} pbserve 

rhe ^su»l period pf nB94rniRgr T^P WB«!0' T.^fuW hia rpqpeft, 

9n«l 4e9im tl»«;bp will m* fW 4.qWfi8i»9. ^ffs*!*! ^Wl^P^ na^»o°»! 
ones. When he has subjugated the rebels, and returns vietprioua, 

fit tpijll. be pernnHpit M) g(| ijome fj^^iipqurp for fiis fallypi;." 

• . . ; / ! .; • ,i Nft- Q. / • . '. » .f 

t? CMtpn, Jaiipary |OtJi, lg?7. TJh^ latpft regpUr Qfia;elt^. bfipg 
d<wwn the P^ing .^flAiU <ft O^t.pbe?, ^M. Th^ 9?ppnfl io coipmanc} 
T^ng Yuchun, has announced repeated victories over the rebels a^ 
Aksii, o^ a«iapmi| of ytk^oi^ h\s, qnajfs^y i^xprei^seif gfeat saiisfaption. 
A few tb<N>89nds (WOr^ kiilefl Pr t^i^f n prisopers. Standarflff, ipusk^ty 
i^nd horses innpam^rAble vjerie. capitured |on th(e .qc^afjon. . ^ , : 
. " The ' Rojl'd ^r I^^y^BUQ i^ coiQpiand^ to issq^ two :ini)Ii^|| of 
la^is^ in additiomio four roiUii^nB alfef dy f^dya^ced to thf; ^jpipiiiifffa- 
Tiat in K^Rfph province.; : .. ,• ,: , : 
. '^ T.^ gc^fsraly Above ifsfprred io^ h^ writ^pn |o infofo^ hif ipajesty 
ihU the so)f)iers in Tartfiry ^re puifffarjug a goy;^ defl froijn the cq!4: 
nfW of thp Bfi^app. Tfee^ fifPW^pr l>aa *b??pf9>^c offered tea taela ^ 
man to be advanced to the army, in order to pr/ov^fle jtheroselves with 
^e»:v^ssarie8. Tl^rebM^ been oiore offe|rs fjif feryice tp join the army 
i» Tartary,, but they .i^re Jikp the former mep ^pcjinefl. 

. f'Tbe autUDYpal .dj^ath warxfipt, figp^c) \^Y^)^^l^^^?^^9^ ^^ ^igbt 
RWW5pfi8ive pfiripils tfeis yefur, fmq^nifp^U jlnCapfoq fifty dnfi 
are to be executed within 40 d^jra ai^ir,(tii|a {ligffpg 9f ^he warran^. 
,l^,l(.yf^^gBi ,twputy4yp. Iq Sz'pjii^n pr<vrijif5/B, qjnpty.fpur. are 
.^ot'be executed .w^ihin .t)ie jsamer pfsfiod. T)ierp ^re n^e to be ex- 
tf^uted J^bo' .wer/a trif d ^fore the .eippjsrcur ;. t^eji^ crimes are pqt 

ffPfCCified. ' , . f . r . i'.; • . 

.; *'^lfk pddjtipn to jthe p!ar9p^ari astf opomer, w^o hpa been di3mis^efl 
jal his owA request, another i^ ^9^ .away on acqoi^nt of his ^ge and 

.ifi(ir|ni4ief9. . They fure ordered t|9 trayel togetiier t,o Caiiton, an^^ ar,e 
%obfi ^tpi from M.^Pf^P ^ )^^Ppe jby jL^e ^o^e.rnor of the proviiice. 

iNo.'^p. •' ," .' ■; . 

' ")CfffV>o>^^^Ty r^^th, 1827. A^pfficial disptatch from the com- 
mander of the -forces, Y^ng Yi^chuq at Uaiiii, to his imperial mf- 

104 Chinese Reminiscences, April, 

" Y5ng Yuchun hereby respectfully states to his majesty successive 
victories over the rebels for the consolation of his sacred mind. 

**On the 1st of the 9th month (October 20th, 1826,) I arrived at 
Hami, where I received letters from Ch^ngtsing and Talingah, say- 
ing that on the south of the river Hwanp^shih, to the southward of 
Aksii, the rebels had posted themselves with a design of opposing 
our troops. On the 21st (November 9th), they had gone westward 
along the river and burnt Chahalakih, and had plundered the village 

*' Talingah with Pahapu took under their command the imperial 
troi>ps from Oroumtsi ; also Tourgouth and Muiigku forces, and 
went along the course of the river in pursuit. Having arrived at 
the spot, they divided themselves into two branches to oppose the 
enemy. ' 

** On the 22d at a shallow part of the river, the imperial forces 
crossed, under a discharge of musketry and cannon from the rebel 
banditti. The imperial troops, with impetuous courage straight for- 
wards rushed and also simultaneously sent forth musketry and ar- 
rows, which killed upwards of three hundred of the rebels. Alive 
were taken upwards of forty. The rebel banditti retired, crossed 
the river, and fled to the southward. The government troops pur- 
sued as far as the great Mohammedan village, where they burnt to 
death upwards of a hundred persons, and seized innumerable cattle 
belonging to the rebels. 

** Unexpectedly another division of the rebels crossed the river. 
They were opposed by Kih'urhfakih, but the troops being weak and 
few wei'e unable to withstand the shocks and were by the rebels dis- 
persed. Onother party of the rebels either attempted to surround 
our troops or to cut off communication. 

" When I received these accounts, I was much alarmed and extre- 
mely anxious for the defense of Aksfi ; to which city I sent such 
orders, and assembled such forces, as not only saved the place, but 
completely routed the rebel party, three hundred of whom were put 
to the sword. The horsemen escaped for the moment. The pur- 
suers decapitated the slaughtered bodies of the fallen enemy, and 
eventually overtook those who fled, a hundred of whom were dis- 
mounted and killed ; on examining the dead bodies it was believed 
one of the slain was a leader of the rebel party. 

" Some of the prisoners were examined and executed. The whole 
proceeding, the geperal says, is sufficient to evince the aid of heaven 
against the rebels ; and to cheat the hearts of men. To which his 

1S45, Chinese Reminicences. 165 

majesty responds : " Very chearing to men's hearts/' and with his 
vermilion pencil marks several sentences, and concludes by saying 
he was infinitely gratified by the perusal of the dispatch, promising 
at the same time to reward the victors.'* 

'* The accounts of the fall of Cashgar, when his majesty shed 
tears as he read the document, are subsequent to the preceding affair. 

" Lung^au, one of the imperial house, who for his dissolute and 
riotous conduct was sent to Kirin, in eastern Tartary, has made 
his escape, and strict orders are issued to apprehend him. He 
mu$t be taken — says his imperial majesty. 

'' A military officer of some rank has committed suicide, because, 
it is alleged, he could not obtain permission to return home and 
repair the tombs of his ancestors, which had been injured by an 
inundation. The emperor suspects there was some other cause, and 
has ordered a strict inquiry to be made on the subject. 

" During heavy rains and sleet in the province of Hon4n, great 
fears were entertained that the Yellow river would burst its banks, 
but happily, through the exertions of the officer appointed to watch 
against such an occurrence, no material injury was sustained. His 
majesty expresses great gratitude to the river god, and has sent ten 
large Tibetan sticks of incense to be burnt before the image, and 
has directed that worship be paid and sacrifices offered in the em- 
peror's name. 

" His majesty has issued a severe censure on duke Ho, of lord 
Amherst's embassy, and degraded him firom the office of Nui tichin 
{inner great statesman) and has moreover ordered him to be sub- 
jected to a court of inquiry. The reason assigned is, that not 
being satisfied with the refusal to let him join the grand army, he 
solicited leave to come to court for an audience of thcj emperor. Hfi 
was allowed to come and ordered to state to the officers of the great 
military council what his wishes were. He replied that he merely 
wanted to see the emperor ; and had no business to state to him. 
This conduct was considered so stupid and foolish as to subject him 
to the punishment mentioned above. His majesty remarks that were 
other officers to act thus, the respectability of government would 
be gone." 

No. 11. 

"Canton, January 27th, 1827. Extracts from the Peking Ga. 
zettes up to December 14th, 1826, have come to hand; and contain 
several papers concerning the late disturbance on Formosa, and the 
present contest in Little Bucharia. 

16S Chimst Reminiseenets. AniL, 

" Hia majesty blaiaefl the late resident at Wiishih, which ia aituatr 
ed between Cashfar and Aksu, for hia ignorance of the diapoaitiona 
of the people ha had to govern, and for improper aeverity towarda 

*^ Some horaea had been atolen or lost, for which the reaident 
seised and kept in cuatody some of the ehiefa, and. took . ffom them 
the honorary peaooqk'a feather which hia piajeaty h«d eonfqrred, 
till the iioraes aho«ld be reatored- He next ordered a perfN>n entitir 
ed a muJksaki to come to him at Akau^'but the mnhtah auspected 
treachery, and would not go,-^^ on which the reaident* proceeded Uf 
videnco and wounded the muksi/A, For these several caaaa of mia- 
management he ia* recalledi and commanded to put himaelf under 
the ordera of Gh4ngling, the- ipiuiater of atate^ who ia acting aa 
commander-in-chief at Tli. 

" Ch&nglLng has reported to hia majeaty a complete victory over 
a diviaioA^f the rebel baadititi/' (as they are called) near Aksn. 
The extermination waa complete ; and the ** rebel-thievea waahed 
iciean" from the face of the earth. The division consisted of abpu^ 
3000 men* The perusal of the doeument gave his majesty great joy. 

''The reblea opposed for. a time the imperial troopa: but they 
were out-manmuvred, and thrown into confusion. Huch^u, an 
adjutant, went out from the ranks, and in personal, combat killed 
several of the rebela, when his majesty's forces, rushed pn to the 
ieonflict, and killed the larger half of the rebel party: thia r^at fled, 
were pursued, ai>d cut down^ till not a man escaped, Afterarards 
seventy m^n were taken priscmers, and Qf^y-twQ women were •foMP^- 
Apiong theslaio fii^9 leaders were dia^vered, whose beads were, 
forthwith, wt off, and taken away. A great number of musket^, ^ 
'apears, swords, iron*balla« powder, horses, cowa, ^nd sheep were 
Mkenu Thus, aa the .emperor, eapiected, on the actual arriyai of tb/e 
two great and akWiil generals, Chingling and Y4fig Yuchun, vic;- 
.tpry baa deelax^ on the aide of the imperial army. . 

V H^a aaftjeaty has conf(vred op the generals a^nd officers, jeweled 
risgs^ swords, puraee« <b«c., &,c. In one dispatch, aooaie offieersi arie 
ihlanwed, whoj^hen wounded., had retiijed, or retreated before t)H3 
army; but bis majesty distinguishes between that, and ;a<c|AiaUy 
flinching in the day of battle , aind .therefore excuses them. 

\VIm ai€|lterfrom ¥uoo4|itp the epiperof, jt ia stated ithat ♦hey 

"hava, in tie govfirnmennvaie^iaMsee, upwarda rf. aip^ ^iljipiw of 

cattieaoftutanag <ai»d4ead; and a request is made by the gps^nor 

that its accumulation may be stopped fqr xxie .year, as. ,what tliev 

1815. Chinese Rcmims€en^es. 167 

trir^My have is eti^igl^ fbr ttie ieonsBtfiptiM>ii of all the 'provhides, for 
bii^ or two ye&rft to «oM6. 

" To the impetiid A^rotiOrtiictd Boatd, t\Vo Tairiam hav«e been 
^plpoint^d instead of -thie -twb <>at hoi ic Ynissionaries lately lBeiit<a way. 
FH:)hi this il *^6uld ap[^«r that his mfaje^ty parpfObes to reM[ti<]fuish the 
tetiropeah f>'art of this establifthtnent.'' ' 

No. 12. 

'! Canton, February 1st, 1827. There is a report of the YeHow 
river having burst iU banks; but no written details have, yet. been 
received. It is commonJ v said that his majesty is most unfortunate ; 
nothing but droughts or innvindationJs, insurrections or rebelli'on are 
rheard of, in any part of the empire. The Chinese call the Yellow 
river, the emperor's Family-ruining, or t^roiiigal son. 

," The emperor is now in his 46th year. In early life he was 
.passionately fond of martial exercises, archery, horsemanship, Slc. 
,To increase his muscular stength he too)c medicinal preparations, 
called "strengthening pills;" which occasioned the loss of his teeth. 
He is tall, lank, hollowcheek'ed, black-visaged, toothless and con- 
sequently-prominent chinned." 

I Wo. 43. 

- '^ Canton, iFe<bruary^0th^:il827. In 4he Peking GHzetle there is 
Ja>*lbtfig'pAper<coneeming lh)e lakle called. Tvngting hi],>in the centre 
of Hiikw^ng, on which divides the modern HiJpeh, or pnrviDce north 
of the lake, from Uunan, the pi^ovince south of the lake. 

''*This lake is ^800 Chinese /i in circumference, fevhich is>more 

tliih 2(N> EngM^ «iiles. The emperor Yungching spent .200,00(1 

'ta^h'ln reariYig n Istone break-water, in thcoentre of it. He made 

^H tik (h^ fothi K>f a 6ou^, by whibh^he formed an'artifictd bay towards 

'tHe^dUthw^rd 'to defend vessels from galeb of wind blowing from the 

»nWfthWlird. • • : ^ • J:!.::: - ■ y . • ■' .-. 

"This lake is much infested by pirates; and to 'adopt such mear 
^sdHds'aslwill pMCJ^t^ the traders ^roAi those, is the object 6f the 
paper from Sungfu, fh^-]^overm^r bfpi'dvincie. His 'recommendation 
is (KafBtbiind'the'dhbl-^s 'br the lake liti each district 'the civil and 
military officers ^all bte 'responsiblelbrithe portion lof the -iake- op- 
posite their own coast; at the same time when any alarm j& given, 
theysHttllkirbSe^^rred toactin«6oTieert. i ; 

"In'ShdnsI province about the latitude 87** 'N«, it appears thut 
annirafFy^he YeHoWHriver is 'frozen over; and 'the' barbarous inhabi- 
tants about the lake call^ Ko4(o-nor, (by the Chinese Tbiugb^t) 

168 Chinese RtminUcences* ApaiL, 

cross the river and commtt depredations on the borderers. There is 
a long letter from the governor of Sbensf on the subject, complain- 
ing of the local military officers for neglect of duty. Inroads have 
been made five times this season, and the principal officer has re- 
ported them only twice, to an inferior authority, and never to the 
governor at all. The Mungkii inhabitants had lost their cattle and 
brought the affairs before the governor. The governor recommends 
two methods to obtain the parties who have been guilty of the de- 
predations alluded to : the one is to employ spies ; and the other, to 
itaterdict the exportation of tea to those tribes who have been guilty. 

''By this days Gazette it appears that 10,000 camels are employ- 
ed by the commissariat in transporting provisions and necessaries to 
the army in Tartary. Luhning, a general now in his sixty second 
year, being quite unable to move in consequence of disease brought 
on by exposure to cold and damp during his military services, has 
requested leave to retire. Against rebels in Hiipih and other places 
he has been engaged in four wars ; he has fought in a hundred and 
eighty-five battles; has killed twenty-five rebels, taken three pri- 
soners, and been once wounded. 

" The question is now whethef;, to let him retire on full pay or 
half pay. The military Board says the four requisites for full pay 
are found in Luhning ; he has killed enemies, taken prisoners, been 
wounded, and is 60 years of age. It is therefore recommended that 
he be allowed to retire on full pay." 

No. 14. 

** Canton, February 17th, 1827. On the 4th instant the governor 
of Canton Lf , and the deputy governor Ching, at their respective 
offices, at 5 o'clock in the morning, opened the gates under a 
salute, and according to custom, in the great hall, directing their 
adorations to the imperial palace in Peking^ performed the cere- 
mony of homage, and opened the government seals, which had been 
-shut up durinjir the new-year's holidays. 

'' AH the secretaries,' clerks, dtc, arranged in a line, performed 
thet kotow and- congratulated* their excellencies. 

** The next day a sum* of moniey from the revenue of the province 
was forward^ lo K'&nsuhy towards defraying the expense of the 
army there. 

" Extracts from the Peking Gazette dated at court, January 9th 
have been receivied. In consequence- of the death and retirement 
of several of the heads of provincial governments, a number of 
promotions and changes have taken place. 

1845. Chinese Reminiscenees, 

" ChAngliiig, the eommaiiider-m-chief in Tartary, has wriften to in- 
form this majesty, that a prisoner taken from the rebels, had com. 
firmed the previous statement, purporting that in the battle of Aksu, 
a considerable number of the rebel leaders had fallen. They had 
been sent from Cashgar, Yarkand and other places, and were at that 
bttcle completely swept sway, not one of theitt having escaped. In 
consequence of Ihis, the advance- of the grand army wilh be, his ma- 
jesty anticipates, « matter of no difll'Culty. He regrets the fate of 
those officers and men, who in the preeec^ng. engagementsr, eithei^ 
committed suicicie or fell' in battle ; espeoially the general King'' 
tsiiing, who sacfiliced himself for the sake of his country. Fikrufaev 
honors are conferred on the persons and kindred of th6 heroes of 
Cashgar and Aksu* 

" The fifth minister of state, Yingho, who is of the same family as 
the present hoppo Wdn,. is turned out of the ministry; and ejected 
from his chambers in the imperial palace, where' he resided to advise 
with the emperoF. He' and other members of the Board of Revenue 
are delivered over to a court of inquiry. 

'* The occasion of this proceeding was a request presented to go- 
vernment, by some private individuals, in the neighborhood of Peking, 
to be permitted to open silver mines. It is considered by govern- 
ment a settled point, that silver mines, in the provinces, shbuld remain 
shut. But on the mention of the present case, the emperor at first- 
thought the proximity to the capital might make some difference, and 
he ordered the governor of Peking to ascertain whether there was any 
objection from the fungshwui. However, on- rethinking,i he comfi<- 
ders it quite improper to admit the- question' for a moment,i and he 
tbereibre orders the governor of Peking to desist from the inquiry ; 
and censures the Board of Revenue for not giving an instant refusal 
to the application : his majesty says, " Yingho was a minister of 
state, and not unacquainted with the dignity of governmeRt ; yet lio 
took the lead in presuming to lay such a subject before me: what scirt 
of sovereign does he look upon me to be, that he should carry his 
presumption to such an unlimited degree ! It is impossible not to 
punish him. Yingho is hereby commanded to descend to the rank 
of colonial secretary ; and to retire from the rooms of my southern 
library, and the management of the imperial household/' &c. 

<* Several of the princes and the first minister are ordered to revise* 
the imperial genealogy. 

'*The lute governor of Canton, who was sent to Yunnan at 
the close of the Burmese war, is missing in- the' Peking Gazettes. 

VOL. XIV. NO. IV. !^ 

1^0 Chinese Reminiscences. Al»liif;, 

A Tartar called Tlipij is tkow the acting governor of Yunnan 

" His majesty has ordered 6000 camels for the commissariat de- 
partment. These camels cost, it is said, 42 taels each." 

In laying before our readers the foregoing brief and miscellaneous 
Reminiscences, we hilve had in view a threefold object : first to 
give them a variety of important facts; in the second place, to 
affi>rd occasion by those facts to notice remarkable changes or coin- 
cidetfces in the affairs of state ; and in the third ^lace^ to observe 
how carefully Dr. Morrison watched and recorded the political phe« 
nomena of the Chinese empire. Of these very numerous facts, 
we will notice only a few, and those in order that we may indicate 
changes from, or coincidences with, what is now current. 

1. Pui'eness from bribes has been claimed and proclaimed by Chi- 
nese! officers from time immemorial. It is customarv for them, on 

V V 

entering a n^w office, first to proclaim their uncorruptedness ; and 
having done this, at once to set about doing the very thing they have 
disclifiihed. Hence officers, ^, are said to have two mouths. We 
have good reas^m to know that even the high spirited commissioner^ 
Lin, could and did receive what was nothing more nor less than giAs, 
vr bribes. It is said that there is no office in the empire that is not 
venal, and but few that are not bought. And having bought office, 
the incumlient deems it his rightful privilege to get ** indemnity." 

2. The banditti, at Canton and down to the sea, the paper passes, 
dtc, are quite as numerous and current now as they were in 1826. 

3. On the score of petitions, translated by hong-merchants, trai- 
torous Chinese assisting foreigners, &c., all is changed. The old 
order of things has disappeared. 

4. The disposition, noticed in certain Manchu and Mongolian 
officers, to use Chinese terms, instead of their own, has been Ion? ' 
animadverted on by the emperor, and, it would seem, to very little 
effect, this affectation of Chinese phraseology still eoutinuing as rife 
as ever. 

5. The protracted -deliberations of the Board of Revenue, on the 
state of the imperial finances, of which so much has recently been 
heard, it is abundantly evident from the foregoing notices, are no 
new thincr in China. 

6. The Grand Cunal is likewise now, as of old, continually 'over- 
stepping" the bounds of propriety,' and caiJUiing anxiety to buth sove- 
reign and people. 

IS45. Topography of Kwiingsf. 171 

7. Accounts of calamities,— occasioned by innnndations, by the 
want of rain, by scarcity of grain, &c., (ill the whole history of China. 
They are found in every dynasty, and in every age. 

8. European astronomers we believe have entirely ceased to have 
place in the Astronomical Board at Peking. We fancy, however, 
that their services may erelong be again sought ; and if sought, they 
will doubtless be obtained. On page 154, in this number, it will be 
seen that the imperial government has opened the way for scientific 
men and artists to enter the service of his majesty. 

In concluding our own remarks on these notices, made by Dr. 
Morrison, we ought to state that we have given only about one half 
of the numbers contained in the original file, kindly placed at our 
disposal. For many years, indeed from the time he came to China 
in 1807, till the time of his death in 1834, he was a careful observer 
of men and things. There was no other European whose knowledge 
of China and the Chinese could be compared with that which he 
possessed. From the time he entered the service of the honorable 
East India Company till he lefl it, he kept very full journals, not 
only of the correspondence with the local government, but also of 
his own doings. He likewise prepared copious notices from the 
Peking Gazettes, and transmitted them almost daily to the chiefs of 
the factory. The foregoing Reminiscences are specimens of wha( 
he did in this department. Such a series of notices, from the 
Gazettes, is very valuable, affording the best means of making us 
thoroughly acquained with the present state and prospects of China. 
But these were his minor duties. The amount of instruction which 
he communicated, orally and by means of the press, was very great. 
He was remarkably pure in doctrine. He loved the Bible, and the 
duties it enjoins. He preached both in English and in Chinese, till 
a few days before his death, and with good effect. 


Art. hi. Topography of Kio Angst; situation and extent of the 

province; its area and population; its subdivisions, rivers, 

mountains, productions, S^c. 

Our readers will find the following papers in volumes eleven, 

twelve, and thirteen : in volume eleven page 45, the names of the 

172 Topography of Kwdngsi, April, 

eighteen provinces, with the names of their principal and uibordinate 
divisions; and also topographical notices, of Chehktdng, on pp. 101 
and 162; of Ki^ngsii, on p. 210; of Nginhwui, on p. 307; of 
Ki^ngsi, on p. 374 ; of Cbihii, on p. 438 ; of Shintung, on p. ^7 ; 
of SbiinsI, op p. 617; of Fukien, on p. 651 ; in volume twelve, on 
pp. 88, 309, 477,. notices of Kwingtung ; and in volume thirteenth, 
on pp. 320, 357, 418, 478, 5)3, and 561, an alphabetical list of 
all the pr^vinpes, departments, districts, d&c, of the whol0 wide 
empire of the reigning dynasty. 

Tha detailed survey of the several provinces we now resume, oom- 
mencing with the ' Hide West,' m the Chinese call the province 
Kwdngsi, JS ^, ' situated directly westward from the Wide East, 

or Kwdngtunff, m ^, as they call the province of Canton. 

The province of KwAnjjrsf , or the Wide West, is of an irregular 
shape, approaching. to a parallelogram. According to our large map, 
generally followed in all the preceding descriptions, it extends from 
about long. 4* 15^ to 11' 30* W. of Peking; and from lat. 21* 45^ 
to 26* 15^ N. It comprises an extensive territory of 78,250 square 
miles, with a population of 7,313,895 souls, giving an average of 
93 to each square mile. It is bounded on the north and northeast 
by Kweichau an Hnn^n, on the east and southeast by Kw4ngtung, 
on the southwest by Cochinchina, and on the west by Yunnan. Pro- 
ceedinv from the city of Canton, nearly due west, a distance of one 
hundred and fbrty miles, or a little more than two degrees, following 
the iSi Kidng, or West River, you arrive at the frontiers of the pro- 
vince, not far from the city of W6chau. At that point you stand on 
the lowest ground in the province ; and at no great distance from 
you, numerous rivers converge and unite their waters — some of these 
taking their rise along the northern frontiers, others on the south- 
ern, while the sources of the principal ones are found father west 
in the provinces of Kweichau and Yunnan. 

The followipg is a complete list of the departments and districts 
of the province, in the order they are ei^nmerated in the Ta Tsing 
Hwui Tien. 

I- ^ tt /(^ Kweilm, fu ; or the 
Department qF Kweiliiiv comprises ten districts, 
viz : 1 ling, 2 chau, and 7 hien. 
1 5g |fc| Liijkwei, 3 ^ $ JH Yungning chau, 

%%^ Y&ngsoh, 4 ^ Ig Yungfuh, 

1845. Topography of Ktoangsi 173 

5 ^ ill Lingchuen, 8 J^ fl^ Tsiuen c/iom, 

6 ^ ^ Hingngan, 9 ^ ^ I'liing, 

'5' fe l§ Kwany&ng, 10 || |^ jg Lutigshing ting. 

II. iHlp ^>| ;j^ Liuchau fii ; or the 

Department of LiCicliau, comprises eight districts, 

viz : 1 chau, and 7 hien. 
1 H ^ Maping, 5 ^ ^ W^iyuen, 

^ M% Laipin, ^^^^ Liaching, 

3 f^ ^^ Si4ng chau, T ^% Yung /it«i, 
4^^ Lohyung, 8 j|| ^ Loching. 

III. ]^ j^ Ij^ Kingyuen fu ; or the 

Department of Kingyuen, comprises five districts, 
viz : 1 ting, 2 chau, and 3 hien. 

1 ^ |1| Tsh&n, 4 55f flfc ^ Hochi c/mti, 

2 ^ }pf Tienho, ^ !S. ^ jl^l Tungl&n cliau. 

3 Jg. jg Sz'ngan, 

IV. E .S M ^^''^^^ /i '• ^^'^ ^he 
Department of Sz'ngan, comprises three districts, 

viz : 1 ting* 1 chau, and 3 hien. 

1 ^ # Wfiyuen, * H 7i Tsien ki&ng, 

2 W 15. M Pchshih ting^ ^ ^ ^ Pi"^ ^*««** 

3 ± ;Hf Sh&nglin, 

y . '^^^ Sz'ching fu ; or the 

. Department of Sz'ching, comprises three districts, 

viz : 1 chau, and 2 hien. 

1 ]^ ^ Liiigyun, 3 pjl ^ ^I^| Silung chau. 

2 01)^ Silin, 

VI. ^%^ Pinglohfu; or the 
Department of Pingloh, comprises eight districts, 
viz : 1 chau, and 7 hien. 

174 Topography of Kwangsi AfUft, 

1 2p ^ Pingloh, 5 ^ f- SiQjin, 

2 ^ ZJS Ch4uping, 6 ^ ^ «/H Yungngfin chau, 

3 g Si Ho Aicn, 7 ^ ifig Kungching, 

4 la Lipfi, 8^j|| FQchuen. 

VIL ^^ fl-I Ji5 Wiiclum fi% ; or the 

Department of Wfichan, comprises five districts, 

viz: 5 hien. 
\ ^^ Tsjlngw6, 4 ^ $1 Yung Atcn, 

'i%% TangAien, & f$ H Hw&itsih. 

4 ;^ j^ Tsinki, 

VIII. if ^i /jl StWAoti /fi ; or the 

Pepartment of Sinchau, comprises four districts, 

viz : 4 hien. 
1 i|^ ^ Kweiping, 3 ^ ^ Wfisiuen, 

^ ^ ^ Kwei Aim, 4 ^ p^ Pingn&n. 

IX. jl^ ^ 1^ Nanmng fu ; or tlie 

pepartment of N&nning, comprises six districts, 

viz : 3 chau, and 3 hien. 

1 ^ 4fc Siuenhw&, 4 ^ ^^ . Lungngfin, 

2 ^^^ Sinning cAoti, 5 ^||[ Yungshun, 

3 JL .IS^ft Sh&ngsz'cAau,6 f^)\] Hw&ng chau. 

^- :^ ^ H^ Tdiping fu; or the 
Pepartment of Tiiping, comprises seven districts, 

viz : 2 ting, 4 chau, 1 hien. 

1 ^ ^ Tsungshen, 5 ^ ||J jfj»| Y&ngli cAaii, 

2 II S P Lungchau ting, 6 :fe ji)| Tso cAoti, 

3 jjq ^. ai Mingki&ng ting, 7 ^ ^ ^ Yungkfing chnu. 

4 ^ ^ iffij Ningming chauj 

XI. ^ ^ )|^ Chinngdn fu / or the 
Pepartment of Chinngdn, comprises three districts, 

viz : 1 ting, 1 chau, 1 hien. 

1845.' Topography of Kwangsi. 175 

1 X ^ Tienpau, 3 ;J^ j|^ ^ ^ Siauchinngan 

2 ^ ]|^ if ji{ Kwcishun chaUj ling. 

Department of Yulilin, comprises four dislrictSy 

viz : 4 bien. 
1 gjit Luhchuen, 3 i$ ^ Pohpeh, 

2;ltit Pehliu, '4|P|^ Hingnieli. 

The following brief descriptions of the several departments of the 
province are taken mainly from the imperial statistics, as we find 
them in the Hwui Tien. 

I. The department of Kweilin forms the northeastern portion 
of the province, having the departments of Liuchau and Pin^loh on 
the west and south, and on the north and west the departments of 
Tsingchau, Fluking, and Yungchau, in Hunin. It is of a circular 
shape, having the chief city, — Kweilin, the metropolis of the pro- 
vince — situated near its centre. It is the seat of the provincial 
government, being the residence of the siunfH or governor, and of 
the financial commissioner or pft-ching sz\ Its name, Kweilin, 
' Forest of Cinnamon trees,' is evidently derived from the fact, that 
the country is covered, in many places, with this tree. It stands on 
the west bank of the Kwei kidng^ or '' Cinnamon river," just above 
its junction with the Ying river. 

II. The department of LiUchau is conterminous with the pro- 
vince of Kweichau on the north and northwest ; on the east with the 
departments of Kweilin and Fingloh; on the south with that of 
Sinchau ; and on the west with those of Sz'ngau and Kingyuen. 
From east to west it is narrow, but stretches nearly two degrees 
from north to south. The chief city of the department stiinds on 
the northern bank of the Lung, Dragon river, one of the principal 
branches of the West river. 

III. The department of Kingyuen, like the preceding, is con- 
terminous with the province of Kweichau on the north and northwest ; 
•td the ^ast it is bounded by Lifichau ; south by Sz'ngan ; and west 
by Sz'ching. The chief city is situated, on the southern bank of the 
Dragon river, near the eastern border of the department, and is, Du 
Haide says, '* encompassed with frightful mountains." 

IV: The DepartAient of Sz*ngah lies south of Sz'ching and 
Kingyuen, htiviog Liiichau and Sinchau on the east, and Ndnning^ 

176 Topography of Kwdugsi, April, 

T^iping, and Chinng&n on the south and southwest Us form is 
somewhat like that of a boy's kite, a norrow strip of territory ex- 
tending, from what appears as the body of the department, along 
the Siy&ng kiing, quite on to the borders of the province of 

V. The department of Sz'ching forms the northwest portion of 
the province, and is bounded on the north by Kweichau, on the 
west by Yunnan, on the south by Sz'ngan, and on the east by King- 
yuen. Its shape is nearly that of a parallelogram. 

yi. The. department of Pingloh is bounded by Hundn on the 
northeast, by Kw&ngtung on the east, by Wfichau on the south, by 
Sinchau on the southwest, by LiOchau on the west, and Rweilin on 
the northwest. Its chief city stands on the east bank of Cinnamon 
river. The country is traversed by several rivers runing from north 
to south. 

VII. The department of W^ehau is bounded on the east and 
northeast by KwAngtung, on the northwest and west by Prngloh and 
Sinchau, and on the south by YuMin. It is a narrow tract of land, 
and extends from southwest to northeast a distance of more than a 
hundred miles. 

VIII. The department of Sinehmu is bounded by LiAehau on the 
north, by Pingloh and Wu-chau on the east, by Yuhcbau on the south, 
and by N&nning and Sz'ngan on the west. 

IX. The* department of Ndiming is bounded on the north by 
Sz'ngan and Sinchau, on the east by Yuhlin, on the south by the 
province of Kw&hgtamg, and on the west by the department of T^i- 
ping. According to Du Halde, "great parrots are found here, also 
a kind of fowl which discharges threads of cotton out of its' mouth, 
also very large porcupines, which dart sharp quils at those who ap« 
proach them.'* 

X. The department of Tdiping is bound north by Sz'ngan, east 

and north' by N^nuing, on the southeast by Kwdngtung, on' the 

south and southwest by Cochinchina, and on the west by Chinng^n, 

.and forms the soathwesterfi portion of the province. The soil^ is 

fertile, and the country populous. 

XL The department of Chinngdn is bounded on the north by 
Sz^ngan*, on* the east by Tiiiplng, on the south by Cochinchina, 
and on the West by Tuhkii^n. H^ncy and wax ape plentiful in this 

Xn*. The department of Yuhiin is boumled on the northwest by 
Oi^mrtng, en^the Bor-th'by Sinchauyon the northeast by Wuchau, 

1815. Fdkndling HospUal ai SUtnghdi. 177 

and on Umb remaining tidM hj the firovkuse of Canton. lui siiuaiioo 
is due north from tbo island of Hainto. 

The principal river of ihe proriMe la the great Western river^ 
vhioh has ks sources in the pjUMrinoaii of Kweichau and Vann4ii« 
Like .most other rivers, it tikes different nanes m diflmot parts of 
its course. luMibiitariee are very niMeroua^ iodiaating tti«t the 
prwince is jvell watered in ever|r part. HilU end mowntaini riae in 
ail Ahe sevond departments, i^id enany ef tbem are inhahited by .tribes 
of ihe Mi4u Uz'. Laife ^oaniities of eteelleni limber come firom 
thisprpviaee lo <!Anion. Rice, .siiJt, and various firnite,..cp|Mion in 
Canton, are pkniifnl. Mules of the common end of it^ie precioiif 
motals exists and have at iimes been iworked and ft^nnd psr/odudiive* 
the jnopt pavt, .ihe -people ace rude and unlearned. 

.. ( 

Art. ly. l^fsfwt of ih§ founuUing Ifospitalini Shanghai^ transr 
latfid from the origingl for fke Chinese Rfipospiory, 

^ ^he secqnd jfemr.of Yuqgqhing, /^ . the in^rQalary ph inonjth^ .the 
29^h day, th^ ^Uawji»g .tmpet^Uedjcl was issued to ^pj^pf^ and 
w)K>cdinat9. o$p^^ A)(f ^bufi^ien fii. 

"Omtsida^he Kw;tagiiing g^e of dhe cApital, Abece his liere* 
iofei^ bec^i lihp P,m Tai Tiding, . or HfiU of •Uioiver.aal Banetr^ienoe, 
jv^ere ^ figed, ^jsease^, ,i^ '4^titiMe peiynma ipight find ^an aay- 
fiApi. T'hose who b^d the cpnt,rgl of l|he b^6ittjees, invariably delight- 
if^ :in v.irme, weiUinierited commendation, and ihis sacred majesty 
JC^nghl gave Ihem an inscribed tablet in order to lead onwards to 
•the ilove of virtue. Yoq^ who ^ave ihe .official charge of this place, 
lOnght also conatanUy to give rtbem commendation and advice in 
.order lo stimulate Mid eacite them. But those who are young and 
rslrong, witjbi.vagi[ants and idlers must not promiscuously enter, by 
rborrowing any -Mse pretext, rwhioh would tend to increase wander- 
ing and idleness, and give rise to disturbances. And we have heard 
that within the Kw&ngkifi gate there is a Foundling Hospital, where 
all ahose infants and children, who. cannot be nourished and brought 
up, ane -received during a course of ten- years ; it has xeared and 
eettled very many. The nourishing of the young and the maintain- 
ing of ^orphans (which is recorded in the monthly register) being ap 

VOL. ZIV. NO. IV. 33 

1 7a Fdundling Hospital aiSUnghai. '■ ApiiL; 

exaltation of virtue of a similar nature with the supporting of tlie 
infirm, and compassionating of all the aged, and a thing which in 
the common practice of the world is difficult, wb, both praising and 
delighting in it, have especially granted a door-tablet, and also make 
a gift of money, in order to manifest our own inclinations, and by 
commending and leading the way in pecuniary aid to stimulate and 
rouse to action. Wa have again sent communications to the gover- 
nor and vice-governor of each province, that they may transmit their 
orders to their officers to advise and call forward all ihoae who love to 
do ^good, throughout ail the cities, large towns and populous places. 
If they can, in accordance with the regulations of the capital, efiec^ 
tually carry on this matter, on the principle of nourishing the young 
and pitying the destitute, they will similarly reap advantages, and the 
compassionate and kindly feelings of men will be excited and roused 
into action. Special edict." 

Prtffut to the Report. 

There is no employment better than that of nourishing infants, 
but there is also nothing more difficult than this nourishing of in. 
fants. Are there widows? Compassionate them. Are there aged? 
Support them. They can speak of their troubles. But with infants 
it is not thus. Are there sick? Dispense medicine to them. Are 
there the starved and cold ? Give clothing to them. Beyond this 
there is naught to be done. Biit in the bringing up of babes, the 
babe must depend upon its wetnurse. It is also unlike the charity- 
schools, where they only require a teacher ; and unlike the burying 
of the dead, when you can hire coolies and may also lead them your- 
self. The infants, having entered the establishment, must there re- 
main, until they have been brought up to girl or boyhood, when 
they may leave It is unlike the precautions for saving the ship- 
wrecked, which are only extraordinary cases. It is unlike the re- 
ceiving of the wanderer, who after a while returns. The squalling 
balie is committed to the care of the wetnurse, who gave not birth 
to it, and this care must be prolonged even to the extent of montlis 
and years, before it can be brought to maturity. If with one or two 
there be a fear of not properly sustaining the charge, how much 
more in case of some tens and hundreds? But I say that it is not 
difficult if so be there are people to superintendent this business. 

Shingh^i Foundling Hospital has existed ever since the 49th 
year of K^uglii ; and during this interval there have been many 
times of prosperity and many of decline. When prosperous, it has 
protected and brought up very many. When in decline, it has sent 

1845. Foundling Hospital at ShdngMi. '■ 179 

them away to other cities. Does not this. arise from. the. different 
circumstances of former and succeeding . times, and also from the 
difference occasioned by efficient or inefficient superintendents? la 
the 16th year of T4ukwing, when I htid the magistracy of the city, 
the establishment had declined, and. I (>ondered over the methods for 
reviving it. . Understanding that the former superintendent Ts^u-? 
kiun was dead, I therefore quickly gave over the. businesfli of the 
establishment to Chukiun of the Tungjin .T4ng, in copinection with 
th^t Chukiun at : first refused, but nfterwards took ; and 
after |ie had done .so, witfi a singleness of purpose, devifing i)i^>|f)XT 
cellent and admirable plans;. and if we consider the timje>-pfiifts firs| 
establishment, the present was comparatively better^ andtdny Jieari 
was exceedingly delighted. . ri'-jMifir' 

.[ Some one perhaps will say, .since Chukiun is thus 
for the. establishment,, and at first expressed a wish tot, hold. office 
batrfor .a short period, why- should he wish,, having acquired merit, 
to. retire T Perhaps lest; h^ might be involved in some responsibility, 
perhaps fearing Jest he should not eventually succeed, and he would 
.act beforehand. . All these then are those who do i^ot know Chfi- 
kiun. — He who sees an oppprtunity for doing good . and , does it, 
is benevolent. He who acts and does not anticipate the difficulties, 
is unwise. - He who is aware of the difficulties, and does not. meet 
them^ wants resolution. . Chiikiun knew of the difficulties, of the 
affair regarding the Foundling Hospital 4 and yet could not bear to 
s^e the decline of the institution. This refusal showed his wisdom ; 
.and,|iis accepting of the office, his benevolence and resqiution. I at 
first, on account of his refusal, believed him capable of discharging 
this, office ; and on his assuming it, I still more considered him 
capable of success. 

;«,:Tbe Shu King says, "If you would nourish infants, you must 
.sincerely .seek out their wants." . It also says, " Anticipate. the dif- 
ficulty, in order to accomplish with . ease.''. Marie Chukiun's com- 
mencement to his call for subscriptions, and you will then see his 
mind.: Let those who succeed him, acting in accordance .with the 
old. regulations, be fearless of difficulties, and not willing to slur 
them over. Thus, he who prqtects.the life of infants, .and displays 
the benevolent favor of the government towards the. young,, how 
.shallihi^ merits be accounted small? ^.^,'^^\^ > . 

.., Now. Chukiun has printed the following report, which he laid be- 
fore rme, requesting me to add a preface,, because I. was. well ac- 
quainted with the difficulties of the matter, and the subsequent sue- 

190 FUikdHng Hospital ai Shdnghdt. Anat^ 

d^O' ih meelhng th^ni. Regmrding tto numbers of ftttbeeribers, an4 
rh^ ptrti^tflalrs of the reguiatioiw, as they sre all Mated in this book, 
I hcM ma ^tdn refer to then. 

This prefaee is written by Wing Mien, the promoted prefect of 
S6chai«j assistant Snperiniendfiiit of the public granaries^ acting pre^ 
feet of ihfi Independent pref<lct«fe of Tiieh4ng, fdrsn^rly the acting 
Sub-prefect of Sh^^hfti; 

^ R^t of thi ShdHghii thuhdlk^ Heipiidl. 

• 8h6figh&i hds liad a Fdtthdllh^ Holipital froin th« 4fKh year of th4 
efflp(»tti' K4ii^hf. It 6Hginilt(Ml hi Sn Imperial c^delr, which wis 
i8diled'thr<^rigih ttve- Whole of th6 prdvlACes, to thitf Officers of each 
disl^tciind- department, diri^ting theita to iuperiniend the public 
contributions, and to await the voluntary sttbil^iptibil^ 6f the gentle^ 
M^ Slid^^holAM (foWiirds ^ofiildiing Ho^itals). But lilul in all 
ttilU oik# 6ity^#SS de^iefiL Fd)r iwl» jfAkfn pti^kf^af; In e6nse^ 
<tiMMeofd«Krth^deM^ted«hild#eh fillisd ihfe tok6ih At this titoe 
the 1e8#Hi$d libholftt Mi<; WiltUrig Tik^ hM' ^^titthtidhomeon sicft 
leite, tbtt ifto^ifp«MII(ftoJilidly Wished Id fbHil mtM pUtt U» their f^ 
i\et^> m \abi^tihti\dh With Mr. 8f GhMchitt^/ he dttW odt regHU- 
tlofis tbr SH ihaftllbUttH^ ind boMdllM #Hh him. T\m latter gefitle- 
AMb g^hi^dUflly j^fHAtM i gafdeh hear the Abb-pTetect'i bffi66, ind 
to the eiutWitti ti^ th^ TfthfthWbl b^idgfc; aiid dr6# plans feir the 
bdiidlnl, id edh^st 6f ihte^ hills ; th^ ttehtre oM for th^ idoift Mid 
thSit ^^H'iAitp; hishittd there waM tdf ^ a bedrdotti, a sittlti^ room, and 
kftchiiik, for th« iedbiAodktibti of th« itipittidiitry i^ffit6erSofthe In- 
itibtibti. Iki fh^ fVoht theri^ Wiii tb b^ li dbdMSbld beiHMg the In- 
sdri^idn, '' Fbtiildlittit H6kipltil." t^n thb kft ^e th^M #iii td be thb 
pitted f6r tebeMHi the infknfts ; th6 )^Mbns Wh6 brbaght thetti weHs 
to strike the door-post, so that the people inside id^f not hive iny 
ctiftdMln^ cooMiUniciitibn ; oh tH^ ifeaitt and WfesI #^e to be eitipty 
(ihalrhb^ far the accoihihodatibn of two wethtrr^eS, ib thit thb 
-fodMlihibrs whc^n brought in hiiy be suckled f6r a #hile, until they 
are k(^|k^fohed by lot to th« Wethhrsek butstde. Th^ dir^ctbrB ^ch 
dbrttributed in his 6Wh depirtmbnt. The yearly officers gate }irg^ 
tbi^itds th^ yearly expehsiis. TtieliS w^re Mr. Wdkiihg, with his 
btrdthet TsSutiih, his hephbw Tfichuh, ifrd Mh fifbhhn's soh-iti-liw 
Lf Hbhchiu, #h6 Okkted ^qhilly th^ dtlttei bf office. Thift tiibntMy 
officers contributed monthly the iupply of ftiel khd Witet', ahd at* 
t^ifd^ii 16 the ird'undlifaj^. Th^e #«fe alsb bVeVsis^ta, #hb ic6brd- 
Ing tb the seasons ibtioited Tat blothin^, etinihttsd into ahd kept 
tfab/bbbks, sil^tihtehded this physlcribii ilid ij^hecaritsi, is Well is 

1S46. r^HUiUng Hoiipiial ai Skdnghdl 181 

the stipMidiaf y oflieerft afid •enrtnta of the institution. Every year 
a #eport ivaa published^ in order to make maoifest their justice and 

Ai this time they were leaders in goodness, and the hearts of all 
men were stimulated to action. Those who contributed, sent sub* 
soriptions from alT quarters;- those who strove to eicite an interest 
iftthe affair, endeavokred to be first and feared to be behindhand ; 
and thus the circumstances attending the origin of the Foundling 
HWpitaJ were e&eeedingly favorable. Bat afterwards .the officers 
beoame remite, . And Ithe subooibers daily diminished in nnmbers^ 
But the four yearly officers behaved ae heretofore. Aa regarded the 
institution/ the great, and small matters, inoome and expenditure, 
with the balancing of accounts, all depended upon the care of Hoh- 
ch4tt. His assistant was Kingnin the son of Mr. Sltson-, who filled 
the bffices of a yearly director, overseer, and monthly inspector. It 
is ^difficult to find a man who will in thia . way esert himself as a 
monthly officer^ and also by exciting interest and providmg funds* 
In all re^erses^ he Was ever the most excellent. Hohchau holding 
the office of ait ^yverseer, unceasingly applied himself to the care of 
the-rexpenditnre, and yearly in the autumn, in conjunction with a 
feiw like-minded fKends, he called on the public for assistance, 
ifaroughottt thd city and suburbs, and Was the leader and foremost in 
mil these tttdlttk. People wiiriogly responded to their call, and fully 
deftayed the half of the- neceasaty expenses. About the 60th year 
of K&hgfaf^ Mr. Wuk^ng died, and thus waa lost one of the yearly 
directors.. Deficiencies in wagea and fixxl, were paid by Hofachin 
himself, in <Nrder to meet the monthly exigencies. Besides thus pro- 
viding for wages and food, he constantly visited and attended to the 
-affaka of th^ inaititittion, and although his domestic business was 
pressing, he did not relax in his exertions The sincerity and ex- 
cellency of his delight in virtue increased with the lapse of time, 
and to his eflbrts may be attributed the continuance of the institu- 
4k>h^ When Kingnin died, it was difficult for Hohcliin to manage 
matters alone, and he called on his friends for assistance. In the 
4th year of Tunffching^ Ti6hun responded to his call, and at the 
isame lime the tbree brothers Ghihsung, Kingsin, and Tumin, plan- 
ned together with him, to restore the affairs of the institotion. 
Thase three gentlemen were all nephews of Waking, and they said 
that« with regard to the Foundling Hospital, sincere effint wss 
needed, and that they strove «ol for fame. • If yearly elevea chddnen 
are received abd niaeteett die, is tliis the want of -oempassion in the 

183 r\m»dUng HospUal at IMngkdi. April, 

directors? Upon this^ they carefully examined the early regulations. 
First- they renewed the rules of examination, nivestigated the de- 
ficiencies of the children's clothing and food. Next they paid 
attention to the regulations regarding the physician and apothecary, 
to see that the infants had aid in time of sickness. As it was impor-> 
tant that the state of the wetnurses should be ascertained, they again 
brought up the plan of strict investigation^ and the giving of acec'* 
ticificate of hire, thus lessening the privations of the children. > 

Also with regard to the necessary cautions in the allotment of thd 
children, they revived the practice of casting lots for the nurse, and 
thus collusion and partiality were avoided. In the 11th month of 
thisijear, Hohchau resigned the office of overseer, and- the two 
brothers Tsiiukwob in conjunction with some like minded firiends 
divided the works into four periods of three months each. They 
again kept the register, with the most minute correctness, and the 
accounts were audited with the greatest accuracy, and the report 
published monthly. The interior regulations of the establishment 
were strictly enforced, they were very particular in the discharge 
or retaining of the wetnurses; scrupulously careful that those who 
adopted children should attend to their preservation; and appointed 
officers to attend to the proper treatment of the : dead. Lest the 
children should be bitten by' mosquitoes Chunin distributed cur*" 
tains to them, all ; and Mt they should cry from cold, T4chna gave 
all .additional padded clothes. The regulations having been'. long 
neglected, Kings4n and . T&hchun consulted together j and had them 
published for general information.- The hall being out of repair^ 
Yum&n, Tihdiun, with the virtuous lady Wuking's. widowed 
daughter-in-law, applied themselves to the restoring and bea!utifying 
of .'it The regulations were gradually renewed and order rees- 
-tablished. The superintendents and other oflicers applied thenn 
jMlves faithfully and . with single-mindedness to their respective 
duties, and the lives of the infants were thus preserved. • r.- i .. 

These were tha means by which the institution was enabled to 
•attain to its former condition, and even to surpass its previous pros- 
perity. I, Tsinchin, look upon the Foundling Hospital as a plan 
•similar, to the practice in the Ch4u dynasty, of relieving orphans in 
the spring and summer se'asons ; as in the H^ dynasty, the erope> 
ror. issued! an edict. to supply^ from, the public granaries, orphans and 
those who had children! whom > they were unable to support; or as 
iini the. Sung dynasty, 500 indar of the public grounds were given for 
ibeserection of buildings for the reception and nourishment of cast- 

1816^ * Foundling Hospital at Shanghai, 183 

away children. During the Yuen and Ming dynasties, until the 
present time^ there were no fixed regulations. But when the present 
emperor ascended the throne, throughout his whole conduct he 
showed his reference for the institutions of the ancient emperors^ 
and in his pity for orphans, he was even more sedulously compas- 
sionate. Shunchf rigorously prohibited the drowning of female 
infants. The empress dowager gave large contributions of rice to 
the Foundling Hospitals. K&nghf widely diffused his gracious 
benevolence, and in his southern progress specially gave an auto- 
graph inscription for the central hall of the Suchau Institution. 
On his accession to the throne, he gave to the Institution in the 
capital, a golden inscription, intimating that it was a mark of com- 
mendation. He also issued an edict, commanding that letters 
should be transmitted throughout the provinces requiring the officers 
to exhort and call on the people for subscriptions. His favor to 
the young surpassed the thousand ages of antiquity. By such 
examples we may see the deep and renovating influences of imperial 
virtue, and the unlimited extent to which it feeds the charity of the 
benevolent and the excellent 

The Shii King says, ** The end and the beginning are as one, 
and virtue must be daily renewed." 

The Book of Ode says, "Children's children, and grandsons' 
grandsons follow without failure." From these quotations we infer 
that to commence such establishments is not easy, but that to main- 
tain them is still more difficult. 

In the business of a Foundling Hospital, energy, funds and order 
are required : if one of these then are wanting, it cannot be sup- 
ported. At present, all these worthy gentlemen have attained this end 
by great energy, have maintained it by sufficient funds, and have 
carried it out by order. The difficulties which still remain lie in 
the means of its continuance. Does not the sage say, " The 
virtuous is never single, he must have associates?" Thus all these 
worthy gentlemen, having each exerted his energy, and used, his 
means and measures to befriend these squalling babes, have been 
followed in the higher classes by civil and military officers, and in 
the lower by the principal individuals in the towns and villages. 
Who did not obey the imperial injunctions for the diffusion of 
general benevolence, or mutually assist in supplying that which the 
funds and measures were not sufficient to attain to? A universal 
answer, to a general demand ! And an ever-flowing and continuous 
stream! The children of our town have, in fine, ever received 

184 FnmdliHg Hospital at SUnghdL Ann., 

protection bj thii isstitutioii. Whence should so much anxiety 
arise lest fundfe should be meagre «nd means srnaN ? I, Tsinchin. 
having retired from office on account of my parenty death, with 
Han K&nlii and ChAng Kienfsu performed the dotiea of secretaries 
to the institution. We -subsequently published the regulations, ivith 
a general statement of the progress ef Che institution, and appended 
the names of all its superintendents and officers in readiness for the 
examination of the local magistrate. 

Wuking, S)tsun, Ts&unfo, Hohchau, Kingnin, Ohfhsung, Kihg- 
sAn, Yumin, Tahchun, Hienfli, aR fellow citizens with KinUi 
and his son-in^aw Tsiaukweh, natives of Fhing, resident in Sh^ng- 
h^i ; these with the Temainder of the superintendents, 6lc. have alf 
seen the report. Their names are not here mentioned. 

Written by your fellow citizen W4ng Tsinchin, on aiucky day, 
in the 3d year of Yungching the 7th month. 

Regulations for the Yuhjfing Kng, or 
FknauUing Hospital. 

1. All Ihe friends •^if the institution shall by appointment assem- 
ble in the hall on the 1st and 15th dajrs of the mouth; when they 
Shan reverently approach before the idol, t>urn incense, and pros- 
trate themselves ; which finished, they t^all examine the infants' 
register, inspect the children's tickets, and give out the wetnurses', 
wages and food. It is requisite that this be done with justice and 
circumspection ; on no account let their be trifling or remissness. 

2. As the directors each have their private business, and cir- 
cumstances which would make tt difficult for them to remain at ihe 
Institution, they should therefore publicly request two of the friends 
of the institution constantly to reside there, in order to take the 
management and control. One of them, to take charge of the records 
and registers, the receiving of the infants, the allotment of the 
nurses, the giving out the childrens' tickets, and the receiving and 
dispensing tyf the money.— ^It is requesite that all this 'be recorded 
minutely and carefully. The other, to make investigations, daily to 
give out the things which .may in turn be requisite, and taking in 
fiis hand the infants' record, to go round to the- place appointed for 
eaoh,'frrst to examine the 'cfhifd-s ticket, then to take cognizance of 
^e Aurse's diligence -or neglect, and whether the child be fat or 
thin,^whfch is upou'the apot^to be entered into^the record, iir readi- 
iresslbr'the 1^ and 15th days of the -month, when the directors 
s^hafl examine and 'verify, mid -dispense -praise or blame. These 
'offices aremost'impertaBt tmes, and if 4iUed-with singleness tyfheart 

1845. Foundling Hospital at Skdnghdi. IBS 

and strenuous effort, neither shirnking from exertion or ill-will, the 
merit is not small ; and it is desirable that thej should exert them- 
selves in unison.^-These two officers shall each receive a monthly 
salary of 2000 cash. 

3. In the institution, there was formerly an attendant, which 
now as of old is necessary. It is required that he should run on 
errands, and await the directions and orders of the friends of the 
institution, he must not presume to be absent ; every month he shall 
receive for food and wages, 1400 cash. 

4. In the institution, there was formerly one wet nurse ; it is 
now ditermined to add another, in order to prepare for the recep- 
tion of idfant8.*-Each shall receive monthly wages, 2000 cash. 

5. Whenever a cast-away infant is brought to the institution, the 
officers of the hall must make an examination as to the year, 
month, and day of its birth, and the lines and fashion of its fingers ; 
whether the five senses and the four limbs be perfect or not ; — and 
whether there be sores or scars ; — these with the color of- the cloth- 
ing are to be minutely recorded in the infants' register. It is then 
to be giveri over to one of the wet nurse of the institution to suckle, 
and on the morrow the child's ticket is to be written out and given to 
•the nurse, who now receives and takes charge of the infant ; and 
from this day commences the reckoning for its milk. Each nurse 
shall receive per month, for food and wages, to the imount of 760 
cash, to be pa^d half monthly. 

6. The most important thing in the nourishing of the infants is 
the hiring of wetnurses. It should constantly be a subject of fore- 
thought If there be any one who wishes to take this situation, 
either her own husband can come to thei hall, and announce her 
name, or a relative or neighbor must come and give security for 
her. The officers of the hall must then examine whether she really 
has milk or not, and her name and surname must then be entered 
upon the record; when infants come they are to be distributed suc- 
cessively to the nurses. If the women be neglectful in nouri»hiijg 
the children ; or if they transfer them with payment to other hands, 
or exchange their charge among themselves, hoping in this way to 
spare themselves trouble; or, worse than all, should they t^e their 
own children, send them to the institution, and as formerly presume 
to offer themselves as wet nurses, hoping thereby Co receive pay- 
ment : all these several kinds of abuses, it is difficult to enumcHifee, 
but it depends upon the* officers constantly to make investigafions, 
and having once certainly ascertained that they do exist ; then if the 

VOL. XIV. NO. IV. 24 

186 Ffndling Hospital at Shdngkdi. April, 

pfftenses be light,, lei the women be ciisiiii^etl and olbers called ; and- 
if the^f be serious, let the offenders be sent to the magiatrate for 

7. In the hall there must be five registers. The subscriptions of 
the -good and faithful, irrespective of their being in money or other 
things, must be entered in the subscription register. When fouud- 
Nngs are brought to the. institution, the age of the said infants, their 
I^ersonai appearance, the date of their arrival and of their being- put 
out to nurse, being arranged in order according to their number 
and tickets, shall be minutely recorded in the foundlings', reception 
book. When a wet nurse applies to the institution, and on exafnina*- 
tion is found to have milk, her name and surname, and place of her 
abode, shall be entered into, the hired wet nurse register. Wlieu 
any children are adopted from the institution, they are to be entered 
into the adoption register. When any children are sick, having 
small-pox or other diseases, they arc to be entered in the sick re- 
gister. These five registers must all be verified by the Ist and 3d 

8. The institution shall have four forms of tickets. For each sub- 
scriber there shall be drawn out a ticket in triplicate, one to be gii'en 
for his own keeping, one to be keep in the institution, and the other 
to he kept in the superintendent's office. There is iJso to be a 
ticket requesting the physician's attendance, upon seeing which he 
will instantly come. There is also to be a ticket for the apothecary, 
upon seeing which he will dispense the medicines required. The 
tickets for the adopted children shaU be drawn out in duplicate ; 
the one shall be the bond for the receiving of the child, which shall 
be laid by in the institution; and the other the agreement of transfer, 
which shall be given to the family adopting the child. — ^These shall 
be stamped with the official seul of the sub-prefect. 

9. Each child when sent to nurse shall have a ticket. On it 
shall be .written the age and appearance of the said child, with the 
date of its being sent out; and the name, surname, and residence of 
the nurse. On the back of the ticket shall be written out the twelve 
months, divided into semi-monthly periods, so that when the woman 
brings the ticket to demand her wages, underneath each period 
shall be writt^u the word paid, 

10. When a child has reached tlie age of three years^ it is then 
able to eat and drink, to run and walk by itself. And if, as hitherto, 
it is unadopted by any one, the suid child sImII receive a ticket, and 
be again taken inta the iuaiitatron, where there shall be hired uurses 
to take charge thereof. 

1845. fondling Hospital at Shanghai 18? 

11. When the children are put out to nurses, thef ought of 
course to be clotheil, according to the ceasoh, in suitable articles of 
apparel. And it is determined that in the 3d month shall be given 
out a calico jacket and single trousers ; — in the 4th month a breast 
apron, and also graasclotli musquitoe curtains; — and in the€th month 
a padded jacket and petticoat, cap, stockings and a cotton blanket. 
The above clothes when given out shall all be stamped, and the time 
of their distribution entered in the register. The we tnurses must 
not secretly pawn tlie clothes. Every year, at the said months, they 
^MX be changed ; and when any of the children are adopted or die, 
the clothes shall immediately be returned. 

12. When a child has been cast away as a foundling, being 
thus cvLi off from the sympathies of a father or mother, and our 
institution having received and brought it up and eventually trans- 
ferred it -by adoption to oXh^r hands, if any one shmild falsely claim 
to be the 'said child's Isither or mother, presuming thus upon being 
able to take it away, this wicked and sharper-like conduct, and 
the bond which the adopting family received at the time of transfer 
shall immediately be laid before the .sub-prefect, and the offender 
condemned and punished. 

13. 'Our institution only receives foundlings, therefore if any one 
should bring an own child, alledgiiig that the mother is sick or dead^ 
and begging that the child may be suckled, or should any be brought 
upwards of three years of age, who can walk and feed themselves, 
they shall not be received, but as in the foregoing case themagistrate^ 
prohibition shall be requested 

- 14. in the transfer of the children, it is only requisite with regard 
to the boys that they be legitimatized into some family ; beyond 
this there is no farther need for anxiety. — But as regards the girls, 
ihere is ffreat fear of their being bought as concubines, or bought 
land sold again with other similar abuses. The siiperintendent, 
therefore, if he be not well acquainted with the persons, ought^re- 
viously to make inquiries 's to their conduct and employment, and 
he sure that they are not profligates or of low and mean habits, taking 
also security -from relatives and neighbors, then the transfer may be 
made. This is of very great importance ; be cautious, be cautious. 

The names of the ojircrs, -^ *"' 

Yearly officers, - - - - - - '' - - 8 

Monthly officers, ."- - - 18 

Officers f()r the examination of children. -and hiring of wet 

nurses, •-.--...- ^ 


}8a rhundUng Hospital at Sk6ngh6i. April, 

Officers taking charge of the childreo'a eiTects, - - - 2 

Officers in charge of the writing materials, ... 3 

Apothecaries, • •- 3 

Auditors, •.- - - - - - -.- 2 

Treasurers, .-.------ 4 

Physicians, giving gratuitous advice, . - • - . 5 

The number of the children. 

Tlie children who die before they are put on record should be 

enumerated in a separate column. Such children as are sick, when 

received into the institution, it is not advisable to put out to 

nurse; Istly, because the out-nurses are not willing to take charge 

of them ; and 3ndly, because although they may have been sent out 

when sick, they are always brought back to the institution for relief. 

Therefore all sick children received shall first be perfectly cured and 

afterwards sent out Those which die, before thev have been sent 

out to nurse, shall be arranged in a separate column, under the head 

of unregistered children who have died. 

, List of numbers for the lOth year of T&uhwdng, 

Old inmates • - • 35 Deceased • -< • • 33 

New inmates • - • 79 Returned to Sungkiang fij 5 

New inmates received from Uuregistered deceased - 33 

Sungkinng fu • • 54 At present in the institution 23 

Transferred by adoption • 75 1 

Far the 20M year of Tdukwdng. 

Old inmates - • - 23 

New inmates - - - 70 
New inmates received from 

Sungkiang.fij • • 50 

Transferred by adoption - 53 

For the 2lst year of Taukwdng, 

Deceased - - - 21 

Returned to Sungkinng fu 9 

Unregistered deceased - 37 

Present inmates • -. 23 

Old inmates - - - 23 

New inmates - - - 114 
New inmates received from 

Sbngki^ug fii - • 34 

Transferred by adoption • 50 

For the 9Std year of Tduhoung [1842]. 

Deceased - • - 30 

Returned to Snngki^ng fu 8 

Unregistered deceased - 48 

Present inmates . - 35 

Unregistered deceased - . 33 
Returned to Sungkiang fii I 

Present inmates • . 42 

Old inmates - • - 35 

New inmates — - - 91 

Deceas«ed - *- - 25 

Transferred by adoption - 25 

List of utensils^ clothes, 4'^*» contributed by the 

following worthy individuals. 

Six padded dresses for wet nurses, with caps for all the children in 

the institution, and 3000 cash for children, by Sin Sb4y(j. 

1845. . Foundling Hoxpiial at Shunghdi. (69 

A long yellow lilk coat, three pairs of yelJnw curtain*, one jrfllow 
cap, and three pairs of curtain-hooks for idols, by Y.iii Yinyih. 
Four common lamps, with 8000 cash for children's clothing, by Lt- 

3000 cash for children's clothing, and 84,000 cash for 

reward money for the wet nurses, by Kiu Tsz' yen. 
910 for children's clothing, by ' 

8000 cash for children's clothing, by 
940 for children clothing, by 

6 V cotton dresses for wetnurses, and 8400 cash for 
clothes by — 

93 for children's clothing, by 

94 for children's clothing, by 

96 for children's clothing, by ■ 

6 cotton dresses for we tnnrses, and 94 for children's 

clothing, by 

8400 cash for children's clothing, by »— 

8000 cash for children's clothing, by 

8000 cash for children's clothing, by — -.i— . 


The above contributions of cash and dollars, having all been ex- 
pended in the procuring of children's clothing, have not been enter- 
ed into the general accounts of the institution. 

Contributions by the officers of the institution for rewards to the 
wet nurses, for food, and extra expenses during the following years. 
For the 19th year of Tiukw4ng, whole amount 92,400 cash 
For the 20th year „ „ 84,000 „ 

For the 21st year ,t „ 92,400 

For the 22d year „ „ 84,000 

Inducements to acquire merit by subscriptions. 
We respectfully address . The Sh^ngh^i Foundling Hos- 
pital was first opened in the 49th year of Kanghi, 135 years ago. On 
examining the Foundlings' register, for the number of the present 
inmates, we find that there are still remaining more than thirty-nine : 
can any say that this does not fully equu .heir expectations? But of 
late the expenditure has much exceeded the income. The individual 
who took the superintendence of the hospital was Ts&u Chunyung, 
but this year he died ; and his son and heir, petitioned the sub-prefect 
that the office of superintendent might be transferred to another, and 
has received the sub-prefect's command to hand over the management 
of it to the Tungjiu Tang (or Hall of United Benevolence). But there 

190 PoHndUng Hospital ai Shanghai, Afhil^ 

ar4» mnny explicit. statements, on the snb^refect's records, from tha 
Tiiniyui Tang of ilH inability to combine, with that institiition, the 
care of the Foundling HofqiitaL 

During TsAu's life ail the rei«ponsibility devolved upon him, but 
now that he is dead, there are more than thirty children calling 
for nourishmeut, who cannot wait till the morrow. Now if we do not 
immediately take some measures, not only these thirty children will 
die between a morning and an evening, but the excellent institution, 
which has been carried on for more than a hundred yaars uninter- 
ruptedly, will eventually be put to an end, by that one expression 
of the Tungrjin Tang's managers, that they cannot take the mana- 
gement of it. The Tungjin Tang is an excellent institution ; but 
cannot its managers take charge of this also? 

Now we have been compelled thus temporarily to take the mana- 
gement of the Foundling Hospital until someone 9hall be found who 
will come forward for our relief. The expenditure of the Tungjin 
Tiing is settled ; no change of circumstances can ever drive them 
hither and thither. AU the benevolent and good people contribute 
regularly to the Tungjin Tang; if therefore we now come again to 
press then for subscriptious to the Foundling Hospital, thus call- 
ing them to contribute to two institutions, it would seem to be father 
unreasonable; and for one person to make two subscriptions is 
inoreover not en easy matter of late ye^rs. We have repeatedly 
made calls for contributions, and must tkus have moved many tens 
of thousands of cash. But now when circumstances again cidi to 
the business of soliciting, the difficulty in so doling is greater, atud the 
supply more sf^ajity than before. It is now settled thai the oiicere of 
the Tungjin T4ng, whose means are but small, put down tlieir 
nimes at the head of the subscription list, in order to the meeting of 
the present exigency. Necessity is constant, hut we can hardly 
expect that its supply (by subscription) will be equally so; itjvould 
therefore be well, by gnining the interest which time would give, to 
attain to an accumulation of property. Every man alike has the 
feeling of compassion, but when difficulty arises he withdraws, and 
when the matter is easily settled he runs forward. If therefore the 
amount of a subscription could be decreased, every one would be 
able to contribute a small sum, and we might solicit everywhere. 

It is now decided that one benevolence ticket shall be valued equal 
to 360 casb« and that these shall be collected according to the four 
seasons. The institution shall first distribute the benevolence tickets; 
then thos^ who have the will to contribute shall be requested to write 

1345. Foundling HoqtUal at Shdnghdt, 191* 

their iiiiiiies on the- tickets which have been distributed. One per- 
son ludy write un several tickets, or several individuals may join to 
gether for one ticket) or all the members of a household, both the family 
and domestics may subsoribe to a corresponding number of tickets, 
or may call and invite friends and relations to join in any number of 
tickets. Thus one ticket may extend to several tens, hundreds and 
thousiinds. Let these be distributed according to the ability and 
inclination of those called on to subscribe. ADer the lapse of a 
month the tickets shall be received again by the institution, and 
changed for receipt tickets. According to the seasons, the tickets 
shall be taken and the money called for, the periixl of three years 
CMNnpleting the terra. Those who have subscribed for several years, 
or only for one or two years, may suit their own convenience. This 
contribution is raised for the following reasons; Istly, in order to 
perpetuate our excellent establishment; 2dly, in order to the saving 
of the children who are already in theth stitution ; aiid 3dly, that we 
may relieve the Tungjin Tang from a responsibility which they 
\^ere not able to decline. 

If fur the extension of kindness to our fellow creatures, and to 
thoiie poor and desltitute wlio have no father and niotheY, all the 
^ood and benevolent would dispense one cash, it would be suffi-' 
cient for the maintenance of the Foundlings for one day. .It will be 
well if no one considers a small good unmeritorious, nor a small 
subscription to be of no avail. Either you may induce others to 
subscribe, by the vernal breeze froin your mouth, or you may nou- 
rish the blade of benevolence in the field of happiness, or cherish 
the already sprouting bud. Thus by taking advantage of opportu- 
liitieis as they present themselves, and using your endeavors to ac- 
complish your object, you may immeasurably benefit and extend the 
ibsiitoftion, at which we shall exceedingly rejoice. 

Respectfully addressed by the committee of the institution. 

T'dukwang, 16th year, 1 1th month. 

The form of the behevaknce ticket of the Foundling Hospital. 

Uiurtng recetred the sub-prefect's order to lake charge of the 
Fouudling Hospital, we have agreed to raise a subscription, and 
now beg to request you (naming the person) dwelling at (place of 
residence) for a voluntary subscription 6? (number of tickets), the 
aggregate amount of which will be (oinount in cash). ^l*aukw^ng 
(year and day of month). 

Eacit benevolence ticket b of the value of 360 cash, being one 


FfiUndiing Hospital at Shanghai. 


cjuih per Hay, this one ticket is for one year. Fro'm one ticket it 
may extend to some tens, hundreds, and thousands ; from one year 
to two, and from two to three, each according to inclination and 
ability. The institution having distributed the tickets, shall wait 
until a month be elapsed, and then receive the tickets again, pasting 
or . hanging them against the walls, and entering them into the sub- 
scription register. 

Beginning from the 1st month of the 17th year, they shall be re- 
collected according to the season. Let every one act from benevo- 
lent feelings, let there be no compulsion. 

lAit of sHhscriptions. 



L^ commandant of the ri^ht 
cantpa - - • • 

Li6, ooinniandant of the mili- 
tary ■tatiou in the city 

Chu, of the Tunpon Hall 
6 individuals each aubtcribing 
100 tickets . - . . 

1 individual • - - . 

2 individuals ofSO each 
8 individuals of 30 
5 individuals of 40 
2 individuals of 25 

15 individuals of 20 










1 indtvidtml of * 
1 individual of 

1 individual of 
60 individuals of 10 each 

2 individuals of 8 
5 individuals of 6 

41 individuals of 5 
18 individuals of 4 
40 individuals of 3 
206 individuals of 2 
405 individuals of 1 






»• • 


»♦ " 


f» ■ 

• 9(16 

»» • " 


»» ■ 


n " 


M "■ J 

. 495 

TickeU 4586 
Each ticket being worth 360 cash, 1,650,960 i^ash. 

Tdukwdng, iOth year. List of the good and faithful 

who joyfully subscribed. 


The' owners of merchant ves- 
sels - • - - 388,500 

The guild of oloth manufac- 
turers . • < - 252,096 

Subscriptions from Sin Tsa 36,000 
„ from Kiang Wan 21 ,600 

Subscriptions ftom Tsan Ho- 

ktng - - . - 12,960 

Sabscriptions from MinfKng 5,500 
•t IVom 8«in Hin- 
ting- - - - - 23,400 

Total 739,953 

Tdukwdng, 20M year. 

Owners of merchant vessels 37,34(1 1 C7h6 of the Shrtyun gallery 
Clofh manuiacturers - • 170,319 Mr. K&ii Sihyung 
Chfi^f the Tun Pun Hall - 360,000 1 ^^^^ 

Tdukwdng, 21 st year. 

The guild of clotli manufac- Mr. Sen Tsinyung . . 

torers . . ^ - 810,634 The Tueching bean war -« 
Ch6 of IheTunpun Hall • 360,000 liouw - . . . 

Mr. Ch6 of the Sbiiyun Mr. Chuh Meifuh 

^""^'^y 'c . '^ V ■ ^®*°^ ! Total 

Mr. Chang of Uie Tan Yuen I 

gallery - - • - 3,Wr 







Faundting Hospital ai Skdnghat. 


TAukw&ng, [ilid ytior. 

Mr. Chd of the ShCkjun 

gallery - . - . - 18,000 
The WaBtaaf shop - 7,000 

T|i« Tueching beaa ware- 
house • . . 
Mr. Cha Kweifuh 




The amount of the cloth manufacturers' subscription was received 
too late for this list, and will be included in next year's report. 

i RaU an kmds. 

In the 18th year the entire rental was 183,319 cash. 

Paid fbr land tax, in money 14,264 

Paid dtf« in nee 

Expenses of water carriage of the produce 

In the 19th year, rental received .... 

Paid land tazin money ...... 

Paid do.' in rice 

Water carriage -' • - «. -• . 

In the *20th year, rental received 

Paid land tax in money - - 

Paid do. in rice -•- - •. • 

Water carriage* " " .' 

In the 21st year, rental received 

Paid land tax in money - 

Paid do. in rice - - 
Water carriage 

In the 22d year, first instahnent of land tax - - 

Balance of the above 4 years 

Interest received on various sums of money for the 

19th year of Tiukwin^ - . - 

Interest received on various sums of money lor the 

20th year of TAukwing 

Interest received on various sums of money for the 

21st year of Taukwtog ... 

Interest received on various sums of money for the 

22dyearofTiUkw£ng . ^ . . . 

For the lOik year, 

Nurses* wages and children's expenses 

Monthly hire of outside wet nurses - 
Occasional hire of an extra nurse 
Rewards on the examination of the infants 
Gratuity to a little blind girl ^ . . 
For wages for wet nm'ses in the establishment 
Rewards for do. do. 

Hire of sn old ftmale domestic • - • 
Paid for securities for the wet nurses 
Passsge money for the wet nurses to and from 

kiing f« 

Apothecaries bills — draughts, pills, powders and 

medical ingredients .... 

Physicians* feea 
Children's ri«!e cakes, shaving, small-pox, lamp oil 

anil medicines 

Fire balb, and medicine firing 

Ten mosquito curtains .... 

Straw cradles, shoes, stockings, and straw mats 

VOL. XIV. NO. IV. 25 


136>710 cask 
68,176 / 

138,295 cash. 


109,365 cash. 

. 9,734 easlt. 
12^,321 cash. 


















ripts on aubscriptions ^r the iOth year, aum tolal '1,239.839 caah. 

the 21.t year - : : :' V X ^l^:!^^^: A 

I • I ' 

IMr Foundlitiff Hospital ai fikdugkaL \ Ape|l, 

Ezpenaea for preparing the. childreala dptbjea, cotton 

blanketa, cotton wool, cloth, and other materials 49,:^4 

Expenaes for burying the children 'a cofRna, hire,-' 
' aand, atraw coffina, and paper money .'•--■ 16,218 

Total ' 685,426 

Receipts for the 19/A year, , ^ 

From officera of the inatitution Fur aupplv of children *a 

. 'food* and. extra: expenaes ;!.- miu "fL:/; lav, ,; :. 919,41)0 ' ^ 
From the good and faithful for benevolence ticketa - 1,650,960 
From the good and faithful in money ■ rV - ^ 739,968 
Intereat on loana to pawn brokers and private persons . 467,40Q. ■ ., | 
From rentage of houaea - - - .-., , - „. - .95,847 ,: 

•.•>.- i:i 3,046,565 M.-i 

. . • • . ' 


For the 

For tke 22d year - - - - - - .; V " '673,607 . 

Total' amount of receipta for the above four yeara'6,34f>,406 cash. 

' '^" Sundries for the establishment for the I9th year.' , 

PrintiM ai|d aewing the registera,. receipt ticketa, 

pencua and iqk . - . - . - • . - . - • -7,630 
For printing, the Report for I8th year - v . - 99,683 
Tax for the foundation of 'the eatabliahment in money 

and rice - - - "- - - - .-20,213: 

TifRn on the lat aiid 15th, for the friehda who paid I 

wagea - - - '- - - "- '- • 3,100 
Heoitation of prayers, and dresaiiig out the ahrine on 
• occaaion of the idoPa birthday - ' - • 38,785 

The feaat, and other arrangements are' not mentioned . , ^ 

here aa they were defrayed by the aupefintendent. ' ; , 

Incense* candlea, and paper money used in aacrifieing < 

on the three annual feativala, - /- - . 12,308 

For the daily expenditure. oJr teit, tobacco, oil, candlea, ,. 

coal, and charcoal .. i ,,■ v, ,•>,.. .,r.„ .- . - 39,304 • 

Salaries of auditors ' - ' '• ; - - . - . 121,800. 

Domestics and cooks ' . ' 29,184 

Fifty-eight peculs of rice.. ,v ",»' - . •, '. \ - . • 205,429 

Daily supply of food 136,642 

Firewood - - - - - - - .^ 64,491 

Extraa - - 17,748 ' 

Repairing walls of Institutions and outhouaea . 78,518 

Forty bundles of paper - - . - -- 14,230 
Varniahing and materials - - - - , 14,374 . 

Removing broken tiles and rubbiah from the inatitution 18,400 

Whole year'H pencil expensea .... 4^(Ki)0 
Yeara expenaea for the constable and other official 

expenaea - ... 2,500 

Food and wagea of the- coUectora of the ticketa and 

subscriptions - - - - 10,254 

Loss of all kinds on tickets and money - - - 15,020 

Total 953,586 
Expenditure for thehikh yemv. 

For nurses' wages and children's food - % - 685,436 ' 

Miscellaneous expenses (aa above) - 958,586 

Total 1,63D,012 

.- •• 1 

1 845. ' Tohration of Christianity: 1^' 

In the same year sent as contribution to Sungkiang fii 300,000 cash. 
Expenditure for the 30th year Total 1 ,533,869 

Expenditure for the 2Jst year - Total l, 606,37tf 

Expenditure for the 22d year - Total 1,631,548 cash. 

Expenditure for above 4 years - ToUl 6,410,607 cash. 

18th year in hand - - - • - - • 1.005,058 
New receipts - - - ..---- 6 ,346,406 

Grand total of expenses ."6,410,«U7 

Contributiona to Sungki6n{f • • - - -v 300,000 

Balance from above - - - • * - • 640,657 

interest on subscriptions loaned out - - 2,850,000 

Interest on wares from pawn^broker*s shops 1 .520,000 ": 

Balance now in hand 5,010,657 

We are indebted to friends at Sh^nghii for the foregoing Report, 
of which we leave our readers to form their own opinions, having 
no space left for comments. Similar institutions exist in all the -prin- 
cipal towns of the "empire. ^ \ 


Art. V. . .Toleration tof Christianity , intimated by the emperor 
Tdukwdng, December 28/ A, 1844, in a reply given to a me- 
morial from the imperial commissioner Kiyitig, y\ 

After so long 4^1ay we are able to place before our readers the em- 
peror's edict, for the toleration of Christianity^ kindly forwarded to 
us by a correspondent at Sh^ngh^i. The history, of this document 
we have. been, able' io trace so far as to leave, no* doubt, in our^own* 
minds, of its being authentic. Certain officers, both at Shingh^i 
and Canton,- have denied the authenticity of what purports to be the 
emp^ror^s reply ; biit others, who have the means of knowing the 
^ruith, declare to the contrary. In the summer of last year we had 
theiplQa3ure of presenting, to Ktying a copyofthe New Testament 
In Manchuj — the 'same in Chinese with many other books on Chris- 
tianity, he had 'previously received and perused, and had evidently 
madi^ Up, his'mind regai'ding ^he truth arid excellence of this "new, 
irellglon.'^ ^warepr.iyhatwa^ doing to extend Christianity, he is 
RaidtU> haverbroUght forward a proposition more than a year ago for 
its-tolerationi.' -But the- honor of securing this, by a direct request, 
was reserved for the French embassador. We here introduce the 
original with a translation. 

196 Tokraii&H of ChriUtanity. Apliti., 




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K(ting, ifnjperifd commissioner, minister of statte, khA '^dvernor-ge- 
Qoral of Kwingtong^^ind Kwing«f,respectf\iny addressed the throne 
by memorial. ) -i.:-). .i . 

On examination it appears, thattthe. r^Ugiop of.ih«; Lord «>f hea- 
ven is that professed by all the natiops of t^ewest; that its ..main 
object is to encourage the good and suppress the wicked ; that, since 
its 'introduction to China during the Ming dynasty* it bias never been 
interdicted; that subsequently, when Ohintee, practicing this reli<« 
gion, often made it a covert for wickedness, even to the seducing of 
wives and daughters, and io the deceiflul extractionof^ie pupils 
from the eyes of the sick,* government made ipvestigatiQii apd inflict- 
ed punishment, as is on record; and that, lii the reign. of Kicking, 
special clauses werelirst laid down for the puniihhrent of the guilty: 
The prohibition therefore was directed j against ^viMoing under the 
covert of religion, and not against tbe feligioQ profotsed .by western 
foreign nations. .... 

Now the request of the French embassador, Lanr^en^, that those 

1845. Toleration of Ckrisiianiiy. 197 


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Cbiaeae who, doing well, prtctice this religion, be exempt from 
criminality, aeema feaaible. It is right therefore to make request, 
and earnestly to crave celestial favor, to grant that, henceforth, all 
natives am) foreigners without distinction, who learn snd practice 
the religi<»4 of the Lord of heaven, and do not excite trouble by 
improper conduct, be exempted from criminality. If there be any 
who reduce wives and daughters, or deceitfully take the pupils from 
the eyes of the sick, walking in their former paths, or are otherwise 
euilty of criminal «ct^^ let them be dealt with according to the old 
UW8* As tp those of: the French and other foreign nations, who 
practice the religion, let them permitted to build churches 
at the five ports opened for commercial intercourse. They must 
tiot presume to enter the bouiitry to propagate religion. Should any 
9ct in.opppsjpon, turn. their backs. upon, the treaties, and rashly 
overstep the 'boundaries^ the local officers will at once seise and 
deliver them to their respieotive consuls for restraint and correction. 
Capital punishment ts not to be rashly inflicted, in order that the 

198 Toleration of Christianity, Apkil,' 

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exercise of gentleness may be displayed^ Thub peradventure the 
good and the profligate will not be blended, whi-le the equity of 
mild laws will be exhibited. "^ 

This request, that well-doers practicing the religion may be ex<> 
empt from criminality, he (the commissioner), in accordance with 
reason and his bounden duty, respectfully lays before 'the throne; 
earnestly praying the august emperor graciously to grant that it may 
be carried into efTeet. ' A respectful imemoriak . • 

Taakw^ng, 24tb year, 11th month^i 19th dsf; (Doo. 28th' 1844) 
was received, the'vermiliorireply; 'Let Mo 'be according to the 
counsel (ofKlying)*' ThisjisTrom theempteroi'; J . ' •> ' >^ -' \. '..:■•.. ^ 

. ■. -,1 J* i;- •••( ','i i;;;*'4Mni'' ••>•:'.: I:-' .■"' « " ; = ''l ' . ' * 'iii! \- 
* Thii is thui explained by a Chinejie/*I^is.acuit9inW)ithr the priests who 
teach the relig'r6n, wheii a man if about' ^o die,' to take a handful of cotton, 
hanA^ concealed withiti it a sharp tiefdl^^ Jitidfti^h, while 'HibbiiJ^'tHe" indi- 
.vidua4*S(eyes»witJi the aotton,-!to intio<iueethl»a^dletiiititisth«'^ye>kikd«^n<itur^ 
the; pupil with it ; • the . hunocsf of tha. .pupii j a«tii|ratf |[ieiQotton<8iid:aee'mAeiv 
wards used as a medicine." This fooUsh idea has its origirvip.fhe |eji^|reme 
uuclion administered by Catholic priests to the clying. * • 

1845. Journal of Occurrences, 199 

A copy of the Ibregoiiig, in Chinese, reached the city ofSuchau, 
on the Ist of February last, and soon after appeard a proclamation 
among the Roman Catholics at Shanghai, of which the following ist 
a translation. 

'^A special order from Lohinj^ sz' (count de Bes^i) bishop of ShantunjEr and 
Kian^rnan, commanding all his spiritual children, and communicating for 
their mformation,. that .whilst he, the bishop, was at Suchau, preparing for. 
his journey northwards, he suddenly fell in with the memorial of the go- 
yemor-G^eneral of Canton, for which he returns thanks to Divine goodness, 
and feels penetratJed with delight ' The holy reliction is most correct and 
true, and its professors certainly ought respectfully to maintain and deli- 
gently to learn it Having seen the memorial, he, the bishop, immediately 
prosecuted his joumev to Shantung ; and about the third or fourth montif 
intends to return southward, so that he could not personally issue his injunc- 
tions to his followers ; but he sends this written order to all his spiritual 
children, that they will offer up especial prayers on his behalf, in oroer that 
his journey may be prosperous. He also hopes that his adherents will set 
a good example and exert themselves in the practice of virtue and the sup- 
pression of vice, so that, as the memorial states, they may exhort each other 
to goodness and discourage all immoralities, — thus preserving themselves 
good and virtuous, without insulting the adherents of other religions, whilst 
they follow out the instructions and exhortations they have received. Let 
them also pray that the holy religion may be greatly promoted, remembering 
that the kind consideration of the emperor towards our holy religion springs 
entirely from the favor of the Lord of heaven. After the reception of this 
order, let thanks be offered up to God for his mercies in the churches, for 
three Lord's days in succession. While the faithful rejoice in this extraor- 
dinary favor, let Ave Marias also be recited to display grateful feelings." 


Art. VI. Journal of Occurrences : Peking Gazettes^ the emperor 
engaged in religious worship \ the northern ports; Ningpo; 
conveyance of tecus ; Hongkong ; proceedings of the Midicai 
Missionary Society: Protestant missions. 

Peking Gazettes to the 17th of February have come to hand. Thus 
we are ten weeks without dates from the capital. In extraordinary 
cases, dispatches come to Canton in fourteen days. Perhaps no 
country in the world is better fitted for railroads than China, and we 
hope it may soon have them, with other facilities for intercommuni- 
cation. Financial matters, repairs of cities, temples, canals, ships 
of war, &c., are the leading topics in the gazettes before us. The 
whole empire is, apparently, enjoying its usual share of tranquility. 

On the Ist of January, his majesty, on account of the unusually 
small quantity of snow that had fallen iu Peking, went in person to 
the. temples, where he had previously ordered altars to be erected and 
prayers. to be made, and where he himself took part in the religious 
worship. The priests, assisting on the occasion, were those of the 
Tin sect, the rationalists of China. 

From the northern ports favorable accounts continue to be received, 
and all the success realized that the most sanguine anticipated. 

200 Journal of Occurrences* 

Ningpo, according to the expresf^d opinions of residents there, 
has a delightful climate, and its winter weather is not surpassed by 
that even of Italy. We are glad to hear these favorable reports ; 
they give a better character to the climate than we had hitherto en* 
tertained. The city is of easy access by the tiver, and " the people 
are civil and obliging/' Its capabilities, in a commercial point of 
view, ** have not yet t^en sufficiently tested ; nor can they be, until 
aAer the evacuation of Chusan by the British." 

From the China Mail^ March 30th, we copy the following. notice 
regarding the transportation of teas. . 

The Peking Gaiette of the 5th December contaiiis an edict retpecting the 
conveyance of teas from the Bohea Hills to Chipd, Ninf po and Shing h4i» 
from which the following extracts are taken : 

The lea-storehouse keepers at Sh6n^hii presented a petition, statinf , that 
the magistrates of Yoshin in Kiingsi instructed the coolies that merchants 
about to convey teas to Shanghai, Ningpo, and ChipQ should be ordered 
back, because teas were to be sold at Canton as heretofore, and should not be 
permitted to cross the mountains on the way to the above places ; and further, 
since there was a demand amongst the English for new teas, they were con- 
stantly fVequenting these shores. This paper having been transmitted 
through the inspector of Sungkiing, Sachau, and Tiisiing, he dispatched an 
officer to investigate the affair in person. 

The lieutenant-governor of Kiingsf was greatly surprised when he heard 
of this circumstance, because the governor-general of Fukien and Chehkiing 
had expressly agreed to transport the teas of Fukien province to ShdnghUt 
and Ningpo, as two of the five ports which had been opened to the English 
trade ; and notwithstanding this, the magistrate had issued a proclamation 
sgainst it. 

On mature inquiry it was ascertained, that Ho Chunehing, a Canton mer- 
chant, afler having procured one thousand catties of tea for that maket, had 
been prevailed upon by some of the coolies to alter his intention and proceed 
to Shanghai. As this would have created confusion in the accounts, respecting 
the exportation, the magistrate enjoined that these leas should proceed to Can- 
ton, and the order had reference solely to this supply, and not to other tran- 
sactions. It also came out, that about eight thousand peculs of tea had been 
dispatched to Sh&nghii, without any hindrance in YuhshAn district. Since 
however, the local officers had not been explicit in their public statement, 
they were to be handed over for trial to the Board of Punishment, and this 
had been sanctioned by an imperial rescript. 

Improvements in Hongkong — especially in the constraction of 
roads and buildings — are going on with greater spirit than ever, the 
population keeping pace with the increase of work. A plan has 
been adopted for securing a supply of ice. Health is generally good. 
. The proceedings of the Medical Missionary Society are attracting 
sonie attention ; and while we purposely omit comments on these, 
we have great pleasure in being able to state that, the labors of all 
the medical officers continue with unabated success. 

Early in the month, the Rev. Messrs. Shuck and Devan, with 
their families, removed from Hongkong to Canton. About the mid- 
dle of the month the Rev. A. P. Happer opened a mission school in 
Macao, with thirty pupils. On the 24th, the right Rev. bishop W. 
J. Boone and lady, the Rev. U. W. Woods and lady, the Rev. R. 
Graham and lady, with the Misses £. J. Gillett, E. G. Jones, aud M. 
J. Morse, missionaries from the Episcopal Church, U. S. A., arrived 
at Hongkong, on their way to Amoy. 



J '^^ 

Vol. XIV.— May, 1845.— No. 5. 

Art. r. 7^ Syrian Momumentf eammemarating the progress of 
, Ckritianiiy in China^ erected in the year of the Christian era 
seven hundred and eighteen, at Singdn fH. 

Frequent mention has been made in oar pages of this celebrated 
monument* discovered by some Chinese workman, a. d. 1635, in or 
near the city of Sfng&n, the metropolis of the province of Shensi, and 
once the capital of the empire. The city is situated on the river Wei, 
fat 34* 16' N. The monument was found covered with rubbish, and 
was immediately reported to the magistrate, who visited it, and caused 
it to be removed to a pagoda or temple, where it was examined by both 
natives and foreigners. Christians and pagans. Semmedo and other 
Roman Catholic priests visited it, and carefully examined the in- 
scription upon it. They have described it as a slab of marble, about 
ten feet long, and five feet broad. On one side of it is the Chinese 
inscription, in twenty-eight lines, twenty-six characters in each line, 
besides a heading over the top in nine characters, and another on 
the right side comprised in seventeen characters. Of this Chinese 
inscription we give three translations, — Kircher's in Latin, Dalqui6's 
in French, and one in English, for which we are responsible. We 
add also the Chinese as given by Kircher, in his China Illustrata, 
published at Amsterdam. These translations and the Chinese will 
each occupy a separate column. The Chinese is not divided into 
paragraphs, and the Latin and French translators have simply made 
a paragraph of each line of the Chinese, as it was found on the mo- 
ikument. In the English we have attempted a division into paragraphs 
according to the sense; the figures refer to corresponding ones at 
the end* where a few explanatory notes will be found. The 17 cha- 
racters, on the side of the inscription, we have placed at the top. 

VOL. XIV. NO. V. 26 

203 The Sffrian Monununi, Hat, 



Hff «: 

A siotu tablet eommetnoraiing -S^ s^ T^ £A ^ &> 

the difusion of the illustrioue ^ ^^ rv ^i^ II m. 

religion in China, with a preface, 3S. -^ OS di jtit 

written by King Tsing, a priest <^ ^ **« ^ *«^ 

from the Church in Judeaf Sfc f& A ^" H ^^ 

Now TBRiLY, the unchangeably ^ "V ^ -jf^ ..^ ^ jAi 

true and recondite, the eternal -© ^^ '^o ^*-» "o '^ 

cause of causes, the far-seeing ^ ^k ^ M f^ ^, ^ 

and purely spiritual, the never •»•*•» o "J* '-^ '^ ^^ I^ 

ending and incomprehensible fftj j^ ^ ffi] # "^ f^ 

Being, who grasping the poles \^ ^ 

created the univeree. and being jfefe ifij g ^i ffi^ ^ SR 

more excellent than the holy . , .^ — ^a 

ones," is the supremely honorable. ;|^ 7^ ^ .^ ^ jfrt ^ 

This is our mysterious Trinity,* ** --, *^ .^ ^ ^it 

the true eternal Lord Jehovah ! ' f^ m f^ ^ ^ la 

He, determining, in the form of ° V^ ® »^ ^ - 

the cross,* to esublish the four 45. S JL Bb ^ fl^ 5c 

quarters of the earth, moved the ^^. «=* . a. 

primeval Spirit,' and produced ;^ 1^ |j!l ^ P? ^ 5u 

all things visible and invisible.' ■. ju A B m. uf aS 

The dark expanse was changed, ff^ ^ /^ ^ JS^ aH Wl 

and heaven and earth were un- "* n,i -a-i rt-r •»« ir* 

folded. The sun and moon revolv- ^ Hm^ ^IJ {^ |JPJ |g >C 

ed, and day and night began. w j*^ ofl 3? AL ivi 

As an architect, having finished ^ /j^ ^ A JS\ VA 7C 

the universe,* he created the first -y ^^ M -yJi ho ^^^ t/o 

man ; endowed him with goodness /^ m ^ ^ ^tj 7u ^ 

and benignity ; and commanded ju 7^ X^ aa . -M^ ^i. 

him to rule the world » Hisorig- T # 1? P "^ -# ?K! 

nal nature was entirely pure and 2, ^A il ** ii» 46* €lf 

unsullied ; and his simple and un- m 1^ ^ Q, ^ ^ SS 

corrupted heart, was wholly free ^^ ^i* ^j in u° rfc- 

from inordinate desires. But at ^ yg ^ ^ J|^ ^ £B| 

length Satan, by exercising dissi- ,_- ^-j #l^ >m ^^ lU- ^^ 

mulation, and by throwing a gild- |^ ^ llj ^ At T^ fx 

ed covering over that pure and . . ^/b <fe ^u nrl rfl> /A 

uncorrupted nature, took away ff^ ^ W (ffl KM ^ IK 

equity and greatness from -the ^^ .^ %^ ^. ju -^r;* 

center of good, and insinuated ^ 7^ )^ S /i^ Inl 

evil and darkness in their stead. ^^ 



The Syrian Monument. 



ClarissinuB legis promulgate in 
Sina Lapis jEtemte laudis if 
prologus. Tacyn (id est^ Judate) 
EccUsia Sacerdos, Kimcym, re- 

Principium fuit semper idem, 
verom, quietum, primorum prt- 
mum, 6l sine origine, necessario 
idem, intelligens & spirituale, 
postremorum postremum 6l excel- 
lentissiminn existens, ordinavit 
cslornm polos, 6l fecit ex nihilo 
excellentissim^ ; perfect! omnium 
Sanctorum, pro origine adorant, 
qnem ille solus personarum trium 
unicaperfectissimasulMtantia non 
habens principium, Veritas Domi- 
nus holooy statu it crucem per pa- 
cificare quatuor partes mundi, 
commovit originis spiritum & pro- 
duxit. Duas mutationum causas 
(Sinic^ dicnntur ym 6l yam, 
hoc est, materia 6l forma) obscu- 
rum vacuum mutavit, 6l coelum, 
terram aperuit, solem, lunam cir- 
cumvolvit, 6l diem noctem fecit, 
artifex operatus universas res. 
idem erigere voluit hominem, or- 
nato donavit amabilissimam paci- 
fies unionis subordinationem (id 
est, justitiam originalem) prsci- 
piebat quielem fluctibus maris, in* 
tegra originis natura vacua humi- 
lisque 6l non plena superbaque, 
sequi appetituum fluctuationem 
corde, de se, neque levissim^ de- 
siderabat, promanavit k Sotan (id 
est, Diabolo) extensus dolus, clam 
ornavit naturam puram 6l simpli- 
cem otiosa pace magnificam in 
illius permanentiff medio odium 
occultavit simul per laudera mali- 

LE monument de LA TRES 1LLD8TRE 

La pitrrt digne iTune tUmelU 
huange^ if U prolore de la tris^ iUuitrt 
Lay promulguie dans la Chintz faU 
par Kim cym Pmtre de VEglite de 
Taeyn ((^esi d dire de Judie.) 

Lb PRINCIPE a e8t6 tousjours lemes- 
me« veritable, paisible, le premier de 
tous autres, & sans origine. II a 
est/k encore necessairement ce qu*il 
est, intelligent, spirituel, le plus 
noble, Sl le plus parfait de tous ; il a 
regl^ les Cieux, et a fait de trte bel- 
les choees du Neant; les plus par- 
faits de tous les Saincts adorent celuy 
qui n'a point de prineipe, Sl lequel 
estant unique en sa tr^ parfaite 
substance, a trois personnes divines 
qui participent sa divine essence. Le 
Seigneur Holooy qui est la verite, a 
resolu de pacifier les quatre parties 
du monde par rr croix ; il a excite 
I'esprit d'origine, & a produit A 
meame temps. II a produit deux 
causes des changements (les Chinois 
les appellent Ym Sl Yam, e'est k dire 
la roatiere &> la forme) il a change 
le vuide obacur, &, a manifest^ Sl 
descouvert le Ciel &, la Terre. II 
a fait le Soleil, 6l la lune qui par leur 
roouvement font ia nuit 6l le jour. 
Le mesme ouvrier qui a fait toutea 
choses a voulu ealever Thomroe ; 
auaai I'a-t'il orn^ de la tr^s symable 
subordination d'une union pacifique 
(c'eat A dire, de justice originelle). 
II commendoit le repos aux flots ^e 
la mer-dans le temps de son origine. 
Sa nature estoit vuide &, humble, 
sans estre pleine ny superbe de soy ; 
son cceur n estoit point portfe A suivre 
les roouvemens aes appetits Sl ny 
songeoit m^me pas ; c'eat de SoUm 
(c'est A dire du Demon) par une ex- 
tension de sa malice) que ce malheur 
luy est arriv^; Dieu orna secrete- 
ment la nature pure 6l simple d'une 
paix profunde &, magnifique en il 
cache inteheurement sa haine par la 
loiiange de sa mnlice, 4 la fiiveur 
de son obstination & de son opina- 


The Sffrian Monument, 


Hence arose a multiplicity of 
sects," following each other in 
close succession, striving to weave 
their legal nets: some substituted 
the creature for the Creator : some 
considered being as nothing, sink- 
ing all things in oblivion: and some, 
in order to gain felicity, made 
prayers and offered sacrifices. 
Others deceived mankind with a 
show of goodness. With wisdom 
and solicitude they labored hard ; 
and their anxieties and cares were 
unceasing. They were bewildered 
and obtained nothing. Heated and 
scorched, they writhed in anguish. 
They accumulated darkness, and 
lost their way; and, being mis- 
guided, ,they were irrecoverably 

Thereupon our Trinity " set 
apart the illustrious and adorable 
Messiah ; ^* who, laying aside his 
true dignity, came into the world 
as man. Angels " proclaimed the 
joyful tidings. A virgin gave 
birth to the holy child in Judea. 
A bright star proclaimed the 
happy event. Persians,^' seeing its 
brightness, came with presents. 
He fulfilled the ancient laws, 
given by the twenty-four holy 
ones.'^ He ruled families and na- 
tions with great virtue. He in- 
stituted the new doctrine of the 
Trinity, pure, spiritual, and inex- . 
plicable." Like a potter he formed 
good usages by the true faith. He 
established the measure of the 
eight boundaries.^' He purged 
awAy the dross, and perfected the 
truth. He opened the gate of 
the three constant virtues," re- 
vealing life and destroying death. 
He suspened the bright sun, to 

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Thi Syrian Monument, 


tie ad intra, istud causavit ter 
centum sexies decern quinque 
sectas, humeri hominum aeqae- 
bantur ordinem vestigiorum con- 
tendentea texere regularum retia, 
aliqui monatrabant res creataa 
pro credendo principio, aliqai 
vacuum habebant pro origine 
duarum causarum, aliqui prie- 
stubant sacrificium ad accersen- 
dam fortunam, aliqui conquire- 
bant falsa bona ut deciperent 
homines, prudentie cogitationum 
inventiones dolose, amoris passi- 
one, gaudentes laborabant sic 
absque eo, quod possent consequi, 
torrebantur arctissim^ revoluti- 
que cremabantur ; aggregantes te- 
pebras sine via ; k rauito tempore 
deperdentes excellentem beatitu- 
dinem ; in hoc tempore persona- 
rum trium una communicavit 
'seipsam clarissimo venerabilis- 
simoque Bit Xio ; operiendo abs- 
condendoque veram majestatem ; 
simul homo prodiit in sieculuni ; 
Spiritus de ccelis, significavit leti- 
tiam, virgo fcemina peperit San- 
ctum in Taeyn (hoc est, Judaea) 
clarissima constellatio annuntia- 
vit felicitatem ; Po su (Reges ex 
ilia terra Orientali) viderunt cla- 
ritatem, 6l venerunt ofTerre mu- 
nera subjectionis completa bis 
decem quatuor sanctarum. Est 
prophetiarum antiqua Lex; gu- 
bemavit familias, regna (id est, 
orones) cum magna doctrina, lo- 
cutus trine unitatis puram, spiri- 
tualem sine verborum strepitu, 
novam Legem ; perfecit bonos 
mores cum directa fide ; ordina- 
vit octo finium 6l beatitudinum 
loca 6l gradus; Locum igneum 
porgandi pulveris, perficiends in- 
tegritati, aperuit trium virtuium 
scholam; reseravit vitam, extin- 

irevk; c'est pourquoy il a est^ la 
cauae de trois cent soixante quinze 
sectes. Las hommea suivoient I'ordre 
des Vestiges, s'effor^ant de tiltre des 
filets de raison. Quelques una roon* 
troient que les cboses crepes devoient 
passer pour estre leur propre princi- 
pe ; quelques autres disoient que lea 
deux causes prenoient leur Origine 
duNeant Les uosoffroient des sacri- 
fices k la fortune pour se la* rendre 
favorable; les autres recherchoient 
les biens trompeurs , afin de tromper 
les hommes ,* les una se tourmentoi- 
ent par les frauduleuses inventions 
de la prudence de leurs pens^es ; &, 
les autres estoient consomm^ par 
les ardeurs de Pamour, et ainsy ils 
se vcyoient esgallement travaill^. 
Outre ce qu'ils pouvoient obtenir; 
c'est qu'ils estoient trte estroitement 
li^ aux fiammes, roul^s sur nn feu qui 
les consommoit, accumulant tenebres 
sur tenebres; perdant despuia un 
long temps I'excellente beatitude. 
Dans ce temps une des trois penaon- 
nes s'est communiquee au ties illus- 
tre &. au tr^ venerable Mi Xio ; cou- 
vrant &, cachant sa veritable Majesty ; 
il s'est fait homme dans le roonde ; 
I'Esprit cceleste a marqu^ la joye ; une 
femme Vierge a enfant^ le Sainct en 
Taeyn (c'cst A dire en JutUe. Une 
tres claire estoille a annonc^ la feli- 
city. Po 8u (ce sont les Roix de cet- 
te terre Orienta1e| ont veu la clart^, 
^ sont Venus onrur leurs presents, 
plains de respect Sl de soubsmission. 
Vingct quatre Sainctes (je crov que 
ce sont les Sainctes Provinces de ces 
monarques) I'ancienne Loy coniprent 
les Prophetes ; il a gouvem^ les famil- 
ies, &, les Royaumes (c'est 4 dire tous 
le monde) avec une grande doctrine ; 
ila annonc^ sans emphase ny bruit de 
parolles une pure, Spirituelle, &, nou- 
velJe loy de I'unit^ trine. II a perfec- 
tionn^ les "bonnes mcBurs avec une 
Foy droite, Sl parfaite. II a ordonn^ 
les huictfins, &, les Cieux, Sl les deg- 
r^ des Beatitudes. Comme aussi il 
a determine un lieu de feu pour pur- 
ger la poudre &, redonner la demiere 
perfection ; il a ouvert I'eschole des 
trois vertus, il a fait revivre la vie, en 
destruisant la morL II a este esleve 


The Syrian Monument. 


break open the abodes of dark- 
ness, and thereby the wiles of 
the devil were frustrated. ^ He 
put in motion the ship of mercy, 
to ascend to the mansions of 
light, and thereby succor was 
brought to confined spirits. 

His mighty work thus finished, 
at mid-day he ascended to his 
true estate. Twenty-seven books 
remained." He set forth original 
conversion, for the souPs deli- 
verance; and he instituted the 
baptism of water and of the spirit, 
to wash away the vanity of life and 
to cleanse and purify (the heart). 

Taking the cross as a sign, " 
(his deciples "*) unite together 
the people of all regions without 
distinction. They beat the wood,^ 
sounding out the voice of benevo^ 
enoe and mercy. In evangelizing 
the east, they take the way of life 
and glory. They preserve their 
beard for outward effect. They 
shave the crown of the head, to 
indicate the absence of passion. 
They keep no slaves, but place 
upon an equality the hie^h and 
low. They do not hoard goods 
and riches, but bestow them on 
the destitute. They practice ab- 
stinence in order to increase 
their knowledge. They watch," in 
order to maintain quiet and cir- 
cumspection. Seven times a day 
they offer praises to the great 
advantage of both the living and 
the dead. Once in seven days'' 
they have diviile service, in order 
Co cleanse their hearts, and to 
regain their purity. 

The true and constant doctrine 
is mysterious, and difficult to be 
characterized." Anxious to make 
it clear and manifest, we can only 
name it the ILLUSTRIOUS IN- 
STRUCTION." Now without 
holy ones, religion " cannot t)e 

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The Syrian Monument, 


xit mortem ; tppeasus ciaro die, 
ut destrueret inferni tenebrosi 
civitatea, &l regionem; diaboli 
doloa cum hoc totaltter destruxit, 
directo. Pietatis navigio, ut su- 
birent illustriasimas manaiones, 
animabua apiritualibua in illo tem- 
pore cum jam auccurriaset ; po- 
tentite negotia hie canaummaaaet ; 
aeipao elevatua medio die aacendit 
iu ccelum; Scripturarum reman- 
aeruDt bia decem aeptem tomi ; 
aperta est original ia converaio, ut 
poasent homines rationales ingre- 
di ; Lex lavacri aque spirit^s ab- 
luendo superiiciem exomat, de. 
parificando, spiritum interius de- 
al bat ; signaculo Crueis dis- 
perai in quatuor partes Mundi, ad 
congregandos 6l pacificandos sine 
labore pulsant ligna, timoria, pie- 
tatis, gratitudinisque voces per- 
sonando. Orientem sacrificando, 
respiciunt vitte gloriosaa iter, nu- 
triunt barbas, quia habent extra 
conversari cum aiiia; circumra- 
dunt Bummitatem verticis capitis, 
quia carent ad intra afTectibus 
passionum; non fovent satellitia 
servorum, equales nobilibus ig- 
nobilibus cum hominibus;' non 
coacervant divitias, etiam paupe- 
ribus erogant, cum nobis; jeju- 
nant, ut subjiciant intellectui sci- 
entiam, de. perficiant, vel ut quie- 
tent timoris passiones propter 
fortitudinem ; septem vicibus of- 
ferunt laudis orationes magno ad- 
jutorio vivorum de. mortuorum, 
septem dierum primo. Sacriii- 
cant, purificant cord a, aversiones 
peccatorum absolvendo; vera ?ir- 
tutum Lex exceilit 6l difficillim^ 
nominari potest; operibus actio- 
nibusque illuminat tenebraa um- 
brasque, cogimur vocare ill am 
claram Legem ; sola Lex sine Im-, 

en Croix en plein jour ; a fin de destr- 
uire les Villes de I'enfer tenebreux 
&r toutte sa region; c'est par ce 
moyen qii*il a eutiereroent cJestmit 
les tromperiee du Demon. Apr^s 
qu'il eust consomm^ tousces ouvrages 
par sa puissance, qu'il eust donn6 
le secoura aux ames Spiritnelles, 
&. qu'il leur eust procure par un 
effet de compassion Sl de pieti6 de 
tres illustres demeures ; il s'esleva de 
soy roesme au temps du Midy 6l 
monta au Ciel ; il a laim trente quatre 
Livrea des escritures ; la comrenion 
originelle a est^ ouyerte; afin que 
les hommes raisonables peussent y 
entrer; La Loy du baptesme, de leau« 
&. de I'esprit lavant la superficie orne 
I'interieur, &> purifiant, lave I'esprit 
&. I'ame interieiirement Par le mo- 
yen du signe da la Croix qui s'estant 
dans les quatre parties du monde, les 
peuples sons assembly 6l pacific 
par son bois sans avcune peine, fat- 
sant entendre des voix de crainie, de 

fmXky Sl de reconnoissance ii toutev 
ea Nations. Lors qalls sacrifient ; 
ils toument la face vera I'Orient ; qui 
est le chemln de la vie bienheureuse, 
ils laissent croistre leur baibe ; parce 
qu'ils doivent converses avec les au- 
tres; Ils resent le somment de Uk 
teste ; parce qu'ils ne sont point sub^ 
jects aux mouvem^^l^ de leure pas- 
sions ; Ils ne se soucient point d'avorr 
de serviteurs. Ils sont semblabe9 
aux nobles A aux Rotnriers; lis 
mesprisent les richesses A les doii>- 
nent aox pauvres avec nous; ilar 
jeunent; afin de soubsmettre la ae>- 
ence i I'esprit dc de se rendre pax- 
faicts, ou pour n?avoir plus aucune 
passion de crainte ik raison de la 
force; lis presentent les oreisonv 
de louanffe sept Fois le jour pour 
secourin les vivantB d& les morts, 
& c'estoit le premier jour de Ik 
Sepmaine. lis sacrifient, A puri- 
fient leura cosurs remetant les esgare- 
mens des pecheors. La veritable 
Loy dea^ertus est excelliente A ne 
pedt pas estre nomm^e que tres dif. 
ficiUement: Elle illumine les ombres 
& les tenebres par les actions, A 
les cBUvres ; nous sommes oblii^s dm 
Pappeller claire Loy ; la seule Loy na 

'208 The Stfrian Monument MaV, 

propagated ; nor without religion ^ ^ 7& ^R iA ^ ili^ 

can holy ones become great. But 

when the two are united the ^ gg "^ ^ M. 1^ ^ 

whole world will be civilized and ^^ ^ "^ o ^^ > 

enlightened. 4. ±^ ^ # |{[ 3fe 

In the reign of the civil empe- ai /v "T Jl IT* ^B^ ^'P 

ror T4itsung,'4he illustrious and |^ ;?i6 ^ ^'ffi l!it ^ IP 

holy founder [of the T4ngdynas. «% *® ^A XL ^ " ^^ 

ty], there was in Judet a man of xE M -t. A ^ ^ ^ 

superior ^virtue, called Olopun, -ita 

who guided by the azure clouds, % S| ^ Ai K ^ ^ 

bearing the True Scriptures,** ^ jT ° ^ IIA 

and observing the laws of the m ^ £[] |j|^ B^ 

winds, made his way through • W* '^^ • 

dangers and difficulties. In the ^ rq £S ^ A 4h 

year 736 a. d., he arrived at *» pij AM* .« ^ ^ ^r 

Chingnglln.'' The emperor in- 4^ ^^ ^ ffi JU )M^ 

structed his minister, duke T5ng '^^ 7B ^ ^^ 7< >& 

Hiuenling, to take the imperial £^ ^a V& ^^ ^ p?^ 

centre and cro out to the weatern »nT o ^^ ■ 

ceptre and go out to the western « 

suburbs, receive the guest, and W^ ^ fS[ WL ^ -it 

conduct him into the palace. © »w ■r'j o i=i -/v 

The scriptures were translated in . ;^ ^ j^ i|^ pfe* ^f4r 

tko nkrarv rtf tha tialanA »* TliA '^^ ^"l *"» '"^ '^ iUi 

the library of the palace.** The ^ « 

emperor, in his private apart- Cr SP ^ 7^ f* 

ments, made inquiry regarding ~^ 

the religion; and fully satisfied Jl ^ ^ 'B: iM 1^ 

that it was correct and true, he ^^ ;«ft •'W •^ l^ua 1 J 

gave special commands for its Jf^ ^ ^ 3^ p| 

promulgation. ® l^ ** 

The document, bearin(i[ date, JHF "^ 7p ^ |Sf 5^ 

Chingkwin, !3th year, 7th month J "o 'J' Vf ^^ 

(August, 639 A. D.) runs thus: ^ 1^ -U& ^ i^ IF 

" Religion is without an inva- j|^| "^ .^^ jl*^ i^ 

n'o^ls nomf . Smnts are without q^ "^ ^ ^^ Jl^ aJH 

ii»y permanent body. In what" \^ J .|^ ^^ ° 

erfr region /Aijy are, they give H P^ ^ ^ |S P^ 

instruction^ and privately succor ^ m. ^ 

the living multitudes, Olopun, a 3£ "^^ j^ ]^ 

man of great virtue, belonging to tjL ^^ V* Xk. ee^ 

the kingdom of Judea, bringing 1& %' 1^ HSi ^ X 

Me scriptures and images from a— jg j^ ^ 

afar, has come and presented them 3^ ^^ IS ^ jfj) ^ 

irf ottr capital. On examining the ig* ^. j^ ibA ^^^ 

meaning of his instruction, it is 1^ ^ ^ @n ^ ^ 

found to be pure, mysterious, and ^j^ ^^ j. ^ ^ ^ i# 

separate from the world. On fig ^ TO t^ \ft ^ 

observing its origin, it is seen to 41- f! 1 #1* Am v 

Aatre 6€fii tiii^Kii^ci/ OS lAa< vA»cA ^ /^ T ^ S^ '7^ 


Tke Syrian Monument. 


perttoribos non magnificatur, Im* 
peratores sine Lege non ingran* 
deacunt ; Legem Imperatorea 
edictis dilatando Mandum exor* 
nant claritate ; Toy fun uen Ini- 
peratoria clariasimi Sinarnm 
Kegni, temporibua ad illuatria- 
aimum aapienti^saimam Imperato- 
rem venit homo de Taeyn (id eat, 
Judcs) regno, h'abena aupremam 
Tirtatem, nuncupatoa Lt^^uen^ 
directua k ceruleis nubibua 6l 
deferena vet aa doctrinie acripturaa, 
contemplando ventorum regulam 
ad deeirrrenda laborum pericula; 
Ckenquon Kien sH (est nomen Si« 
nici anni cadentis in Chriati an- 
num 636.) pervenit in aulam Im- 
perator, praecepit Coiao Vaaailo, 
/Vun citm yuen Urn (est nomen 
Colai) mittere regioa acipionea 
(iati aunt rubric & cum Imperator 
diquid mandal, aemper deferun- 
tur) ad Occidentia auburbana 
hoapiti obviam recipiendo, ingre- 
dientem intra palatium fecit trans- 
ferri doctrinte Legi» libroa, in 
palatioinquisivitde Legedeligen- 
tiaaim^, in penetrafibua profun- 
disaimse doctrine, rectaeque veri« 
Catis, de proposite mandavit illam 
proroulgari dilatarique ;' Chen 
quon (anni ate dicii)deciibu% erat 
aecuttdua annua (hoc- est, Christi 
639) Autumni Septima Luna 
edictura Regia poeitum inquit Lex 
non habet ordinarium nomen, 
aancti non habeni aemper eundem 
locum, decurrunt Mundum propo- 
nendo Legem, creberrim^ auccur- 
rentea muftitiidini populorum jfa- 
cyn (Judaeaa) Regni magnae vir- 
tutia,. Lo puen de long^ portans 
Legia scripturaa imaginesque, 
venit illas ofTerre in aupremam 
Regiam, inquirendo aigillatim 
illiua Legia intentum reconditum, 
excellens sine auperficie ; vidimus 
8U8B originis radical iaprinctpium* 
k mortalium creatione atatutam 
necessilatem, verborum sine mt- 

VOL, XIY. NO, v. W 

peftt pas eatre magnifi^ aana lea 
Emperama^ nv lea EmpereBia devenir 
graada aana ui Ley : Ila rendenl k 
monde illuatre an W faiaant recevoir 
d'un chaacun, 6l la dilatant par leurea 
Edits, ila rempliaaent runlvera de 
clart6 ; Au (empa de Toy cim-uen tr^ 
illuatre E u l p eremr do Royaome de la 
Chine, UB hoaame de Taieyn (e*eat k 
dire d0 Judte) yint * ee tote iihiatre 
& trte sage Empeieur, ajant ime 
grande vena iL una aupieoie ao- 
Uioritd; son nom estoit Lt^-fvm^ 
conduit par lea nuea du cie]« & por- 
tant avec aoy lea escriturea de la 
veritable doctrioe, observant lea venfa 
pour eaviter lea dangers 6l faachir 
tea obstaelea qvi a'oppoaoient k son 
vojrage eat venu en Pan de Chm quon 
Kun Jk, (qui est le nom de cette 
annte Chinoyse, qui respond A la 636 
de Jeaua Christ) \ la cour de I'Em- 
pereur. II a command^ k Ccdao 
raiBaUo Fitm cum ywn Urn (c'est le 
BOI0 de Colai) d'envoyer dea Sci- 
piona Roysux (ceux-oy aunt rougea,* 
f^ font lea orders dc I'Emperear qoand 
il eomnMnde* qnelqiie choaey de a'eii 
aller dana le Fauxbourg de la Ville 
du coat^ de POccident au devant du 
nouvoau vehu, «& M de le recevoir : 
Entrant dana le Pafaia, il ftict porter 
lealivrea de la doctrine A, de la Loy : 
il i^oecnpe serieuaement A a^avoir, 
ee qu'il y airott dans cette Loy Sl 4 
penetrer le' plua profond de la doc- 
trine de la droits verity ; apt^ea il 
ordonhe qu'elle Hit proniulg^e ^ 
dilatd'e I'an Chen qtmn tc'e^toit la 
doozieame ann^e, autrement la 6o!/ 
de Jeeus Christ). Le Rov donna un 
Arrtt la septicsme Lune de L'antnm- 
ne, par leqnel il dit que la Loy na point 
de nom ordinaire, lea SS. n'ont pa^ 
tousjoura le m^me lieu, courant par le 
monde en proposant ]a Loy aecourant 
Suffisament k la multitude dea peu- 
plea de Tacyn (de la Jnd^e) Royaume 
de grand vertu, Lo puen portent de 
loin lea escriturea de la Loy d^ lea 
ImageBi eat, vena lea ofirir a la cour 
souveraine, lecherahaot de point en 
point le prineipa] deaaeia de la Loy, 
qui eatoit cacl» ; II a tronve quil est 
exceilant aana auperficie (c^est k dire 
Sana apparence) nous avona ven le 
principe do sa premiere Origine, Al 
la neceasite eatabli^ dtta^\a Vt^ ^\««c 


I'he Syiian Monument. 


ts esieniiai to mankind. Its Ian- 
guagt is simple^ its reasonings 
are attractive, and to the human 
race it is beneficial. As is right, 
kt it be promulgated throughout 
the empire. Let the appropriate 
Board build a Judean church in 
the Righteous and Holy Street of 
the capital, and appoint thereto 
tweniy-one priests J' 

The power of the illustrious 
Chau dynasty having fallen, the 
green oar haFing ascended west- 
ward, the religion of the great 
T4ng family became resplendant, 
and the illustrious spirit" found 
its way eastward. The appro- 
priate officers were instructed 
to take a faithful likeness of 
the emperor, and place it on 
the wall of the temple. The 
celestial figure shone in its bright 
colors, and ' its lustre irradiated 
the illustrious portals. The sacred 
lineaments spread felicity all 
around, and perpetually illumina- 
ted the indoctrinated regions. 

According to the maps and 
records of the western nations^ 
and the histories of the H4n and 
Wei dynasties, Judea is bounded 
on the south by the Coral Sea; 
on the north by the Shup&u hills ; 
on the west it stretches towards 
the dowery forests, and the re- 
gions of the immortals ; and oa 
the east it is conterminous with 
the Dead Sea of perpetual winds: 
The country produces cloth that 
is proof against fire, a balm that 
restores life, bright lunar pearls, 
and night-shining gems. Theft 
and robbery do not exist* The 
people have joy and peace. None 
but illustrious laws prevail. ^ 
None but the virtuous are placed 
in the magistracy. The country 

^ B^ H ^ 1 A i* 

i| « ;2: ^^ * « 
^^ le « - a? 

^ ± S ^^ pI 
i ^ ^ f: t *^ 

± t ^ ir- « it 


Tht Syrian Monument. 


perAuitate doctrinam, rationem 
habentem oblivionis sustentacu- 
lum proficuam ' Rebus, utilissi- 
mam hominibus, extendente opera 
in Mundo, ideo prascipio Magis- 
tratibus, ut in Regia, ynymfam 
cdificent Tacyn (Judss) Regni 
Ecclesis unum locum, ponant Sa- 
cerdotes bis decern & unum homi- 
nes. Cun cheu (est cujusdam anti- 
quiviri nomen) virtute extincta, 
in nigro curru ad Occidentem re- 
cessit, verum Regis familias Tarn 
doctrine claritas clarissimo spiritu 
Orientem perflavit, rulgata edicta 
sunt k Magistratibus, reposuerunt 
Imperatorum pictas vera effigies, 
in templi parietibus Imperatorum 
figuras exuperantes, quinque colo- 
ribus cumulata luce illustrabant 
portas. Sanctis exemplis advenit 
feiicitas, sternikm splendentis 
Legis terminus, examinando Oc- 
cidentis terrarum descriptionum 
monumenta, Si, Han guey fami- 
liarum Regiarum Historiogra* 
pbo8, Tacyn Regnuro ab Austro 
unitur coralli rubri maribus (id 
est Rubro Mari) k Septentrional i 
polo omnium pretiosorum lapidum 
montibus; ab Occidente imorta- 
lium hominuro loco floridissima- 
rum arborum, ab Oriente unitur 
loco Chamfum mortueque aquae ; 
. ex ilHus terra prodit igne lavanda 
tela, bd^amum odoriferum, luci- 
de LuniB gemmaa, noctu kiccntes 
lapides pretiosi, consuetudinem 
non habent. Ratiocinandi populi, 
habent lastitiam pacificam, legeriT 
preterquam charitatis nullam 
aliam sequuntur ; Reges Sine vir- 
tutibus non constituuiit ; terrie 

tion des movt^ls, une doctrine sans 
6uperfluii6 des parolles, laquelle est 
appuy^e par la reiaon, profitable i 
Toutes choses, tres utille auz hom- 
mes, &> tres digne d'estre pobli^e 
par toute la Terre; c'est pourquoy,je 
commande aux Magistrats qu'ils batis* 
sent un lieu A une Eglise de Tatyn 
(de Jud^e) du Royaiime de TEglise, 
Sl que les Y nymfam ediffient an 
Temple dans lequel il y aura vingct 
& un Prestre. C^n cAeu (c'est le nom 
d'un certain homme vieux) sa vertu 
estant esteinte, se retira vers POcci- 
dent mont6 sur un charriot noir. A 
la verity la famille Royalle de Tarn 
devenue illustre par la clart^ de la 
doctrine, a rafraischi I'Orient d'un 
tr^s noble esprit, pour lors lea Magis- 
trats publierent des Edits, A mirent 
les Tableaux des Empereors (repre- 
sent^ au naturel) aux murailles du 
Temple, surpassant de beaucoup les 
fibres des monies Emperears; lis 
faisoient brilles les portes du Tem- 
ple par une augmentation d'esclat de 
cinq differentes couieurs.* La fcsli- 
cit6 est venue par de SS. exemples 
& le terme de la Loy qui a brills 
eternellement, est venu i son .point 
Examinant les Monuments, £ lea 
descriptions des Terres de I'Occident, 
& les Historiographes des families 
Royalles de Han guey; on a trouve 
que le Rovaume de T*adn est Born^ 
par les Mers de Corail^ (c'est A dire 
la Mer rouge) du cost^ du Midy-; par 
les Montaffnes des Pierres precieuses 
de celuy du Septentrion ; on a yeu 
que les Limites, du cost^ de I'Occi- 
dent des hommes immortels, sent 
des Lieux remplis d'ari>res Fleuris- 
sant en toute saison ; son Orient est 
uni i Chamfum, ^ i I'eau morte. II 
sort an feu de cette Terre dont on 
lave les todies. Elle produU du baume 
tres odonfferent, de tres brillantes 
Lunes qui sont des perlea, Sl des 
Pierres precieuses qui reluisent la 
nuit Us n'ont point de coustume les 
peuples ont le plaisir innocent de 
pouvoir raisonner, & ils ne re^oivent 
pas d'autre Loy que celle de la Charite 
(c'est A dire de 1'Evangile). Les 
Roix ne sont rien sans la vertu, iU 
fleurissont par jpurs iiiceurs illustres 

i)l2 The Syrian Monument. Mat, 

is fixteasive, and its literature 9nd IB ii^ ^ ^ -p* jPj A^f 

prodactioos are flourishing. 

The emperor K^utoung honor- ^ W &^ ^ tm ^ Hfl 

ed and perpetuated (the memory ^ ^ W T=I WW >J^ -CT 

of) his ancestors. He supported 1^ ko, M& SP Rpf 3^ 

the truth they inculcated, and 

built churche. in all the depart- jf^ 1^ ^ 1^ ^ 

ments of the empire. He raised « j- • 

Olopun to the rank of high priest p ^ '^ £E ^A^ 

and national protector. The ^^ ^^^ ^ 

law ^ spread in every direction. ^L jfr 

The wealth of the state was • ^^ 

boundless. Churches filled all ig £ W ^ iS /!> 

the cities ; and the families were ^yu . * |— • ■_ 

rich, illustrious, and happy. ^ I« /C ffl ^ A 

In the year 599 a. d. the fol- ^^^ . ^^ 

lowers of Budha raised a perse- B$ M 1^ 71^ >^ 'n^ 

cution, and argued aganist the x-- -a- t^ * vl ' 

eastern Chau family. M W ^ B§ 7^ 1^ 

At the close of the year 713 * yif rfc 

A. D.," some base schrilars raised jfji ^ m [] ^E ^^ 

ridicule, and in Sikiu spread >c^ >*• a#* j.a M- iftib 

abroad slanderous reports. But '^ ^ 3E 2^ 7^ j^ 

there were chief pirest, lx)h&n, *^ ^^ ^-^ ^„ 

T^iteh, Lieh, and others, honor- JE^ 1^ ]^ M* pL 

able descendants of those from * >ia- -t ^ _L. ** 

the west, distinguished and ele- T? ^ ^ ^ "X ^|3 

vated in character, who united- -j- j^ * x^j. •'^ 

1y maintained the original doc- 3 JQL ]^ 7^ xS ^ 

trines, and prevented their sub- ^-« ^^ 

version. fef du TO 5v 

Hiuentsung, the most Tighteous ^^ ,/* _|_^ #:^ ^,^ 

emperor, commanded five kings, ^ ^ {||(| ^ ^ ^ 

Ningkwoh and others, to ^o in ^r^ • «. p 

person to the church of Felicity, ;^ R^ . tJ^ "T% 7C jlrt 

build up the altars, restore the iw t3 -^ • iUr 

fallen timbers, and replace the ^ WS |p) -j:" Tl^ 4^ 

delapidated stones. ^ ^^ -f *^> 

Tienpiu, in the commence- ^ ^ "^ ^ u afe 

ment of his reign, a. d. 742, com- -^ -^ jr. a-a- *«• 

manded bis general Kdulihsz' to |^ ^ at ^ ]^ Jll 

3£ ^ JH ® Ij^ ^ 


The Syrian Monument. 


tnundus largus amplus, moribus 
florent illustriaaimis ; Coo 91111 
magnus Imperator scivit reveren* 
ter imitari majores suos; expres- 
sit faclis suum parentem, &, in om- 
nibus Regnis ubilibet ordinavit 
fieri dare Doctrine Ecclesiaa; Sl 
sicut antei venerabatur Olo pueu^ 
sic fecit ilium custodem Regni 
.magne Legisdominum; Lexdila- 
tata perdeeem too, (id est, per 
omnia Regna) felicitatis radice 
cumulatissioia ; Ecclesis iraple- 
bant centum civitates (id est, ora- 
nes) familis Regie fulgebant fe- 
licitate ; JCim he anno Bonzii usi 
viribus erexerunt or a (id est, Le- 
gem vituperaverunt) in turn Cheu 
(est Ci vitas in Honan Provincia) 
'8ien tien (anno Christi 713) fini- 
ente. Vulgares viri vald^ etiam 
illam irriserunt, calumniatique 
sunt in Sy Kao (antiqua est Re- 
gis Uen uam aula xvKXen sy Pro- 
vincia} erat Crio ( Jo'annis est Si- 
nico more vocabulum) Sacerdos. 
Caput Lo kan magne virtutis Kie 
liif d& Kim terrarum nobiles dis- 
cipuli, rebus exterioribus supe- 
rior itie Sacerdos un^ cum aliis, 
pietatis ccelestia retia d& iila dirup- 
taresarcivit luenqunchi Too Im- 
perator mandavit Nym Regni a- 
liorumque quinque Reges perso- 
nal iter de^cendere . ad felicitatis 
mansionem (id est inEcclesiam) 
erigere altaria,* aulasque Legis, 
trabes column asque concisas aoli- 
davit, d& majis radicavit; Legis 
petra, tunc inclinata etiam iterum 
rectificata fuit. Tien pao (anno 
Christi 747.) anno inchoato man- 
davit magnum Generalem Kao lie 
sii(Eunuchus fuit) deferre quin- 

dana toute Testandue de la terre A 
dans la grandeur do runivers. Le 
grand Empereur Coo ^un s^eut imiter 
avec beaucoup de reverence ^ de 
respect ses predecesseurs; il a par- 
faitement expriin6 son Pere par lea 
actions^ dc il a voulu que dans tons 
ses Royaumes Ton bastit des Eglises 
de la tres illustre doctrine, dt que 
tout ainsy qu'on avoit auparavant 
veneri Olo puen : aussi le voulut-il 
establir le Custode & le Seigneur du 
Royaume de la grande L^y. La 
m^roe Loy estant public par les dix 
Too (c'est i dire par tons lee Roy- 
auines) elle prit racine, en sorte 
qu*elle devint combine de bonheur. 
Les Efflises leplissoient cent Villes 
(c'est a dire toutes). lies families 
Royallea brilloient de eloire A, de 
•beatitude; en Tan de Xim lie les 
Bonaiens employerent toutes leun 
forces pour ouvrir leurs bouches (c'est 
A dire ont presch^ A rendu odiense 
la Loy de Dieu) dans itim Cl^ (c'est 
one Ville de la Province de Honam) 
Bur la fin de I'an iSiten tien (qui est la 
713 de Jestu ChrisL Les personnes 
du vulguaire la mespriserent encore 
beaucoup & la calomnierent ' dans 
Sif Kao (c'ets I'ancienne Coor du Roy 
tfen uam dans la Provinee de Xm 
sy) II 7 avoit an certain Jean (c'est 
le mot dontoase sort dans la Chine 
pour dire Jean) lequel estoit Prestie. 
Lo han homme de grande Vertu 
estoit le Chef, A KUHi A Kim (les 
Nobles du Pais) estoient les Dis- 
ciples. Ce soperieur A ee Prestre 
avec quelques outres, par le moyen 
des cnoses extsrieures, racommoda 
les rets A les filets rompMS de la 
piet6 Ccaleste Juen cun<hi I\Buipereur 
Too commenda A Mfm, A m cinq au- 
tres Roiz da Royaume, de descendre 
personnellement i la maison de la 
felicity (c'est 4 dire TEgllse) de dres- 
ser des autels, A des coboib de la 
Lov. II a aflSsrmi les poutres, A les 
Colomnes rompues &* les a mieux 
establies. La Pierre de la Loy, qui 
pourlors estoit courb^e fQt relev^e 
par luy encore de nouveau. TStn pao 
ordonna (au commencement de I'an 
747 de Jesus Christ) au grand Gen- 
eral Kao lie su (c'estoit un Eunuque.) 

214 The Syrian Monument. Mat, 

take the portraiu of Ihe five ^ M (^ ^ ^ % % 

sacred ones * and place them m •^'" «« '^^ ^s** '^ -^ ^^ 

the church, and also to present ffii ^ & 4^ ^ ^ ^ 

one hundred pieces of silk, to "» ^ ^ ^j ^ « T 

give eclat to the same. Though ^ "^ ^ $S, m n^ V^ 

their august persons are remote, ^^^ ^t/r m >«« 

their bows and their swords can ^ QQ ^ ^ -# JX 3? 

he handled.* The horns of the "^ ^' W* "^o • -^ 

sun send forth their light; and, j^ ^ f^ 4ff 

the celestial visages seen to be e ^ - » 

present." ^ ^ ^ H ^t il B8 

In the third year of Tienp^u's tS /v T « 

reign there was a priest, Kih- ^ ^ W ^> A m 

hob from Judea, who observmg * 1^ »i rtj Ai -ac? 

the star, sought renovation : ^ S ^ ^ Ih ^ H 

and, seeking the sun, came to --i* wztf l/ ^ EH nr 

the honored one. His majesty pT ^ jf?W /V @ lib 

commanded the priests Lohdn,. *p^ * iiA* ^fc -^s- ' 

Pulun, and others, seven in all, ^ *Tg 0{l 'W ^ ^ 

with the eminently virtuous Kih- 't- At- m /4- /ft 

hob, to perform divine service S ^ 74 1 W IB ^ 

in the Church of Rising Felicity. «if -^ jh^ 4".n yl 

Then the celestial writing appear- ^ ^ ^ ^^ IP ^ 
ed on the walls of the church, • #j5i 4A in 

and the imperial inscriptions M Pj ^ A>^ tP H 

upon the tablets. The precious Lu Al 4.1 Cffi • *b * 

ornaments shone brightly. The JL CT ?L ?S fljl ^ 
refulgent clouds were dazzling. — .. #^ ^ =1 

The intelligent edicts filled the ^ P) ^ K M M 

wide expanse, and their glory rose j^ -^^r mJ^ i^ u^ 

above the light of the sun. The "^ PJ S B^ IpJ B| 

bounteous gifts are comparable - > im& 4g iU T 

to the lofty mountams of the 7C ^ HS ^ ^H iS 

south ; the rich benevolences ^ -bo %^ ih 4:9^ 

deeper than the eastern seas. ^ . ^ ]^ . "^J |^ S 

The righteous do only what is ja. a-* m M t-i ^. 

right, and that which is fit to be "j^ M ^ @ .H M 

named. The holy ones can do. zi "111 ' rt -Wl ±a ---. 

all things, andtbat wKcB they do (ffl ^ fJ >*^ W ^T 

is fit to be commemorated I ^ gg it. « -fl- ^& JSk 

The emperor Suhtsnng, learn- Iw 11^ ^ % ^ |p 

ed and illustrious, in five depart- nrfr ^^c. /ju TT -tt i-t 

ments of the empire, Lingwii, W^ pM ^ ^ Fp H 

dtc, rebuilt the churches of the HB w- U# M /A -« 

illustrious religion. The original DB IF «PQ )1S | » ™ 

benefits were increased, and joy- ■' . -^ -*^, »« i^r 

ous fortune began. Great felicity /N ^ TO M H W 

descended, and the imperial patri- 191 ^J; 1 1 1^ >^ %k 

mony was established. ^ 3il!^ ri t/^ Zl 7u 


Tho Syrian Monument. 


que Imperatorum effigies veras^ 
Ecclesiaa intra reponeodas, dedit 
serici centum teles offerendas 
festi lietitie augends gratia, Dra- 
conis barbe licet longs sint Ar- 
cus armaque ex illo pendentes pos- 
sumus attigere tamen manu (hoc 
est, absens quaoivin sit Imperator, 
tamen sui memoriam in dictis re^ 
bus reliquit) Solis cornua dilatar 
bantur Clarissim^, ccelorum. color 
▼icinus exiequabat omnia ; Tertio 
anno Tocyii Regni erat Sacerdoe 
Kie ho, qui iter dirigens per Stellas 
penrenit in Sinas respiciens So- 
iem, Imperatorem reveritus est ex 
illiua mandato Sacerdoe Lo Acui, 
Sacerdos Pu hum atque alii Sep- 
tem viri cum magns vktutis Kie 
ho in Nimkim Palatio exercuerunt 
bpera virtutum; in illo tempore 
Regia edicta in temploruro tabu- 
lis (seu portis) in ipso frontispicio 
deferebant draconum Imperialium 
picturas. Pretioeo ornatu splen- 
dore petrarum fulgentes illustris- 
sim» minii Rubicantis, nubea, 
scripturam conspicuam redde- 
bant, in- vacuo ascendebat clari- 
tas irrigando diem, Amor benefi- 
ciaque Bores Austrique monti- 
bus exsquabantur altissimis, ex- 
undantiaque cum Orientis ma- 
ris comparari poterat profundo; 
Lex non nisi consentanea rationi 
est, quod est autem tale convenit 
nomen optimum d& famam habe- 
re, Imperatores absque ilia non 
operantur, quod autem illi ope- 
rantur, confentaneum est promul- 
gari ; So gum nen min Imperator in 
Lim uA d& aliis quinque civitati- 
bus multas erexit clars Doctrin- 
ns Ecclesias, Antiquam boni- 
tatem adiuvit d& felicitatem coepit 
aperire maximum festum Istitis 
descendit 6l Imperatorum oper^ 

de porter cinq veritables effigies des 
Empereura, qu'on devoit metre dans 
PEglise, il donna cent Toiles . de 
soye pour estre offertes au jour de la 
Teste pour en augmenter la resjoilis- 
sanee, quoyque les barbes du Dragon 
soient assee longnes nous pouvons 
toutefois afCeindre avec les mains 
Tare A les armes qui en pendent 
fc'est i dire que cfuoyque I'E^pereur 
roit absent il a laisse neantmoins des 
marques de son souvenir en ces 
chotesV Les comes do Soleil s'es- 
tendoient avec beaucoop d'esclat, la 
eooleur approchantede celle du Ciel 
esgaloit toutes choses. II y avoit un 
Prestze nomme Kie ho en la troisjes- 
me ann6e du regne de Taein, lequel 
prenant son chemin A la faveur des 
estoiles arriya dans la Chine regar- 
dant le Sbleil. II fit la reverence A 
rEmperetnr, lequel fit commendement 
A Lo han i Pwum, Prestres, i sept 
aatres, & i JSitb ho homme de granae 
Sainctet^ d*exercer le8> opuvrea de 
Vertu dans le Atin JKtm, qui estoit le 
Palais; Pour-lors les Edits Royaux 
estoient grav^ sur les Tables du 
Temple c'est k dire les portes) A on 
voyoit sur le fronCispice les Tableaux 
des Dragons Iroperiaux. Resplen- 
dissans d'un percieux ornement, A 
d'un esclat qui sortoit des- Picrres^ 
lesquelles donnoient une certaine 
couleur rouge, les Nu^ faisoient 
paroistre I'escritore avec plus d'es- 
clat: desorte que lenr clar& brilloit 
de toute parts comme un beau jour ; 
L'amour dt les Liberality ressemblo- 
ient A la hauteur des Montagues du 
SeptentrioU) ^ da Midy, d& I'abon- 
dance pourroit estre comparie i la 
profondeur de la Mer Orientalle. 
La Loy s^accorde tousjours avec la 
raison. Ce qui est tel merite un 
mnd nom, dt une belle reputationv 
les Empereors ne peuvents nen faire 
sane «le ; ou ce qu'ils font merite 
d'estre promulgu^ L'Empereur & 
fttiii lien imtia basti dans lAm uu 
A dans autres cinq Vilfes plusieurs 
de la Doctrine illustre Egltses. II a 
ayd^ I'anciene bont^ &> a com- 
mence k desconvrir la felicity le 
grand jour de la resjouissance es% 
venu, & les oeuvres des Empereurs 

^16 The Syrian AtonumenL May*, 

The civil and martial emperor ^ K iSt ^ ^ vfi /^ 

Tditsung, enlarged (he sacred ^ /v « W "^ /i^ 1 V- 

domains, and ruled without efTort. ^ ^ jsV /u ^ xh 

On the return of his natal day he <^ ^^^ »J^ JU -f<, v*^ 

gave celestial mce^to celebrate jjjj Jl ^ jg j^ ^ >t 

the meritorious deeds of his go- ^ • ' ^*** ^*^ '^'^ ^ 

vemmeut ; and he distributed prcH tB Mm ^b -^ tb ifff ^^ 

visions from the imperial table, ''^ ^^ * ^^ 

in order to give honor to those in Jh §^ ^ qffi ffi fK J^ 

the churches. As heaven con- ^ ^^ w, ^. =£. |3»^ :^ 

fers iu gifU, and sheds bounties JU )$ ^ ^|D i^ Vf] S^ 

on the living; so the sovereign, /^ ♦»? « JRTC W ^ Til, 

eomprehendiDg right principles, jfe 3te f^ 4BB A^ :JC ♦» 

rules the world in equity. "^ r» *^ 7ns ^^^ i^^ 

^ Our emperor Kienchung, holy, ± |j^ ff 'I® ^ :^ 

dinne, civil and martial, arranged " v ^ inl 

his form of government so as to ^^ ^ ^^ ^kv S^ ^ 

abase the wicked and exalt the ^ ■ • -*- * „^ 

good. *« He unfolded the dual ^ ^ 7C 1§ W ^ « 

systeai so aa to give great lustre *^ ^^ • , • 

to the imperial decree*. In the ^fc i| ^ # M ft tt 

werk of renovation he made ^ nt. ^ , ^ im. 

known the mysteries of reason. ^ ^ ^ ^ TV j[^ ^ 

In his adorations he felt no v * -,i • -*/-*«- ^ 

shame of heart.** In all ^'» K ^ ^\ A Sfc Pi^ 

dtttiea he was great and good. . j^ '-zr t^i a: I *Jsi 

He was pure, and nnbiased, and 7C ^ Jcl Jh} W ^U ^ 

forgiving. He extended abroad _* iilk tfe» IVIIf vl ** 

his kindness, and rescued all from |^ Jtt P|9 j^^iS juC €* 

calamities. Living multitudes ,^ vt- , * ^, ^.^ 

eDJoyerf bis favora. ' We auive ^ |g M # |^ Jt *& 

to cultivate the great virtues, and ill -^ lj • tAa- ^ 

to advance step by step.' ^ 'i^ lA oE: J& ^3 K B)^ 

If the wiiids and the rains "^ ^"^ ** ^ ^ tjj 

come in their season, the world PS & ^ m Rh Hr SSi 

will be at rest; men will act ZL H^ / " "^ "^ 

rightly; thinpwin keep in their J^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ 

order ; the living will have afflu- • "^ -^^ '^^ 

eace«id the d^ead jo,« Con- g|) g? ;g[ ^ ^. j[^ jg 

sidering lifers responses/' and j. ^. ** ^^ '^^ 

promted by sincere feelings of l^f * pEj ]tt Mt f9 itn 

regard. I King hsve endeavored ^^ L ^^ "* 55» 

to effect these worthy ends,— the J^ ffe B?= ^ Kl TT =J? 

great licnefactory, their excel- «„ • • -^^ 

renciesoftheKw^ngluhKintsz', ^ "^ T? SS^ ^ ifr 53^ 

the tsieh-tu fu-shf of the north. T^ ^ >'>^ ^ ^ ©t f^ 

and the Shi-tien chungkien hav- T A? "F "^ a&f 6fe P7 

ing conferred 00 me rich robes. ^^ ^. *» ^^ w& •^^ 

ii^ 1 # f » -^ 


The Syrian Monument, 


^ascitata sunt, Tay pm nen uu 
Imperator lastitise reseravit sane- 
turn circuitum, prosecutua nego 
tia non frustranea, quolibet in 
Dei incaraati Natalia diei tern* 
pore mandabat incendendum Im- 
perialecn odorem per hoc ad- 
roonena alios operari meritoria 
opera, mittebatque convivia ad 
illustrandum ciarisaims Legia po- 
puloa; nemp^ coelorum habuit 
pulcherrima lucra, ideoque potuit 
dilatare mortalea, Imperatorium 
habuit locum Sl dignitatem ori- 
ginariam, ide6 noverat superare 
venena noster Hien chum xim zin 
uen uu Imperator, instituit octo 
roodos regiminia ad renovandam 
aubstituendamque tenebria lu- 
cem, aperuit novem ordines ut 
aolum renovaret clarie Doctrine 
mandatum dirigende penetran- 
dieque illiua excel lentiasi me rati- 
on i, orat sine verecundia cordia, 
pervenit ad Mundi supremum, &, 
humilia eat, promulgat pacem &, 
ventam dat atiia, illustriaaime 
est dementis d& auxilio est omni- 
bus afilictis, bona elargitur roul- 
titudini populorum, d& noatrorum 
componendorum operum maxi- 
ma atudiosus, profudit directionis 
gradua decurrendoa, obaequi fecit 
ventorum pluviarumque tempora, 
Mundum pactficavit, hominea 
sciunt se regere, res possunt dis- 
ponere, vivi norerunt florere, 
mortui possunt letari, operibus 
roortalium bona fama respondet, 
Natura profudit ex se perfectio- 
nem, quia nostre darissime Doc- 
trine Lex potest negotiorum ope- 
ra periicere, magnos largitua (titu- 
los) Dominus; Kin fu Kuam 
h tafu (est titulus Officii intra 
aulam) ib simul 80 fam eye tu 
fo su (Officii extra aulam est titu- 

ont eat^ auscit^ea ; Tay fum uen uu 
qui estoit Einpereur firma le Sainct 
circuit de la joye ; il a pouaa^ lea af- 
faires avec beaucoup de auccea, toutea 
lea anneea il envojroit au iour de la 
naiaaance du Dieu incam^ dea odenra 
imperiauz pour lea &ire bmller; ad- 
vertiaaant lea autrea en ceU de fairs 
dea oBUvrea meritoirea. 11 eovoyoit 
dequov entretenir lea peuplea de la 
trea illuatrea Loy; II a eu dea grandea 
faveura du Ciel ; e'eat pourauoy il a 
pen agrandir lea mortela; it a eu le 
lieu Sl la diffxiit^ de I'Eropire noatre 
Empereur Kien ekum xkn xm uen uu 
svavoit parfaitement bien venir i bout 
dea venma originairea ; c'eat pourquoy 
il eatablit huict famous de gouvemer ; 
afin de renouveller & de aubatituer 
la lumiere aux tenebrea, il descouvht 
neuf moyena aeulement; afin de re- 
nouveller le commendemeot de I'il- 
lustre doctrine pour deriger &. porter 
par tout aon excellente raiaon. II 

frie tout aon cceur aana aucune honte. 
1 a est6 ealev^ anr le plua haut lieu 
du monde, Sl I'humilite a eat^ aon 
partage. II porte la Paix par tout, & 
donne grace & le pardon i un chaa- 
cun, il a une ame om^e d^une illnatre 
Clemence &• tout A faict aenaible 4 
la compaaaion ; de aorte qu'il ne ref- 
fbae jamaia aon aecours aux afflig6si 
il donne aea biena A toute la popu- 
lace ; Sl de composer noa actions fort 
attach^ II a manifest^ le chemin Jb 
lea degr^a qu'il falloit prendre dana 
la direction. II a rendu lea tempa de 
la pluye, &. dea vents obeiaaonts & 
aoubamia ; Il a Pacifiib le monde, lea 
hommes s';avent se gouvemer, ila 
peuvent disposer lours affairea, lea 
vivana ont appr. a fleurir, lea morta 
peuvent ae renjouir. La bonne re- 
putation respond aux oeuvrea dea 
mortela, la nature donne de aoy la 
perfection ; parceque la Loy de nostre 
illuatre doctrine peOt perfectionner 
toutea lea actiona que l*on faict ; II a 
donn^ comme Seigneur dea granda 
titres, Kin »u kueun la ia fa f c'est 
I'e titre d*un office du dedana de la 
cour) comme auaai So fam eyeiufosu 
(c'eat nn titre qui eat hora de la Conr.) 
Xt Hen ekun /den (c'eat un autre 
titer d'office dana la Cour) a donne 



218 The Syrian Monument, May,' 

The kind and courteous priest ^ IS IS rh Pif ^.(t H& 
Isaac « having thoroughly stu- ^J ^ '«i^ kM *P VW M» 
died this religion, came to China ijsi ^ ^ "vK T "A ^ 
from the city of the king's pa- TSf ^1 <- ^^ -V ^ * 
lace.^ His science surpased that ^ fffi ti@ 1^ ]&]< ^ ^ 
of the three dynasties;" and he ^ ^'^ ^« W W "^ ^ 
was perfect in the arts. From ' 

the first he labored at court, and 
his name was enrolled in the 
royal pavilion. 

The secretary, duke Kwoh 
Tsz'i, raised to royalty from the 
magistracy of Fany&ng, first held 
military command in the north. 
Suhtsung made him his atten- 
dant; and though a chamberlain, 
alwTiys kept him in the military 
service. He was the tooth and 
nail of the palace, and the ears 
and eyes of the army. He distri- 
buted his emoluments, not laying 
them up at home. Western gems 
he offered to his majesty.^ He 
dispersed, and dispensed with, gol- 
den nets." No\^ he repaired the 
churches, and now he enlarged the 
schools of the law. He adorned 
all the sacred edifices, making 
them like the fiying Hwui. Imi- 
tating the scholars of the illustri- 
ous religion he distributed alms. 
Annually he held a general assem- 
bly of the young clergy from all 
the churches, and for fifty days 
exercised them in pure and elevat- 
ing services To the hungry, who 
came to him, he gave food; to __ 

those suffering from cold, he gave Tjr -fa /»«<• - itS AK -V 

clothes ; he cured the sick and 7u ^ S^* ^\ 33 |||^ ^ 

raised them up; and the dead, he ^. o^ ttt r^ J >i! 4tP 

buried and laid down to rest. ^ ^ ^ ifl SP^ ^^ 99L 
The refined and circumspect 


m^M"^ T- ^ ft 

^SSlft^ Hi ^ 

;5; n m f4 1^° t *r 

m m ^ )^ ^. ^. ^ 

t<-^^^ife m 


O ^ o 

:^ # 1/5 # :* ;^ ^ 


*^ n a ^ urn 

*0^ @ ® /^°^ 


ifist#^ g 

fet ^mzf^-^ 

^ t ft BS «fe Hi ^ 

T^hsha never heard of such ^F ^ JJJp )8? X 

noble deeds. The white robed as rite <e* *« A. -h- 

and illustrious students, having HU jjg JlJp |j< jj^ /^ ^ 


The Syrian Monument. 


lus), Xi Hen chun Kieu (alius 
titulus Officii in aula) donavit 
purpuream vestem Sacerdoti Vsu 
pacificatori, aliisque desideranti 
benefacere, bonam nomen 6l fa- 
mam Legis promulganti, de longe 
in Vcun xe chi chim venienti me- 
dio vere. virtutibus superabnttres 
generationes, scientiaa dilatabat 
decern perfectisAim^, k principio 
sevierai in pal alio Regis, postea- 
que scriptum fuit nomen illius in 
Regio libro ex Xu Urn de futn 
yon Regulum cum ^u y in prin- 
cipio. Adjuverat armigerantem 
in So famy So fun (Imperator) 
miserat ilium, ut sequeretur praD- 
euntem, etiamsi videretur sua 
persona cum dormientibus intra, 
nunquam se mutavit in operibus 
exterioribus, fuit Rex ReipublicoB 
pro unguibus dentibusque, fuit 
Bxercitui pro auribus oculisque, 
sciebat repartiri redditus benefi- 
ciaque, nunquam aggregabat pro 
sua domo, obtulit Lim ngen ex 
Poli (vitrum pretiosum) dedit Cu 
Kiy ex, aureos tapetes, interdum 
restaurabat antiquas Ecclesias, in- 
terdum multiplies bat amplissimas 
Legis aulas, honorando exor- 
nandoqne domiciliis Mundum, 
sicut volatilium quibusdam alis, 
diligenter exercuit opera; claris- 
sime Legis discipulus obsequens 
caritati, distribuebat lucra; quo- 
libet anno convocabat quatuor 
Ecctesiarum Sacerdotes, inser- 
viebat afTectuos^ d& reverenter 
ad minimum omnibus quadraginta 
diebus, famelici qui veniebant, 
etiam pascebat illos, frigore alge- 
bant qui venientes vestiebat illos, 
legrotabant qui, curabat d^ erige- 
bat illos, moriebantur qui, sepelie- 
bat & quiescere faciebat illos, 

une robe de pourpre au Prestre Y tu 
Pa(;ificateur, 6l de^irant de bien faire 
aux autres, lequel a promulgu^ un 
bon nom 6l donne la reputation ^ la 
Loy, il est venu de fort loin en Vam 
xe Jd Mm au milieu du printemps. 
II Burpassoit en vertu trois generations, 
il ensegnoit dix sortes de science* 
dans la perfection, ou commencement 
il avoit servy dans le Palais du Roy ; 
apr^ qnoy on escrivit son nom dans 
le Livre Koyal, Xu lim de fuen yan 
General avec cu y ou commencement 
avoit ayd^ I'homme d'armes dans 
So /am, So fun (I'Empereur) Tavoit 
envoy^; atin qu'il suivit celuy qui 
aloit devant, quoy qu*on vit sa per- 
sonne ou dedans avec les donnants, 
il n'a jamais change dans les oeuvres 
exterieures, il a est^ le Roy de la 
Republique &^ ses ongles ^ ses dents, 
comme aussi tout oreilles &. tout 
yeux pour I'armee; il s^voit difl- 
tribuer les revenus A, les biensfaitii, 
il n'amassoit jamais rien pour la mai- 
son, il fit presant d'un Lim nfi^ 
fait de Poli (vere pretieux) il fit un 
dom A Cu ki, de beaucoup de Tapin 
d'or, cependant il multiplioit les 
grandes Loyx les Cours, honorant At 
embelissant le monde domic illes, il a 
mis en pratique ces ouvres comme 
s'il avoit eu des aisles de quelque 
oiseau, comme disciple de la tres 
illustre Loy & plein< de charit^ il 
distribuoit les gains. II a sembloit 
tous les ans les Prestres des quatre 
Eglises, auxquels il servoit avec af- 
fection & avec respect en particulier 
pour le mains pandant, quarente jours 
tl nourissoit encore les fameliques 
qui venoient A luy, il vestissoit les 
nuds lesquels s'adressoient A luy, & 
lesquels souflroient un grand froid, 
il prenoit soin de servir les malades 
& de leur redonner la sant^, pour ce 
qui est des morts il les ensevelissoit 
&. leur procuroit le repos ; on n'en- 
tendoit pas du temps de Ta-ttd cette 
beaut^ (sa coustume esloit de rcce- 
voir les est rangers & de traiter splen- 
didement le Pelerins) les hommes de 
la tres noble Loy eiitoient revestua 

2!ai The Syrian Monument. May, 

Been those men, desired to erect a ^ tfS ^ ^H ilk El in 

monument to commemorate their 

good and illustrious acU.^ The ^ M] |^ ^ B PH 

inscription reads thus : o o ^ » «» 

" The true Lord is without be- ^ Uji J^ ^ ^ ^ \ 

ginning, silent, serene, and un- ' ^^ « x^T . -^ ^^ 

changeable. Possessed of crea- -|-* 4£ ]|S l|^ q*]^ 3B ^C 

tive power, he raised the earth '^ ^^ ^ ,^3^ -j- /* 

and set up the heavens. The j^ S^ |^- p WC >C 4^ 

divided person* came into the aj, 6> ,r-p! — da 

world. The barque of salvation ^ $ M fRi M ^ hH 

was boundless. The sun arose and o o ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 

darkness was annihilated. All rtp ^ ^ uE^ 1@ ^ 

bore witness to the truth. The *"* ** ^ -^te- ?fe 

glorious civil emperor, in reason ^ ^^ 7;p ^ ^ ^ 

joining all that was possessed ^^ ® «^ ^ii^ >^ 

by former kings, seized on the j^ ^^ g ^^ J^ ItB 

occasion to restore order. Hea- , ^, ^^ j? fjM %^ 

ven and earth were enlarged" fiB j^ HX ffil S ^ ^ 

The bright and illustrious reli- • 'v ^^ ^j. dti ttK -S* 

gion visited our Tnng dynasty, A ^ ^ ^ tHF tl^ ^ 

which translated the scriptures, ^^ o 3 jl. ^At I 

and built churches. The ship ffi ^" |B T X ^ il 

(of mercy) was prepared for the *^ J?? .^ ^ TR^ a!* 

living and the dead. All blessings Jt f^ |$ |^ ^ l'^ ^ 

sprung into existence; and all *^ « -. 

sprung inio existence; ana au — .^s. ,4^ -^^ /U ■=■ 

nations were at peace. fiS Q^ i^ ^ ^Ig iCa ^ 

" K&utsung continued the work ^ i^ «*. diiJ ^ 

of his ancestors, and repaired the j£ it A ^ jfe ^ 

temples. The palace of Concord ^ » - VL -*^ ill K 

was greatly enlarged. Churches 111 tm' ^ WL H**! ^ A 

filled the land ; and the true doc- ^^ . . \2, -r: tV uos 

trine, was clearly preached. Maa- 7^^ j{^ 5S[ W i- "^ W 

ters of thejaw werethen appoiutr ttIt ■ « ji» * -a^. ^?? -i-il 

ed ; the people had joy and tran^ ^ ^ JiL ^ ^ A ^J 

quHUy, and aU things were fjree v^ j^ ^. • .4. 

from calamities and trouWes. ^ >^ "/J ^ MT ^ "^ 

" Hiuentsung displayed divine 3^ * ^ .. 1-^ ^ t;A 

intelligence and cqlliyated truth Tx ' ^ ^ fp -jgf ^ Vt^ 

and rectitude. The imperial .j» .=*. j. , .-ut oj, . . t 

tableto spread abroad their lustre. ^ W ^t pl ^L p1 1^ 

The celestial writings were g'^- p I ^tr >k ^« db^ zl2 

rious. The august domains were 71 i^ t^ ^l) S^ TV 

clearly defined. The inhabitants f^ j.. ■_ _i^ -*- ** jm^ 

paid high respect to their sove- vfft |^ 3l ^1 Jw ^ V^ 

reign. AH things wer^ glorious ^tS ^ a"* rdfe * ^ -rrn 

and tranquil, and under his aus- 1& M A ^ J^ [^ wll 

pices the people were prosperous, pi ten -i:- *-»!=• *^^ 

'VSuhtsung restored celestial rea.. /I HH Tf ^ ^ |Pt |5) 


Tho Syrian Monnmeni. 


temporibus Ta-so non audieba* 
toir ista pulchritudo (solebat hie 
suscipere hospitea d& peregrinoa 
lautiasim^) albis vestiebantur da* 
ne Doctrine viri, d& modo video- 
tur iati homiaes volui aculpere 
univerais perennis memorie La- 
pidein, ut divulgentur felicia ope- 
ra, Sermo inquit, veraa Dominua 
sine principio, purissima quiea 
semperqiie eadem, oinnipotena 
totius Mundi artifex Creator 
Htatait terram, erexit coelum, com- 
municando seipaum, prodit in 
mundum salutem inatituit infini- 
tarn, ut Sol resplendena ascendit, 
tenebraa extinxit, totam verificavit 
veritatis excellentem profundita- 
tern, Serenissimus Ven Imperator 
Legis diadema tulit ante alios Re- 
ges usus ben^ tempore, abolevit 
turbas, coelos dilatavit, terras ex- 
tendit, clarissimiB illustrissiras 
doctrine Legia verbis reduxit* nos- 
trum Sinaruro Imperium Tam^ tra- 
duxit Scripturas, erexit Ecclesias, 
vivia mortuis fuit instar navis cen- 
tum felicitatum gradus fecit de- 
cern millium Regnorum pacem, 
Coo pun imitatus majores, etiam 
edificiis per fecit Mundum, Pacis 
paJatia humili luce impleverunt 
Sinarum terras, veram Legem ex- 
tendit clarissim^* contulit titulos 
Legis domino, mortales habebant 
letitiam, pacem, res carebant in- 
fortuniis calamitatibusque, Yum 
qun Ki Imperator scivit se corn- 
pone re ad veritatem rectitudi* 
nemque, mandavit tabuJas eri- 
gere lucidissimas Regiis scriptn- 
ris dorentissime fulgentes, Impe- 
ratorum imaginibus clarissimo- 
rum resplendentes, illas omnia 
Regna vald^ venerabantur, populi 
omnea renovabantur, homines 
gestiebant ilia felicitate So Cttm^ 
red lit iter urn Imperatorie Majes- 
tatis dirigere cursum Imperialis 

d'habits blancs, on voit encore de 
semblabea hommes, que j^ay graves 
aur cette Pierre pour laisser una roe- 
moire etemelle de leura belles ac- 
tions A la posterite; afin qu'elles 
soient publi^ea. L'escriturea dit, le 
veritable Seigneur qui n'a point de 
principe, qui est le repose tres pur, 
&, lequel est tousjours le mesme, le 
Tout puissant celuy qui a fait le 
monde, le Createur de toutes choses 
a fond^ la Tcrre, esleve le Ciel se 
communiquant luy mesroe, il est venu 
sur la terre, & y a establi un salut 
infini, il est mont6 coinme un soleil 
rayonant, il a dissip^ les tenebrev, il 
a faict voir au jour toute I'excellente 
profondeur de la verity Fen le Se- 
renissime Empereur de la Loy a 
port^ le diademe avant les autres 
Koix. S'estant sagement servi du 
temps, il a dissip^ les troupes, dilate 
les cieux, estendu les tenes, & a re- 
duit par les parolles de la tres noble 
&« tres illustre doctrine de la Loy 
nostre Tarn Empire de la Chine, il a 
traduit les escritures, il a erig^ des 
Eglises, il a servi de navigation aux 
vivants, &, aux morts, a augment^ 
la felicity de cent degres, il a fait la 
Paix de dix mille Rovaumes. Cao 
91m a imit^ ses Ancestrcs, & a 
encore perfection ne. le luonde par ces 
ediificea. Les Palais de la paix ont 
reqipjlv lea Terres de la Chine d'une 
humble lumiere, il a estendu la verita- 
ble Loy avec beaucoup de gloire, il 
a donn^ des titres au Maistre de la 
Loy, les mortels avoient la joye, la 
paix, rien ne souffroit d'iniortunes 
& de calamites. L*Empereur Y\un 
fiin H a bien s^eu se faire instnure 
do la verite dc prendre le bon chemin, 
il a ordonn^ d^lever des tables 
toutes brillantes 4& remplies d'un 
esclat merveilleux A raiaon des escri- 
tures Royales oui y estoient, & les 
Tableaux des Empereurs les plus 
illustres qu'on y voyoit. Tous les 
R'oyaumes les avoient en mnde 
veneration, tous les peuples les re- 
veroient avec rcspet, & tous les 
hommes estoient comble's de ioye 
de les avoir, So CMm^ reprit dere- 
chef le train de derierer la Course 
de sa Majesty Royalle. Le SoI(;il 


The Syrian Monument. 


son.^' Great was his dignity as he 
rode in state. Flis splendor shone 
above the brightness of the ni(K>n. 
Happy winds swept the night. 
Felicity visited the august' rnnn- 
sions. The autumnal vapors ceas- 
ed forever. Tranquility reigned, 
and the empire increased. 

" T^itsung was dutiful and just, 
in virtue according with heaven 
and earth. By his bestowments 
life was sustained, and great ad* 
vantage accrued to all. With 
incense he made thank-oflTerings, 
and dispensed charity in his bene- 
volence. Brightness came from the 
valley of the sun, and the vailed 
moon appeared in azure hues." 

" Kienchung was eminent in all 
things, and cultivated bright vir- 
tues. His martial dignity spread 
over all seas, and his mild se- 
renity over all lands. His light 
came to human darkness; and 
in his mirror the color of things 
was reflected. * Throughout the 
universe light of life was diffused. 
Ali nations took example (from 
the emperor). 
** The true doctrine is great, and 
all-prevalent and prevading. Hard 
it is to name the Word, to unfold 
the Three-One. * The sovereign 
can act, his ministers commem- 
orate. Erect the splended monu- 
ment ! Praise the great and the 
happy ! *' 

Erected (a. c. 781) the second 
year of Kienchung (the ninth 
emperor) of the great Tang dy- 
nasty, in the first month, and the 
seventh day. 

The priest Ningshu being spe- 
cial law lord, and preacher tothose 
of the illustrious religion through- 
out the regions of the east. 

Written by Lii Siuyen, court 
councellor, formerly holding hgih 
luiJitarv command in Taicbau." 



^ :;k - a B 

^ II g ti «1. 

^ ^ ^. ^ ^^ ^ n 
* X ^ # ft 4 

^ ^ f #' !^ 

S i ^ HiJ 5« H ^ 

^ # f M s ^'1 ^ 
3£ ^ ^ i: j^rt jh 

» :^ ^ pg * MJ 

^. * ii ^ f^ 1 

O o o 

^ S W ® B^ 

m.ii z Ri ^ ^ 


The Syrian Monument. 


Sol pepulit tenebras, felicitatis 
aura eliniiuavit noctem, fecit illam 
redire Imperiali domui, felicita* 
tisque odore seternum extinxit 
stititque impetus furentium. Pa- 
cificavitque pulverern rebel I an- 
tium, fecit nostrum magnum Hia 
(ita etiam Sina vocatur) Imperi- 
um, TViy cum hiao y virtutibtis 
uoivit ccelos d& terram, aperuit 
beneficiis vitie opera rebus auxilia- 
tus pulcherrimo incremento, odo- 
res dedit in gratiarum actionem 
piissiniusad mciendas eleemosy* 
nas beneficenti^ faciebat descen- 
dere Majestatem, Luna, Sol per- 
fectissim^ conjunctae in i]lo(id est 
omnia subjecta habuit) Kien chun 
gubernavit polos (id est Mundum) 
perfecit composuitque intellectus 
virtutem, robore pacificavit qua- 
tuor maria, exornavit adunavitque 
decern millium terminos, cande« 
le instar descendit in hominum 
secreta, ut speculum reprnsen- 
tans rerum colorem. Mundum 
illuminavii resuscitavitque, cen- 
tum barbaris dedit leges, Lex 
sola amplissim^ respondet unic^ 
perfection i, coacti nomen ill i us 
dicemus, Lex est Trinitatis unius, 
Imperatores sciebant operari, Va* 
sallus debuit referre. Crigo floren- 
tissimum Lapidem monumentum 
seternaB laudis originalem felicita- 
tem magni Imperii Sinaruro fami- 
liae Regis Tcun Imperatoris Kim 
chun secundo anno, cum esset 
principium Autumni mensis sep- 
timo die magni luminis florentis- 
8imi ornatus die, (hoc est, Domi- 
nico) erectns Lapis. • Illo tempo- 
re Legis Dominus (Episcopus) 
Sacerdos Nym Xu regebat Orien- 
tnlium terrarum clarissims Legis 
populos. Chao y lam, qui an tea 
i'lierat Tay chen su su ^an Kim. 
Vocatus Official is Liu sieu pro- 
pria mauu scripsit. 

Imperial a bantii tea tenebres, &, a 
chass^ la niiict Dar le moyen du 
bon-heur & de la felicity qu'il a' 
rapell^.e dans la maison Imperial &. 

f»ar Todeur de la felicite 11 a mis 
'Elstat en Paix; de sorte qu'apres 
cela il a diasip^ tous lea troubles &, 
calm^ les diasentious il a Pacific la 
poudre lea Rebelles, 6l a fonde nostre 
ffrand Hia (c*esi encore un nom de 
la Ckint) 6i nostra Empire. Tay 
cum hiao y a uny les Cieux & la 
Terre pnr ses vertus, il mit au jour 
par les biens faicts des oeuvres de 
vie & donn^ un grand accroissement 
4 toutea chosea, il offrit dea odeurs 
en actions de graces, il estoit tres 
port6 A faire Paumoene &, humilioit 
sa majesty par des actions de libera- 
lity. Le Soleil, &, la Lune estoient 
trea parfaitement unis en luy (c'est k 
dire que tout luy eatoit sousmis) 
Kien chun a gouvern^ lea Poles (c^est 
a dire le monde) il a perfectionne &, 
regl^ la vertu de Pesprit, il a pacific 
les qnatre Mere par ra force, il a any 
6l om^ dix mille confins, il penetroit 
I'interieur comme si c*eOt est^ mi 
flambeau dc se representoit la couteur 
des choses comme un miroir il a 
resuscit^ &, illumine le monde, il a 
donn^ les loix i cent Barbares, la 
soule Ley respond parfaitement k 
une unique perfection, estant obliges 
de declarer son nom, noo» le man»- 
festerons. La Loy est d'une Trinity. 
Les Empereurs s^avoient agir. Le 
vassal a d'eu reporter. J'erige cette 
fleurissante Pierre comme un Monu- 
ment d'une etemelle louange de la 
felicity originelle du grand Empire 
de la Chine, &. de la Famille Royalle 
de PEmpereur TVm, la seconde an- 
n^e de Kien ehun, on commencement 
de mois de Pautomne le septiesme 
jour de la grande lumiere jour ir69 
agreable & tres beau (c^est A dire 
Dims nche) cette Pierre a est^ eslev^. 
Le Segneur de la Loy c'est k dire 
PEvesque) M/m Xu Prestre gouver- 
noit en ce temps les peuples de la 
tres lUustre Loy de Terres Orientalee. 
Chaoy lam, qui auparavant avoit este 
Tay Chen su su ^au Kim appell^ Of- 
ficial Liu sieu a cscrit de sa propre 

224 The iSffrian Monument. May, 

Our readers have now before them what claims to be a faithful 
copy of the Chinese inseription, found on the stone tablet, erected 
by the deciples of the Syrian Christians, a. d. 781 ; and with it, 
they have the best translations we have been able to furnish. Re- 
ferring the critical student to the learned and copious notes, found 
in Kircher and others, who have written about this incription, we 
will only add here a few of our own, explanitory of the translation 
we have ventured to give. The reader will see that our version 
differs from the Latin and French, and very widely in some instances. 
The dates we believe are correct, as they appear in the English 
version. For the most part we have given the sense of the words 
and phrases as explained by those Chinese scholars, who have studied 
the document with us ; in several instances, however, we have pre- 
ferred a different rendering ; and on numerous points we are not yet 
satisfied either with their interpretation or our own. Probably were 
a hundred students of Chinese employed on the document, they 
would each give a different view of the meaning in some parts of 
the inscription. Our notes shall be as brief as possible. 

1. King kidu 'illustrious doctrine' seems to be the term employ- 
ed to denote the religion of Jesus — that system of instruction given 
by him : kidu means to teach, to instruct, to train as a pupil, and is 
very similar to the Greek MiaArifsMu. Of the name Taisin, we can 
only say that if it does not refer to Judea, we know not what coun- 
try it does designate. 

2. The word sz* denotes a place from whence laws are issued, 
courts for public officers, 6lc. The Budhistic temples in China are 
called by this name, and the priests dwelling and officiating in them 
are called sang. We have taken the first to denote the church 
in Tatsin, and the other a priest from that church. 

8. The words chung shing are emphatic, and denote the holy 
ones, i. e. the angels of Gfod in heaven. 

4. St'in-yih gives an idea like our own English word triune, de- 
noting the three persons of the one true God. Some one has sug- 
gested that the two words Sdnyih are intended only to indicate 
sound : if so, we are unable to conjecture to what they refer. 

5. Here evidently sound is intended by the three syllables A' loh 
a'A, which well indicate the name of the supreme one, Jehovah. 

6. Three different renderings have here been suggested : thus, by 
dividing the cross to form the four cardinal points or parts of the 
earth : he determined by the Cross to create the world, i. e. by him 
lyho died on the cross ] a third rendering is the one we prefer, and 


1845. The Sifrian Monument, 225 

the one we have given, viz.: he determined in the shape of a cross 
to spread out the earth. 

7. Yuen fang seem to denote the same idea as we find in the 
first of Genesis, where the Hebrew words are rendered Spirit of God. 

8. The word ki it is very difficult to understand. The Chinese 
tell us of many Art,— the twenty-four ki^ the six iti, the three it^ and 
the two ki^ as in our text. The two Id oflen denote the yin and 
y^ng^ i. e. matter and spirit, matter and form, light and darkness, dLC. 
From the context we have concluded that the two are here intended 
to comprehend " all things visible and invisible," i. e. the universe. 

9. The production of the two Id was merely preparatory, here we 
have the all thln^ formed, perfected, finished. 

10. Literally, 'transformed sea,' hwd hoi; the chaotic mass now 
reduced to order, the world as fitted up for the residence of him 
who was made in the image and likeness of God. 

11. Sotdn'w unquestionably the name of a person, and refers to 
the great father of lies; so means to dance, or make postures, in 
the Chinese style ; tan means the end, to annihilate : the two seem 
to have been joined to indicate the character of Satan, as the great 

12. ' Multiplicity of sects' we have translated the words sdn f»«A 
liih shih wu change literally three hundred and sixty-five sorts. The 
word chung means plants, sorts, kinds, tribes, d&c, and here will 
bear the sense we have given it, viz., sects. 

13. Here the Sin-yih is represented as an agent, in sending forth 
a person-^AA shin : this person is named and characterized id the 
sequel : fitn is a pirt; and as a verb, it signifies to pirt, to divide, 
to distribute, to share, d&c; shin is the body of any person or thing. 
Thus the Three-one divided or set apart a body. 

li. Mi ihi ah is the name of this pcr:son, who is characicri/ed as 
king illustrious, and tsun honorable, emphatically so — the most il- 
lustrious, the most honorable, the Messiah, the Anointed, the Savior 
of the world. 

15. Shin tien, ^ 3jA. spirits from heaven, i. e. the angels. The 
phrase shin tien occurs in the Pei Wan Yun fu, — the Thesaurus of 
K/inghi, — but in a different sense from that in our text. 

16. Po sz* give us the sound of the name of that country, from 
whence came the wise men, lai kung bringing tribute, or oflTerings, 
on the occasion of the Messiah's adreot. 

17. Twenty-four holy ones, or sages, ave the prophets of the Old 
Testament, or literally Kiu Fdh, the Old Law. 

VOL. XIV. NO. V. ii9 

226 The Syrian Mimumrnt. May, 

18. Sin kidu is the nniv doctrine, the religion of Jesus, as taught 
m the New Testament, and where the Three-one id so conspicuous : 
k is the new religion. 

19. Pah king are not understood, and we have therefore given a 
verbal rendering. A native Christian friend has suggested a refer- 
ence to our Savior's beatitudes, in the fifth chapter of Matthew. 

^0. Here again we are left in doubt : what * the gate of the three 
constant virtues ' can refer to, we' are unable to conjecture, — unless 
the term three, like the word ten, is used to denote perfection, or 
something of that sort. 

21. Mo means the evil spirits of darkness, or demons; perhaps 
here the allusion is to Satan, mentioned above, and hence we have 
translated it the devil. 

22. The twenty-seven books are those which form the New Law, 
i. e. the New Testament, as we now have it. 

23. As a sign or seal taking the cross,: is the literal translation of 
the text: yin is the seal used for sealing and stamping letters and 
official papers. 

24. Here there is evidently a change in the subject of the dis- 
course, — which is no longer the Messiah, but his deciples, and ac- 
cordingly we have supplied the term deciples. 

25. There is here an allusion to some usage, with which we are 
not acquained ; perhaps a reference to the formulas and rites of the 
Syrian church would afford the desired information, and clear away 
the obscurity. 

26. There is here in the word kidi, and above in the word tsx, 
reference to seasons of fasting, d&c; observed* by the Syrian Chris- 

27. In the phrase, tsih yikyihyy *' seven days once, " we iind the 
Christian Sabbath; the words mi;;ht be rendered, " on the . first of 
the seven days," &c. 

2d. The true and constant doctrine, is our rendering of the words 
chin chang chi tdu, literally ** the way of truth and constancy. " 

29. This way is the king kidu, the illustrious religion, Chris- 
tianity, as described in the first note above. 

30. We are not sure that we understand rightly this passage, and 
we have accordingly rendered shing literally : we suppose the shifig 
here are the emperors, who are frequently called holy ones. 

31. Here we have to correct three errors which we are sorry to 
find on paj»e 20S. The 'I'aug dynasty was commenced a. i>. 620 by 
Kxutsu, who was succeeded by Tuitsung in the year 627, under the 

1844. Tho Sj^rian Monumtnt. 2127 

national designation, rhing'kufan. It was this second emperor, who 
in the 12th (not the ihirieen) year of his reign, a. d. 639, issued 
the edict in favor of Christianity as preached by Olopun. Instead of 
the illustrious and holy founder of the Tang dynasty, we ought to 
have written '* the enlarger," or some equivalent for the phrase ki 
yun. The year 736 should be six hundred and tkirty'six^ 636. 

32. The words Chin King designate tiie Holy Scriptures, or the 
True Ciassic, the Bible, comprising the Old and New Testaments. 

33. Ching'ngdn is one of the districts in the department of Sl- 
ngin fu, the capital of Shensi where the monument was found. 

34. The words y^it king, as translated in Kircher's work, are 
suited to the context and to the gist of the narrative. Fan is to turn 
backwards and forwards, turning from. this to that; and from this 
primary sense, that of translating may be derived. 

35. iiCtft^ yi/it^ is literally illustrious wind, and seems to denote 
the renovating influence, the spirit of the new religion. 

36.^ The king fdh are the illustrious laws, i. e. Christian laws, or 
such as are in harmony with the Christian religion. 

37. We have here, at the suggestion of an intelligent native stu- 
dent, ventured to make a correction in the text, by inserting fuh, 
* the law,' i. e. the Christian religion, before the word /ff/, as the 
subject of that verb. 

38. We find no account of these persecutions in the Chinese his- 
tories: the one raised by the Budhists occured in 699 a. d. six hun- 
dred and ninety-nine, and not in 599. 

39. The WH shing, or five holy ones, are the first five emperors of 
the Tang family, Fliuentsiung's predecessors. 

40. Literally, ' Dragon's beared though remote, bows and swords 
can be climbed up to/ or reached; so well were the portraits execu- 
ted that their majesties, the five departed emperors, seemed to be 

41. The same figurative language is continued: the horns of the 
sun are the foreheads of those five emperors : chf chili mean near, 
not remote, present. 

42. The star and sun are put here for majesty, the so styled ' sun 
of heaven;' it was to this sun and to this star that he came for 
renovation, hidng hwn. 

43. Here again the emperors are called ' holy :' the preceding, 
clause, viz : tdu w(i puh ho, 6lc., might be rendered, ' with reason 
nothing is impracticable, and that which is practicable can be named ;' 
but we prefer the other rendering, making tau refer to those who 
possess reason, or who follow the doctrines of Christianity. 

228 The Syrian SlanumenL Mai% 

44. Pah ching the eight governroenta, or rules of government, 
denote the whole frame or system of the imperial government. 

45. In this and the preceding clauses we have given the sense, as 
it it understood by native scholars ; but to explain the ' dual system,' 
would require more time and more ability than we at present can 

46. Here we have supposed the writer intended to represent the 
sovereign himself as speaking, and the wb, therefore, is the imperial 
or royal wb, the iK>vereign, the one man who fills the throne. 

47. - jTiHcn and micA are correlatives, and include all, both the 
dead and the living. 

48. This is a most difficult clause : kidng ying is an echo, a re- 
sponse ; considering how all living creatures are influenced by in- 
struction, or how they responded to the admonitions given, d&c, I 
King have done so and so; but the phrase Ngo king lih, d&c, may 
be rendered thus, *' the strength of our illustrious religion," dtc, 
making king refer to the doctrine, and not to the person King Tsing. 

49. Among the names of the priests given in the Syriac, on the 
monument, we find Kircher has that of Isaac, which we suppose to 
be intended by the Chinese f sx\ ip ^, 

50. City of the king's house we suppose refers to the land of Ta- 
#5111, whatever that may be, whether Judea or some other country. 

51. The three tai^ or dynastie;*, are the Hi4, the Shnng, and 
the Chau-— eminent and distinguished above all the other ancient 
imperial families. 

52. Western gems, or presents brought from the west, seem to he 
indicated by the two characters po H, now and formerly used to 
designate glass, and other similar articles. 

5'4. There is here, probably, an allusion to something with which 
we are not acquainted, for we have* no idea what the golden nets 
in question can be. 

54. From this it appears that the pi fj^t or stone tablet, was 
erected by some of the Syrian Christians, to commemorate the pro- 
gress of religion in China, of which they were eye-witnesses. 

55. Fun shin as above, but here used as the subject of the clause, 
indicating the person of the Messiah. 

56. . This is pure Chinese, both in language and in spirit. Kien 
is strength, the ruling power, heaven ; kwan is weakness, obedience, 
the ruled,, the. earth. 

57. This is obscure, and we have trusted to our native assistants, 
who have given the sentie as expressed ia the Kngiish version. 

1845. Same Account of Charms. -229 

5S. The valley of the sun, is the great eastern empire, China, 
where the sun, the Yicegerant of heaven holds his court, and 
sends forth light, like the rising sun, to enlighten the world. As 
ydng, the sun, here denotes the emperor, yuth, the moon, denotes 
his majesty's residence. 

59. By the color of things, we are here to understand their moral 
qualities, as good or bad. 

60. Hard to name the Word, to expand the Three-one, is a literal 
rendering of this line. Whether the reference is to the Word, the 
Aoytf of the New Testament, or not, we are at present unable to 
determine: if there be such a reference, there is then additional 
reason for using yen, "g , instead of idu, ^S, ^'hich we have pre- 
ferred, in the gospel of John, for the A 070;. 

61. The literary labor, the composition of the inscription, was 
performed by King Tsing; the mechanical labor, the copying for 
the engraver, was done by Lii Sinyen. 

We now leave our readers to judge of the inscription, each one for 
himself. Much of the language is Budhi^tic ; there are however 
strong internal evidences of its being the work of a professor of 
Christianity, and such we believe it to be. 

Art. II. Some Account 0/ Charms, and Pclitious Appendages 
worn about the person, or hung up in houses, 4*^*i f^^ed by the 
Chinese. By John Robbrt Morrison, esq.. Cur. M. R. A. S. 
Read before the R. A. Soc., 2d July 1831.* 

Charms may be divided into three kinds: 1. A kind of talisman, 
worn generally about the person, but sometimes also hung up on 
the walls of houses. 2. Little sacred books which are suspended 
from the girdle in small silk bag*, and hence called Pei'king, " Girdle- 
scriptures." 3. Spells, called Foochow. 

Talismans. — Under this head are arranged some charms which 
are not properly speaking t&lismana, but for which no other generic 
name could be found. 

1. Tsden-keen, **JVloney-s words." These consist of a number of 

* We have extracted this article from Vol. HI. of the Transactions of the 
Royal Asiatic Suciety, and have preserved the original orthography. 

•230 Some Acrount of Charms. Mav; 

old copper coins called cash, strung together in the form of a sword, 
and kept straight by a piece of iron running up the middJe. They 
are hung at the heads of beds, that the supposed presence of the 
monarchs, under whose reigns the cash were coined, may have the 
effect of keeping away ghosts and evil spirits. They are used chiefly, 
in houses or rooms where persons have committed suicide or suffered 
a violent death. Sick persons use them, also, in order to hasten 
their recovery. 

2. Pih kea so, *' The hundred family-lock.'' To obtain this a 
man goes round among his friends, and having obtained from one 
hundred different persons three or four of the copper coins called 
cash, each, he himself adds whatever money is requisite, and has a 
lock made, which he hangs on his child's neck, for the purpose of 
locking him, as it were, to life, and making the one hundred persons 
sureties for his attaining old age. 

3. Kii^ keuen so, *' Neck-ring lock." This is worn by grown 
females as well as by children, for the same purpose as the preceding. 

4. A charm on which are these inscriptions ; San to kew joo, 
** the three manys and the nine likes ;^* and E keae met show, ** to 
obtain long-eyebrowed longevity." The three manys are : To fuh, 
to show, to nan tsze, many (years of) happiness, many (years of) 
long life, and many sons. The nine likes are expressed in the two 
following stanzas of a song, iu the She king, in which a minister 
who has in the six preceding songsbeen receiving the praises of his 
sovereign, answers by numerous wishes on his behalf 

Teen paou ting urh, Joo yuS che h&ng, — 

Joo jih che shing, — 
Joo nan shan che show, — 
Puh keen pub p&ng, — 
Joo sung pih che mow ; 
Woo puh urh hw5 ching. 

£ mo puh hing, 
Joo shan, — joo fow, — 
Joo kang, — joo ling, — 
Joo chuen che fang che ; 
E m5 puh ts&ng. 

I. Heaven preserve and establish thee, 

That in all things thou maycst prosper, — 

Mayest be like the hills, — like the high hills, — 

Like the mountain tops, — like the lofly mountains, 

Like the straight-forward path of the sea, 

That there may be nothing wanting to thee. 
• • • • 

2 Like the moon, constantly revolving,-- — 
Like the sun, ascending upwards, — 
Iu longevity, like the southern hills, 

1845. Some Account of Charm f. 2JU 

Which never fail nor full,— 

Like the luxuriant foliage of the fir : 

Each of these things inayest thou successively receive. 

5. Koo-4ung king, *' The old brass mirror/' is a charm which is 
supposed to possess the virtufqof immediately healing any who have 
become mad by the sight of a spirit or demon, by their merely tak- 
ing a glance at themselves in k. By the rich it is kept in their 
chief apartments, for the purpose of keeping away spirits. 

6. Pet tsang han yah, '*The jointly interred tfuh stone of Han,** 
It is said that, under the Hcm dynasty, when a rich person died, 
each of his friends dropped a tfuh stone into his coffin. Should any 
one obtain one of these stones it will preserve him from evil spirits 
and from fire. 

7. • Chang poo, Gae, keen, '* Sword of Chang poo (Acorns Cala- 
mus), and Gae plants. " On the fifth day of the moon, sprigs of 
each of these plants are stuck up at the doors of houses, in order to 
deter all manner of evils from entering. Hence the following couplet 
is sometimes written on the door-posts of houses: 

Gae ke chaou pih fuh, 

Poo keen chan tseen tsae. 
The Gae banner calls forth a hundred blessings ; 
The Poo sword destroys a thousand evils. 

8. Taou foOf the *' Peach charm,'' consists of a sprig of peacfr 
blossoms, which, on the first day of the first moon, is placed in some 
districts at the head of the dcior of every house, to drive away demons 
and malignant spirits. This gives rise to the following couplet ; 

Le yew jin ho seu mQh to ; 

Sze woo seay yen yung taonfoo. 
If the village possess virtue, what need is there for the wood«n-toiigued belt.' 
If the thoughts be free from impurity, of what use is the jftack-charm ? 

9. Ke lin. The fabulous animal which is said to have appeared 
at the birth of Confucius;, hence worn by children for gcxxf fortune. 

10. P& kita. The eight diagrams, cut on stone or metal, are 
often worn as charms. 

11. Show taoUf ** Longevity Peach. "^^ A charm for long life. 

12. Hoo4oo, *' The Gourd." Gourd-bottles being formerly car- 
ried by old men on their backs, figures of thenr, made* either of cof^- 
per or of the wood of old men's coffins, are worn as charms for lon-^ 
gevity ; the former round tjie neck, the latter round the wrist. 

13. Hoo'chaou^ '* Tiger's-claw.*' This is a charm againsi sud' 
den fright. 

23'2 Some Account of Charms MaV, 

14. Yuk yin, ** FuA-seal." This is a stone worn by children 
on their forehe.ids or wrists, on which are cut short sentences, such 
as Fuhjoo lung hfu, happiness liice the eastern sea (in extent and 
continuance). It is supposed to suppress fright, and to show whe- 
ther a child is well or ill, by a clear appearance in the one case and 
a dark appearance in the other. 

15. A seal of the Taou sect, worn as a charm, as well as for 
stamping spells. 

10. A charm bearing the eight diigrams, the Chinese signs of 
the zodiac, spells, and words expressive of its use, viz.: to suppress 
and destroy evil spirits. 

17. ■ A charm of the Taou sect, consisting of a small knifoi 
sword, and triangle. It is worn chiefly by fern ties about the person, 
in order to avert the ill will of evil spirits and rustic demons. There 
are seals for similar purposes. 

18. There are a variety of charms, of various kinds, for which 
there are no names and no peculiar uses; but they are considered 
felicitous, and are therefore worn by the poorer classes, who cannot 
buy the more valuable charms. 

Little sacred books, called Pci king. From the specimen 
sent, these seem to contain only the pronunciation of Indian words, 
and they appear to belong only to the Budha sect. People of pro- 
perty buy them for their children, and pay priests to repeat the pray- 
ers, d&c, contained in them, in order to preserve their children 
from premature death. The specimen sent [to the Society] is called 
Ta pei chow, ** a prayer to the greatly compassipnate one." 

Spells, — These are formed by a fanciful union of several characters, 
to which astrology is sometimes added ; and in those of the Budha 
sect Sanscrit or (which they appear more to resemble) Thibetian 
words. The book whicli accompanies the specimens is on the 
subject of spells, and iu the first volume it contains a few of these 
foreign words. These spells are sometimes kept about the person, 
and sometimes pasted on walls or over doors. Some, also, are used 
as cures for sick persons, by being either written on leaves and then 
transferred iirto some liquid, or by being written on paper, burnt, 
and thrown into the liquid, after which the patient has to drink off 
the liquid and the spell together. 

There are spelts for almost every deity. Among the most common 
are to be found : 

1. Yin-foo, " Sealed-spells.'' These are of the Taou sect, writ- 
ten on yellow paper with red ink^ and then stamped with a seal kept 
in the temples before the idols. 

1845. Some Account of Charms. 233 

3. San ked foo, " Triangular speti." This is a paper with a 
spell written on it, and folded up in a triangular shape. It is fastened 
to the dress of children, to preserve them from evil spirits and from 

.Besides these there are many others of various kinds, such as diflTer- 
ent forms of the characters /icA, prosperity or happiness; and show, 
longevity. Among these is one called Pih show too, ** the map of a 
hundred shows," being a hundred different forms of that character . 
of course many of the forms are very fanciful. 

There are also numerous figures of deified men, d&c, whieh, 
though not property speaking charms, are considered felicitous, and 
therefore hung up in houses and honored, some constantly, others 
on particular occasions. Of the specimens sent, the following is an 
explanation : 

1. Kwei'^ing. The spirit of the North Polar star, the patron of 
learning. It is drawn standing alone on the head of the Gaou, a large 
fish, and kicking Tow, the Ursa Major, to represent the power of 
knowledge. The pencil in its right hand is held up on high, to 
signify the dignity of literature. There is a print from an engraving 
on stone, in which the eight /characters Ching sin, sew shin, kih ke, 
fnk le, are written in a fanciful manner, so as to resemble the figure 
of the Kwei'sing. The seal characters at the top are the same as 
those of which the figure is formed. 

2. Chang'Seen. This is a deified man, who having shot the 
heiivenly dog, which of^en devoured children, is worshiped by 
parents for the purpose of keeping their children from harm. In the 
drawning he is represented shooting the dog, with his children 
around him. 

3. A representation o( Pwan koo, the first human being; at least 
so marked by the seller ; but it is more probably intended for Fiih 
he, the inventor of the eight diagrams. 

4. Canff'teen^xze, the imperial astronomer. ,The first who filled 
this office was Chang'Uang, and his descendants are said to have 
succeeded him uninterruptedly. They are divided into two families, 
named Kung and Chang, who always intermarry ; thus forming, 
from the union of Kung and Chang, the surname Chang, These 
deified astronomers are supposed to inform their' worshipers when 
any great calamities, such as plague, famine, pestilence, d&c, urn 
about to t^ke place. The introduction of European astronomers is 
Slid to have put the Chang family out of office, though the empe- 
rors still grants them sustenance. 

VOL. XIV. NO. V. 30 

S234 List of Chinese Officers. Mat, 

5. Hi>, Ad, urh seen: The two genii, harmony and union. These 
are two partners in trade, who were always successful, and are 
therefore deified and worshiped by tradespeople. The two red animals 
represented flying above them are intended for bats, which are con- 
sidered the precusors of liappiness and prosperity. 

6. JTuhf Idh, and show. Happiness, emolument or office, and 
longevity, with longevity's children. 

7. Heuen tan, A man of great strength, who lived among the 
hills until invited by the tyrant Chow to bis assistance. On his way 
towards Chow he met a tiger, which he bestrode and made it answer 
him as a horse. The object in worshiping him is to free houses of 
evil spirit. 

8. Chung'kwei, the destroyer of demons. This was a strong and 
violent tempered man, who was deified on account of his antipathy 
to demons. lie is sometimes represented trampling a demon under 
his feet ; at others, introducing happiness under the symbol of a bat. 

9. . Ki'lin sung tsze^ the Ke-lin presenting a child. This animal 
is said to have appeared just before the birth of Confucius, and is 
therefore worshiped by those who wish to have talented children. 

10. Yin yucn sat. This is by one person said to be a god of 
lightning ; by another he is said to be the son of the tyrant Chow, 
who having received his education from a supernatural being, was 
able to exercise, with murderous effect, the magical skill thereby 
acquired, when he was called on to defend his father. Hence he 
is represented moving on the wheels of the wind and the fire, wear- 
ing a string of skulls round his neck, and • holding a spear and a 
death-bell in his hands. 

1 1 . Tize'-wtu A spirit who, by restraining the voracious animal 
Perhevo prevents it from doing mischief, particularly from devouring 
the sun and moon. 

12. Tsae-pih-sing'keun, the god of wealth. * Before him are 
vessels of gold and- silver ore. 

Art. III. List of officers belonging to the Chinese government 
corrected from the Spring Edition of the Red Book, 

The following alterations in the Red Book have taken place since 
the issue of the list of officers in the February number of the Re- 

1845. List of Chinese Officers. 235 

pository ; they are extracted from the Spring Edition, — the Red Book 
being revised and published quarterly. There are many cfficers, 
whose names appeared in the winter edition, but whose names are 
now struck out altogether ; and from the inadequate means at our 
command, we have not succeeded in tracing tbein : some difficulty has 
also been experienced in discovering whence the new officers have 
come; we have not therefore, unless when certain of our informa- 
tion, ventured to give any account, either of whither those officers 
struck out have gone^ or whence those newly appearing have come. 

Inner Council, 

The fourth t^hiohsz'-ship, which has for some time been vacant, 
is filled up by No. 12., Choh Pingtien, and is thus entered ; 
12. SL $ W Choh Pingtien, of Hw4y:\ng hien, Sz'chuen ; a 

speaker at the classical feasts, and superintendent of the 

prefecture-ship of Shuntien fii. 
The second hiepan lihioh sz'-ship, vacated by No. 12., Choh 
Pingtien, who becomes fourth, is filled up by No. 52., Chin KwAn- 
tsiun, and is thus entered ; 
52. ^ '^ 1^ Chin Kwdnuiun, of Wei hien, Shintung; a speaker 

at the classical feast, a shAngshu of the Board of Civil Office. 

and a superintendent of the three treasuries of the Board of 



Board of Civil Office^ 
The second sh^nn^shu-ship vacated by No. 12., Choh Pingtien, 
is filled up by No. 52., |i^ 'g' j^. Chin Kwantsiun. 

Board of Revenue. 

The second shfUng-ship, vacated by No. 29., jfj^ ^ ^, 
Chuh Kingfian, who becomes a chief censor of the Censorate, is 
filled np by No. 31., Ho Julin, and is entered thus; 
31. jpj jfjf 5^ Ho Ji'ilin, of Kiingning hien, Kidngsn ; a superin- 
tendent of the three treasuries, an inspector of the school of 
the left wing gioro. 
The fourth shilang-ship, vacated by No. 31., Ho Julin, is filled 
up by No. 56., Kii Ching, and is entered thus ; 

@ ^ ^'^ Ching, of Hwang hien, Sh.intung; a superintendent 
of the Tsienfih ting, and a hingtsau of the Sh^ngshti fang. 

236 Lisi of Chinese OJictrs. Mav, 

Board of Rites. 

The second shildng-ship, vacated by No. 35., ^ jjQ ij^ Chzvt 
Tsupei, who becomes fourth shilingof the Board of Works, is filled 
up by Ping Chi, who appears for the first time, and is entered thus; 
283. ^ ^ Ping Chf, of T&i chau, Sh^nsl. 

The third shil^ng-ship, vacated by No. 36., 4^ ^ j; j^ Hw^- 
shinih who becomes third shilung of the Board of Works, in filled 
up by No. 43., Weishihn^h, and is entered thus ; 

^*^' 1$ 11 fSh ^^^^^^^^^K A Mongol of the plain yellow ; a f'l 
t6tung, Chinese plain yellow banner ; a first class hereditary 
noble of the second order, a tsangpiug of the right wing. 

Board of War. 

The third shil^ng-ship, vacated by No. 43., Weishihn^h, who 
becomes third shilang of the Board of Rites, is filled up by No. 98., 
Fuhtsf, and is entered thus; 
98. f g jB Fuhtst, a Manchu of the bordered white. 

Board of Works. 

The second shiingshn-ship, vacated by No. 52., Chin Kw^ntsiun, 
who becomes second hiepan tahiohsz', is filled up by No. 62., Tu 
Shautien, and is entered thus; 

^- \ju '^ \^ '^^ Shautien, of Pin chau, Shantung; a speaker 
of the classical feasts, a hingtsau of the Sh^ngshii fang, a 
superintendent of the treasury of the Board of Revenue. 
The first shil^ng-ship, vacated by No. 53., ^ |fil Pp| ShuLin- 

g4h, who becomes tsauts^u tAchin of Fli, is filled up by No. 55., 

A^lingah, and is entered thus; 

55. B^ ^ Y^ A'ling^h, a Manchu of the plain red; a fu tutung, 
Chinese bordered blue banner. 
The third shilnng-ship, vacated by No. 55., A'ling^h, who becomes 

first shil/ing, is filled up by No. 36., Hw^shin^h, and is entered thus; 

36. jf^ ^j/ ^ Hwishinah, a Mongol of the plain yellow; a super- 
intendent of the Tsienf4 tling, a fii tiltung Chinese plain 
yellow banner, a great minister controlling the sungwu fTi. 
The fourth shi ling-ship, vacated by No. 56., 9 ia Kii Ching, 

who becomes fourth shiling of the Board of Revenue, is filled up 

by No. 35., Ch^u Tsupei, and is entered thus; 

35. S Kj^ i^ Chf\u Tsnpei, of Shangching hien, Honlin; a super- 
intendent of the Tsienfa tung. 


1845. Lisi of Chinese OJirers, 237 

The Censorate. 

The second chief censor-ship, vacated by^ No. 62., ;|»t '^ QJ 
Tii Shautien, who becomes second sh&ngshu of the Board of Works, 
is filled up by No. 29., Chuh Kingfi^n, and is entered thus; 
29. jfj^ ^ ;Mr Chuh Kingfi'm, of Kuchl hien, Honiin ; a speaker 
of the classical feasts, superintendent of the three treasuries. 
The first assisting censor-ship, lately vacant, is filled up by No. 
66., Hochun, and is thus entered ; 

66. ^ jj^ Hochun, a Manchu of the bordered blue, of the imperial 
The second assisting censor-ship, vacated by No. 64., ^ nC 
Kw.'inglin, who becomes shilang of the Board of War, at Moukden, 
is filled up by No. 72., Kwingcb&ng, and is entered thus; 
72. jfSk ^ Kwdngch&ng, a Manchu of the plain red; superinten- 
dent of the sacrificial court. 

The Court of Representation. 

The first principal-ship, vacated by No. 66., Hochun, who be- 
comes first assisting censor of the Censorate, is filled up by No. 76., 
Lingkwei, and is entered thus; 
76. ^^ ij^ Lingkwei, a Manchu of the plain blue. 

The Sacrificial Court. 

The first president-ship, vacated by No. 72., ^ M Kwingch.'ing, 
who becomes second assisting censor of the Censorate, is filled up 
f No. 74., Kingkl, and is entered thus; 

74. ^ ^ Kingkl, a Manchu of the plain blue; of the imperial 

The Office of the Imperial Stud. 

The first president-ship, vacated by No. 74., Kingkf, who becomes 
first president of the Sacrificial Court, remains vacant. 

The Ceremonial Court. 

The first president-ship, vacated by No. 76., ^ |^^ Lingkwei, 
who becomes first principal of the Court of Representation, is filled 
up by A'yentah, who was lately a shiki^ng hiosz' (learned attendant 
speaker) in the Hanlin academy, and is entered thus; 

284. iM "fi^ i^ A^ventah, a Mongol of the bordered yellow. 

238 List of Chinese Officers, May, 

The National College* 

The first principal-ship, vacated by No. 78., "^ QB Kihming who 
becomes principal of the Chinsz' fu, (a school of the Hinlin yuen) 
is filled by Wansui, lately a shikiing (attendant speaker) in the 
H&nlin academy, and is -entered thus; 

285. a|^ ]^ Wansui, a Manchu of the bordered red. 

Local Metropolitan Officers . 

The assistant mayor-ship of Shuntien fiJ, lately vacant, is filled up 
by Kung Wanting, who appears for the first time, and is entered 

286. ^ ^ ^ Kung Wanling, of Haukw^n hien, Fuhkien. 

The general-ship of the right wing, vacated by No. 01., B9 ^ ^^ 
-Kwinshingpdu, of whom we have no trace, is filled up by No. 43., 
Weishihnih, and is entered thus ; 

43. ^"ff- j^ Weishihnih, a Mongol of the plain yellow; a fu 
t(Jtung, Chinese plain yellow banner. 

Tutung of the eight banners. 
The tutung-ship of the Mongol plain blue banner, not inserted in 
the last list, is filled by No. 32., /j:^ ^ |{pj Tehtangih. 

Fd Tutung of the eight banners. 

The ftJ tutung-ships of the Manchu plain red banner, held accord* 
ing to the last list, by No. 01., H^ ^ jS^ Kwanshingp&u, and 
"No. 53., 1^ W^ 1M Shuhing^h, appear now to be vacant. 

The second fu tOtung-ship of the Chinese plain yellow banner ii 
£lled up by 43., ^ fp ^ Weishihnih. 

Provincial Governments. 


The shlldng-ship of the Board of War, vacated by No. %•> f g ^ 
FiJtsf , who becomes third shili&ng of the Board of War, is filled up 
by No. 64., Kwinglin, and is entered thus; 
64. ^ ij^ Kwdnglin, a Mongol of the plain yellow. 

€ H f II L I . 

The director-ship of the gabelle, wrongly stated in the last list to 
be held by No. 115., ^ jj^ Tehshun, is filled by Pulin, and is 
entered thus ; 

287. ^ ftk Pulin, of the imperial household, of the bordered yel« 

1845: List of Chinese Officers. 2d9 

low banner, master-general of the post, and superintendent 
of the water communication. 
The sait commissioner-ship, vacated by No. 116., |I{^ H|^ ffl 
Tiu Sz'lin, who becomes grain commissioner in Kweichau, is filled 
up by No. 198., Li Pihling, and is entered thus; 
198. ^ "pf ^ L^ Pehling, of Ts&ngwu hien, Kw&ngsl. 


The governor-ship, vacated by No. 1 18., ^ ^' ^ Sun Shenpiu, 
who retires on account -if indisposition, is filled up by No. 201., Li 
Singyuen, and is entered thus ; 

201. ^ @ ^ LI Singyuen, of Siangyin hien, Hnn^n, comman- 
der of the forces, and director of the commissariat department. 
The governor-ship of the canal transports, vacated by So* 127., 
^ Hwuikih, who becomes governor of Shensi, is filled up by 
No. 250., ChinflT Ynts^i, and is entered thus; 
^250. f§ ^ ^ Ching Yuhts&i, of Sinkien hien, Kt&ngsl ; com- 
mander-in-chief of the sea-guard and transport forces, and 
director of the commissariat. 


The magistrate-ship of Yin hien, Ningpo fu, lately vacant, is filled 
up by Yehkwan, and is entered thus; 

288. ^ ^ Yehkwan, of Yuenping, Shuntien. 


The prefect-ship of Fuhchau fil, vacated by No. 165., M^^ )^ ]^ 
Shin Jlihin, of whom we have no trace, remains vacant. 


The grain commissioner-ship, lately vacant, is fBled up' by Li 
Ch&umei who appears for the first time, and is entered thus; 

289. ^ ^ 1^ LI Chuumei, of Tehhwii hien, Kiangsl. 

n D N .% If . 
The judge-ship, vacated by No. 178., ^ e^ |IP[ Siich^ng^h; who 
becomes treasurer of Yunnin, is filled up- by Siitsihshun, who a|^ 
pears for the first time, and is entered tHus ; 

290. ^ ^ ^ SuUihshun,|aVChinese of the plain blue banner ; 

provincial post-master general. 

SB ANsr. 
The salt commissioner-ship, vacated by No. 198., 3? ]§ ^^ 
Li Pehling, who becomes salt commissioner in Chihlf, is filled up by 
No. 282., Ping Tehhing, and is entered thus; 

240 List of Chinese OJieerS. May^ 

282. ^ f]^ 1^ Ping Tchhing. of Tslning chau, Shantung ; su- 
perintendent of the salt department of Shinsi, Sliensf, and 


The goveror-ship vacated by No. 201., * § fjC ^^^ Singyuen, 
who becomes governor of Ki&ngsti, is filled up by No. 127., Hwuikib, 
and is entered thus ; 

127. ^M '^ Hwuikih, a Manchu of the bordered yellow; com- 
mander of the forces, and director of the provincial commis- 

The New Frontier. 
1 1. 1 . 
The tsiintsan tdchin-ship, vacated by No. 210., ^ ^ ^ '^^^ 
hungdh, who retires on account of indisposition, is filled up by No. 
53., Shuhingih, and is entered thus; 
53. Kpl ^ ^ Shuhingah, a Manchu of the plaiq blue. 

The third lingsui t&ching-ship, vacated by No. 243. ^ ^^jt ]^ 
^- Chdlnfiintli, who becomes tsintScin tachin of Ktichi, is filled up 
by No. 226., Yihking, and is entered thus; 

226. ^j^^ Yihking, a Manchu of the bordered red; of the im^ 
perial kindred. 


The first lingsui t4chin-ship, vacated by No. 217., ^fl S§ ^ 
Nafuhteh, of whom we have no trace, is filled up by Mingking, wlio 
appears for the first time, and is entered thu:* ; 
291. ^ j^ Mingking, a Manchu of the plain white banner. 

The p^nsz* tichin-ehip, vacated by No. 221., ^ ^ Tsiuenking, 
of whom we have no trace, is filled up by Suiyuen, who appears for 
the first time, and is entered thus ; 

28^- ^ TC Suiyuen, a Manchu of the plain white. 


The pansz'-ship vacated by No 222., ^ y^ Chiingtsing, of 
whom we have no trace, is filled up by No. 213., ChAhl^fant^i, and 
is entered thus ; 

213. +L tfr. 33^ ^ Chihiafantdi, a Manchu of the plain while ; 
of the imperial kindred. 

1845. List of Chinese Officers, 241 


The ts'intsan ta chin-ship, vacated by No. 226., ^ |j^ Yihking, 
who becomes tsants^n td chin of Til, is filled up by Linkwei who 
appears for the first time, and is entered thus ; 

293. j^ ^ Linkwei, a Manchu of the bordered white; governor 

of the Mohammedan frontier. 

II A M I . 

The hiepan td chin-ship, vacated by No. 233., i|*3 ^ Hangyuh, 
of whom we have no trace, is filled up by Nginching, who appears 
for the first time, and is entered thus ; 

294. "^ M^ Ng&nching, a Manchu of the bordered white. 


The lingsui ta chin-ship, vacated by No. 237. "^ ^ ^ ^ 
Tehkihtsichun, of whom we have no trace, is filled up by FuhnipTi, 
who appears for the first time, and is entered thus ; 

295. '^ ^ ^ Fuhnipu, a Manchu of the bordered yellow. 


The governor-ship, vacated by No. 250., Tj^ ^ * Ching 
Yuetsai, who becomes governor general of the canal transports in 
Kidngsii, is filled up by No. 253., HwAng Ngdntung, and is entered 
thus ; 

253. ^ j§» J^ Hw^ng Ngantung, of NingyAng hien. Shantung; 
commander of the forces, and director of the provincal com- 

The treasurer-ship vacated by No. 253., Hw^ng Ng&ntung, who 
becomes governor of the province, is filled up by No. 274., Chuen 
Shingheun, and is entered thus ; 
274. j^ 1^ ^jfj Chuen Shingheun, of Liaching hien. Shantung. 


The treasurer-ship, vacated by No. 274., w j^ ||^ Chuen 
Shingheun, who becomes treasurer of Kwingtung, is filled up by 
No. 178. Such^ng^h and is entered thus; 
178. ^ ^ P^ Suchdng^hVa Manchu of the bordered red. 

The grain commissioner-ship; vacated by No. 275., jjjfc ^ ^ 
Shin Lansang, of whom we h^ve no trace, is filled up Wang Fkwei, 
who appears for the first time', and is entered thus ; 
296. 3E H^ ^ Wang rkwei, of Yuenping hien, Shuntien; super- 
intendent ofthie land used for military purposes. 

VOL. XIV. NO. v. 31 

342 Grave of Mr. Janus D. Ptrit. Mat, 


The grain commissioner-ehip, vacated by No. 282., ^ f^ ^ 
Ping Tehhing, who becomes salt commissioner in Shinsi, is filled 
up by No. 116., T^u Sz'lin, and is entered thus; 
116 1^ d: ^ '^^u Sz'Viu, of Ng^nling hien, Nganhwui. 

Art. IV. Ltftes on seeing a painting of the cemetery on French 
Island^ where Mr, James Dunlap Perit was buried^ written by 


[On the south side of the river at Whampoa — or rather between the 
waters of the anchorage there, and another branch of the river called Blen- 
heim's reach, are two beautiful little islands, one named after the Danes 
and the other after the French. These for many years have been the burial 
grounds for those foreigners who have died at Whampoa and Canton. Young 
rerit died at Canton March 19th, 1834, and his remains were carried in a 
boat to the place of interment We republish the following lines, and note, 
at the request of Mr. Perit's friends.] 

On with your burden, on ! — ^The spot is fair, 

The cool, green trees, their peaceful branches spread. 
Soft is the quiet wave that ripples there. 

And smooth the pillow for the sleeper's head : 
There waits the boat that bare the youthful dead, 

While with sad step the father goes to lav 
*Neath the turf-covering of a foreign bed, 

The lov*d companion of his lonely way. 

On with your burden, on ! — Tis holy rest : 

There's grief of strangers at yon lowly bier, 
The tear of China falls upon his breast 

That yielded back its noble spirit here : 
But far away, amid his native earth. 

His mother dreams not of her darling's urn. 
And his fond sisters, round the cheerful hearth 

Revole the promise of his quick return. 

On with your burden, on ! — Words may not tell 

How dear the dust that here in hope doth lie ; 
But when from farthest clime and darkest cell 

Earth's summon'd myriads seek the judging sky, 
Blest be thy meeting ! youth of many a chorm, 

With those who mourn thee on thy native shore : 
Blest be the meeting! where no pain can haim. 

And parting sorrows pierce the soul no more ! 

1845. Journal of Occurrences. 243 

The following inscription is intended to be engraved oil th^ tomb 
of J. D. Peril in the Chinese, language, with a view to the instruc- 
tion of the Chinese who may read it, in the three great doctrine of 
Christianity to which it has reference. 

** He lived beloved-^ ied greatly lamented. His soul returned 
tor God who gave it — and his body was interred in the grave beneath, 
to rest till the last day : Then will the Lord Jesus descend from 
heaven with the voice of the Archangel and the trump of Ood : he 
will call the dead from their graves to die no more ; and, together 
with the living, all shall stand before the judgment-seat, to receive 
the reward of their deeds in this life : Then shall the wicked be 
banished from the presence of God; and the good shall be received 
up into heaven, to enjoy eternal blessedness. The earth and all 
things therein shall pass away, but the righteous shall rejoice in the 
presence of God for ever and ever !" 

Art. V. Journal of Occurrences: Chinese officers; Lin Tsehsii; 
Tang Tingcking; Kiying ; Hwang Ngantung ; Triad 8oeie' 
ty in Chauchau fd ; opium fleet : the China Medico^Chirurgieal 
Society ; an assay of sundry foreign coins ; commerce of /VrA- 
chau; treaty loith the U. S, A. ratified; a Chinese naturaHxed 
in Boston; liberation of prisoners in Hongkong : Queen* s birth 
day ; progress of public works ; the American steamer Midas ; 
Protestant missions. 

Chinbsb ofpicers in their movements, as directed by " the one 
man," have been very aptly compared to the men on a chess-board. 
They move, or are moved rather, in a singularly hazardous gnme, 
and one which it is not easy for the foreigner to understand. Were 
there a good reporter at court, who could daily tell us of all that tran- 
spires in the councils of his imperial majesty, we should then be 
able to see how it is that this great machine moves on with so little 
jaring and so few interruptions. It goes heavily but stendily on, 
every now and then new men coming upon the board, and o|d ones 
disappearing; as indicated in the list, forming our third article in the 
present number. For that list we are indebted to a friend, who will, 
we hope, continue to give us quarterly lists, with biographical notices 
of living statesmen. 

Lin Tsehsii for many years was very conspicuous, and had seem- 
ingly a gocxl and sure standing. Early in January 1839 he was 
appointed imperial commissioner, with extraordiniry power, and or- 
dered to Canton, to stop the traffic in opium. His action on that sub- 

244: Journal of Occurrences. May, 

ject is pretty well known; but what has become of himt He has been 
displaced, degraded, banished, and again and again reported dead. 
However, it is not many months since a history of foreign countries, 
compiled under his care, made its appearance in one of the northern 
cities. And during this month reports have reached Canton of his 
having been pardoned, on account of his meritorious exertions in 
daring new lands in thft cold country. If this be true, he will doubt- 
less soou return to his friendsi is Fuhkien, and may by degrees 
regain his favor and standing with his master, Taukwang. 

Tang Tingching has, we hear, obtained the governor-ship in one 
of the northwestern provinces, and his name will probably appear in 
the. next eflition of the Red Book. Lin and Tang are both opposed 
to the present line of policy — they being Tories^ defenders of the old. 
exclusive policy. The Whigs, or advocates of popular rights and a 
more liberal course towards foreigners, are acting wisely in thus 
showing favor to the their most deadly political enemies. 

Kiying and Htodng Ngantung are active agents of the New 
Political School ; and their steady promotion is pleasing evidence 
of their being in good favor at court. Our belief is, that necessity 
is laid on the superme government of China to take this mild course, 
both in its domestic and foreign relations. And surely this gentle 
policy is commendable and wise ; but the danger is that it will sink 
into weakness, imbecility, and lead to anarchy. ^ 

Report says that Kiying has been made h hiepan td hiohsz\ * an 
assistant great councellor/ and is to have a seat in the cabinet. 

Hwang Ngantung, one of his majesty's most faithful, most worthy, 
and most able servants, — much blamed' and much maligned by his 
political enemies — has been made governor of the Wide East, or 
province of Kwangtung, and his name appears as such in the Red 

It is rumored that Kfying, as imperial commissioner, is soon to 
visit all the newly opened ports. 

In Chauchaufu, or the department of Chauchau (TiUchiii, as the 
name is pronounced by its inhabitant) there have been during the 
spring protracted disturbances, and suppressed only recently by a 
strong military force from Canton. The principal actors were 
members of the Triad Society, and under arms in open opposition to 
the local authorities). About 800 lost their lives, 500 having fell in 
the tield, and 300 were decapitated. Such is- the report given us, by 
the officer who headed the imperial forces. And from another source 
we Ie<irn that large bodies of men are in arms and in a state of 
insubordination in the eastern part of this province. 

The opium fleet, a long time at Whampoa, or rather in Blenheim 
insuhreach, has removed to its old station in Kamsing Moon, a very 
secure and commodious anchorage, as most of our readers know, 
situated twelve or fifteen miles north from Macao. 

The China MedicO'Chimrgical Society, recently formed, has a 
wide field opened before its members, and we heartily wish them 
all the success they can desire. We wish they would all learn Chi- 
nese so as more rcadilv to extend their labors among the natives of 

1845. Journal of Occurrences, 245 

the celestial empire. They ought to correspond with the Medical 

Board in Peking. We have been furmisbed with the following: 

A meeting of the medical gentlemen in Hongkonif, was held on Tnesday 
evening, May I3tli, at ihe residence of Dr. Dill, for the purpoae of forming a 
medical society, the meeting having been called by circulars. 

Pre9eHl—Dn. Tucker, Kennedy, Dill, O'Sulltvan, Barton, Traill, Gilbert, 
Holgate, Young, Little and Webber. Dr. Tucker was unanimonsly called to 
the chair, and Dr. Dill requested to act as secretary to the meeting. The 
following resolutions were unanimously adopted : 

I. That it is the opinion of this meeting, that the formation of such a 
Society is most desirable, not only to ourselves as medical men, but- more par- 
ticularly to the community at large ; its objects being : 

1st. The bringing into more intimate intercourse medical brethren in Chi- 
na, for the sake of giving and receiving informtion on medical and surgical 
subjects ; 

2d. The formation of a library, where all the best periodicals and the most 
valuable standard medical works of the day can be had ; 

3d. The discussion of topics relating more particularly to the diseases pre- 
valent in China, and to the native materia-medica. 

II. That this Society be denominated the ^^Chiha Mkoico-Chirdroical 

III. That medical men in Hongkong, or any other part of China, be re- 
quested to become members ; that each member have to pay either ^12 >^- 
nually or $ 1 .50 monthly, as he may think proper. 

IV. That the business of the Society shall be managed by a president, 
secretary and a librarian, to be elected every half year, and Uiat three members 
be elected also half-yearly to act with them as a committee ; three eonatUot- 
ing a quorum. 

* V . TbAt a general meeting of the Society shall be held on the first Tuesday 
of each month, for reading essays and conversing on topics connected with 
the objects of the Society. 

VI. That the committee make half yearly reports of the proceedings of the 
Society, and the business of each meeting be reported generally to absent 

VII. That members in other parts of China be requested to submit to the' 
consideration of the Society any particular case or intelligence which they 
think will-be interesting to it. 

VIII. That this Society do communicate with similar societies in India and 
at home, requesting them to send us reports of their proceedings, this Society 
promisiiig to act in the same menner towards them. 

IX< That thoae wishing to become members be requested to give in their 
names without delay to the secretary, and the committee be instructed to take 
immediate measures for the procuring of books. 

X. That any person winking to join this Society be introduced by one of 
the members. 

XI. That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the local newspapers, for 
insertion and to all medical men in China. 

The following gentlemen were then elected, by the meeting, oflice-bearers 
for the next six months : 

Dr. Tucker, — President. Dr. Hobson, — Secretary. Dr. Young, — Librarian 
and Treasurer ; and, to act with these as a committee, Drs. Dill, Barton and 

It was agreed that the next general meeting should take place at the resi- 
dence of Dr. Holgate. 

Thanks having been returned to Dr. Tucker for the able menner in which 
he filled the chair, the meeting was disolved. F. Dill, Seerstary. 

An assay of sundry foreign roins. The particulars of this assay, 
made by a shroff of Kwanghang, ^ Ig, a native banking house 

246 Journal of Occurrences, Mat, 

ill Canton, we borrow from the China Mail, of May 22d. The assay 
was made at the Spanish factory, in presence of persons- whose 
names are subjoined. The Chinese are good assayers, and we pre- 
sume the results shown below are correct. 

T. M. c. c. 

1. Twenty new rupeei weighed before being melted 6 2 3 
Weighed aAer being melted, remelted, and cast into 

a shoe of pure lycee lilver •- - 5650 

LoM of weight 0553 

Thui lOU taels of rupees, are equal to pure ajcee - - 91 U 6 5 

Making a difference per centum of - - -^- 8915 
And in order to pay 1(10 taelt of pare lycee in rupees,' 

it would be neceisary to pay 109 7 9 

2. Five new PeruTian dollars weighed before being melted 3 6 
After bein^ melted, remelted, dtc, as above - • 3 2 3 

Loss of weight • - 0370 

Thus 100 taels of Peruvian dollars are equal to pure sycee 89 7 3 3| 

Making a difference per centum of • - • 10 2 7 7| 
And in order to pay 100 taels of pure sycee in Peruvian 

dollars, it would be necessary to pay . -Ill 4 5 5 

3. Five new Mexican dollars, weighed before being melted 3 5 7 5 
After being melted, remelted, £c., as above - • 3 19 5 

Loss of weight 0380 

Thus 100 taels of Mexican dollars are equal to pure sycee 89 3 7 1 

Making a difference per centum of • - - • 10 6 2 9 
And in order to pay 100 taels of pure sycee in Mexican 

dollars, it would be necessary to pay - -111 90 

4. Five new Bolivian dollars weighed before being melted 3 6 
After being melted, remelted, dtc., as above • • 3 2 10 

Loss of weight 0390 

Thus 100 taels of Bolivian dollars are equal to pure sycee 89 I 6 7 
Making a difference per centum of • - • -10 -833 
And in order to pay 100 taels of pure sycee in Bolivian 

dollars, it would be necessary to pay • • -112 150 

5. Five new Chilian dollars weighed before being melted 3 5 9 5 
After being melted, remelted, Ac, as above • 3 19 5 

Loss of weight 0400 

Thus 100 taels of Chilian dollars are equal to pure sycee 88 8 7 
Making a difference per centum of - - - -11130 
And in order to pay 100 taels of pure sycee in Chilian 

dollars, it would be necessary to pay - 112 5 2 

6. Five dollars in broken money (such as is paid away at 

Canton by weight and called by the Chinese mi yin M^ ^^) 

weighed before being melted 

After being melted, remelted, &c., as above 

I4OSS of weight 

Thus 100 taels of broken silver are equal to pure silver 
Making a difference per centum of - - • - 
And in order to pay i(K) taels of pure sycee in broken 

dollars, it would be necessary to pay - - 113 2 7 

Mo9t neeegsary to he hcnu in mind, 

N. B. 1 • These monies were weighed by the shroffs* weights ; and the 
hoppo's weights are 4 mace 5 cans, per 100 taels, or J per cent, keavitr very 

2. in addition to the above, which merely shews the difference between the 
















1845. Journal of Occurrences. 247 

monies ind pure silver, will be the ezpeq^e of melting, remeltiug, die, &o., 
It. Sm. por too taels or II per cent. 

Tiukwing, 23d year, 6th moon, and 16th day, (13th of July, 1843.) 

In the presence of ^ |^ M4 Taien Yeni, an officer of the 5th rank, 

attached to the imperial oommtMioner Kiying "^ )^, Hid Waniai IS "^ 

pS . treasurer to the grand hoppoof Canton,and Wan Fung aT ^^. 

Capt. G. Balfour. R. Thom, AssUl trant. and 

interpreter to if. M.*e Comm, in Ckina. 

Commerce of Fuhchau fti. In vol. IV. of the Chinese Repository 
are two long articles regarding the Bohea hills, the River Min, the 
city of Fuhchau, d&c, written by J. G. Gordon, esq., and the Rev. 
Edwin Stevens, who visited that part of the Chinese empire. Those 
articles will give our readers better ideas of the commercial cap- 
abilities of Fuhchau than anything we can now write. We subjoin 
the new — 


1. The limits of the port of Fuhchau fli extend from the bridge to the 
Wm Mun [or Pass]. 

2. The Chinese officer at the station within the pass has orders to provide 
anv vessel, desiring to enter the port, with a pilot. 

3. British ships may remain in the port with a view of ascertaining the 
stale of the market without restriction as to time, and should they desire to 
depart without breaking bulk, no port dues will be demanded. Toe captain 
will, however, in all cases deliver his ship's paper, bills of lading, Ac, into 
the hands of the consul within twenty-four hours after arrival. 

4. Payment of duties may be made either in sycee or coined money at the 
rates alreuiy established at Uanton. 

5. All cargo is to be taken in, or discharged, "between sunrise and sanset. 

6. Sailors on liberty are to be accompanied by an officer or responsible 
person, and strictly enjoined to abstain from all acts calculated to give offi»nse 
to the inhabitants ; injunctions to the same effect having been issiied by the 
Chinese authorities to the people of Fuhchau fa. 

(Signed) Ruturrford Alcocr. 

Fuhchau fo, April 26th, 1845. Her Britannic Majesty's Consul. 

Bjf a unanimous vote of the Senate of United Stated of America 

the late treaty with China was ratified at Washington, on the lOth 

of January. So it is reported in the papers of the day. 

A Chinese natunUixed, — We learn from the Boston Daily Advertiser, that 
in the district court of the United States, on Friday, 24th Jan. 1845, there was* 
much inquiry at the bar as to the name of the emperor of China. A native' 
of China was present to be naturalized ; and as it was necessary for him to re-' 
nounce alleffiance to all foreign potentates and powers, and especially to the 
emperor of China, whose subject he had been, the name of the emperor was 
important. The name, as finally settled, is Tdukwan^. The person natura- 
lised is Atit, formerly of Canton, where he was born m 1807. He has resided 
in that citv eight years, and made his primary declaration to become a citizen 
in 1834. He was admitted to citizenship on motion of Mr. Robb. (^ew York 
Obeerver^ Feb. Ut.) 

Nineteen prisoners, lately confined in the prison of Aongkong, 
for minor offenses, or who, during a long period of imprisonment 
and hard labor, had been reported, by the chief magistrate, as well- 
conducted, were liberated, on Saturday the S4th instant, by ^t(h 

248 JottfHot of Octurnnth^ 

clamation from his excellency, governor Davis. Acts of pardon, in 
cases of this kind, are most commendable ; and ouffht, we think, to 
be multiplied. On the obdurate and pertinaciously wicked, let all 
the rigor of the law be laid ; but to the reformed and well-behaved, 
the judicious extension of grace and pardon is not only compatable 
with the strictest iusiice, but it will promote good conduct, and 
inspire confidence m Christian governments. 

H, B. if. Queen Victoria! s birth day was celebrated on the 24th, 
with the usual public honors. The review of the troops took place 
in the cool of the day, a little before sunset, on Queen's Road, in 
front of Government House. His excellency governor Davis and 
suit were present on the occasion. The troops appeared remarkably 
well, and in fine health and spirits. 

The public works, in Hongkong, are steadily progressing, large 
numbers of Chinese mechanics and coolies bein^ constantly employ- 
ed on the new roads and on the buildings that are being erected. 
These buildings are chiefly intended for the army. A severe thunder 
storm passed over the island on the morning of the 7th inst., and 
the torrents of rain occasioned no inconsiderable diamage to the 
roads in Victoria. On the evening of the 24th instant, a fire broke 
out near one of the new hospitals, and spread with great rapidity, 
destroying one of the market-places, and a few other buildings, 
chiefly public property. 

7^ American steamer Midas, captain Poor, arrived in Hongkong 
on the 21st instant. She is moved by propellers, and seems admira- 
h\y adapted for the Canton river. Fitted up with- proper acconimo- 
dattons, and running daily between Canton and Hongkong, she will 
greatly facilitate the intercommunication, and would, we should 
think, liberally remunerate her owners. 

Protestant Missions in China, few at present, are now in position 
io accomplish much good. With free access to the people at Canton, 
A racy, Fuhchau, Chusan, Ningpo and ShAnghii, they can make 
known the gospel to many millions. As we understand the princi- 
l^le of Christianity, every Christian— every one who professes and 
ttAh himself a Christian — is by such profession pledged to be a 
ftiithfiil witness of the truth of our holy religion. By strict con- 
fornrity to all the rules of the gospel, he is required to be, both in 
spirit and in action, an exampler of what the Scriptures teach. 
While the ordained minister is required both to teach and to live 
according to the gospel, every lay professor is equally required to live 
kt the same manner, soberly, righteously, and godly. Then the 
ffospel will have a cloud of witnesses ; and though the missionaries 
Be rew, the witnesses' to the religion of Jesus, being many, will sup- 
ply their lack in number, and the force of truth will become great. 

On the 24th instant, the right Rev. bishop Boone embarked, on 

fhe Alligator, for Shansh^i, accompanied by his lady, and by the 

Misses £. G. Jones and M. J. Morse. The Rev. George Smith, of 

^he English Church Missionary Society, embarked at the same time, 

ako for Shanghai. 



VoLi XIV;— JONE, 1845.— No. 6. 


Art. I. SdiRhg Directions for the PangkO^ or Pescadbre Ar- 
ckipeldgo^ wiih notices of the islands. By captain Richard 


[These directions were first published in the Hongkong Register, 
by permission of H. £. rear admiral sir Thomas Cochrane, knt., c. a. 
d&c, dtc. In laying them before the readers of the Repository, we 
are happy in being able to avail ourselves of the assistance oT captain 
Collinson, who has kindly corrected our proof-sheets, having first 
revised the origi<itJ for our pages. We may remtirk here, that the? 
Pescadore Group of islands forms one of the six districts which 
constitute Taiwan fH^ i^ jwl ||^, the departmlent of T4iw4n, or 
Formosa. The Group is called by the* Chinese, in their statistical 
works, Pangha ting, ^ ^ J^, or the district of Panghti, and is 
under the immediate government of a magistrate, a subordinate of 
the prefect, or chffu, of Formosa. He resides at M&kiing (Macoit, 
as the place is called by foreigners), and has under bis command a 
few hundred soldiers. We have tried; but in vain, to identify the 
Chinese names, as we find them on the maps of the Ti Tsing fiwui 
Tien, with those on captain Collinson's new Chart. The Chiiiesi^ 
have, ip that work, given mori^ tlian thirty island^,' which they oal! 
Yu, ilffi, but in this list thiey make no distinction between the 
larger and the smaller islands, rior between t'he islands, and mi^re 
rocks or shoals. The largest is called Pangh'i^ i^' )j|^ ; and from* 
it the grdup sterns (o have dei^ived its name. Captain CbllirisoiT 
has given us the following memoranda, additibnal to WhM ap^ieared^ 

VOL. XIV. NO. VI. 32 

250 SaiUng Directions for the PangMt. June, 

in the Register. ^'Panghii is 48 miles in circumference, and 
Fisher's or West island is 17. The want of trees, which the Chi- 
nese officers accounted for by the violence of the wind, and the 
absence of sheltered valleys, give the islands a barren appearance. 
The Barbadoes millet, however, is extensively cultivated and yields 
a very good crop ; and between the rows of the millet the ground* 
nut is planted. In some spots, sheltered by walls, the sweet potatoe 
is raised and a few vegetables ; but for the latter and for fruits the 
inhabitants depend principally upon Formosa, the intercourse with 
which, during the summer season, is very frequent Pine-apples 
were bought at the rate of four and five for a mace, and vegetablee 
were equally cheap. During the winter season, however, two months 
sometimes elapse without the arrival of a junk. Bullocks and poultry 
were abundant ; the former are used both in the cultivation of the 
soil and the collection of the crop ; for which latter purpose a rude 
cart is used. The population of the two larger islands was stated 
to be 5000, and that of the whole group 8000; the magistrate stated, 
that he had 2000 troops, including militia, and 16 war junks under 
his command." 

We here subjoin a complete list of the Chinese names, as they are 
found in their statistical works, adding the sounds in the court 
dialect, also the literal meaning of the names. A few of these we 
can identify with those on the surveyer's chart. 

Dangerous Rocks BS ^ Hien Tsiau, 

Great Splendid i^^A Ti Lieh, 

Small Splendid /h ^A Si4u Lieh, 

Happy Pearl m ^ Kih Pei, 

Pearl ^ Pei, 

Vacant Shell ^^ fS Rung Koh, 

Crooked Pearl i§^ ^ W4n Pei, 

Great Aunt ^* ^ K6 Poh, 

North White Sand ^t 6 ?]? Pch P«»» Shi, 

South White Sand ^ ^6 t^ N4n Peh Sh4, 

White Sand JiJ? Peh Shi 

Centre Dome T ^ Chung Tun, 

Small Granary ^'M Si^u Tsang, 

Great Granary 7^M T4 Tsing, 


StnKng Directions for the PangM. 


Small Passage Head 

Blue Post 

Saw Teeth 

Dashing Lake 



Four Horns 

Water Basin 




Fragrant Farnace 

Ship's Sails 


Tiger's Well 

Horse Saddle 

Iron Anfil 

Half Flats 

Eight Shades 


Eastern Felicity 

Western Felicity 

In writing these names, we commenced at 
ed southward : this fact may in some degree 




SUu Mun Tin, 

L&n Pan, 

Tsang Kii Chif, 

Pang H6, 


Tiu Kin. 

Sz' Kiok. 

Tang Pwin, 




Hi^ng L(i, 

Chuen Pung, 

Kf Lung, 

Hfi Tsing. . 


Tieh Chin, 

Pwin Ping, 

Pah Chau, 

Tsing tsl, 

Tung kih, 

Sf kih. 
the north and proceeds- 
indicate their position.] 

The PanghiJ, or Pescadore Archipelago consist of twenty-one inhabit- 
ed islands, besides several rocks. They extend from latitude 23* 13' 
to 23'' 48' N.; and from 119" 16' to 119" 37' E. longitude. Their 
general appearance is flat, the summits of many of the islands being 
nearly level, and no part of the group 300 feet above the sea. The 
two largest islands are situated near the centre of the Archipelago, 
forming an extensive and excellent harbor between them. The west- 
ern island of the two (Fisher's island*) is five miles from north to 

* In a eoUection of voyagei in Dutch published in 1726, Fisher'f iflan4 
it called D'Vister't island. 

952 Sailing pireetions for tke PangM. June, 

■outh, a.r)d 3^ miles from east to west. On its SW. extreme is a 
Light-house 225 feet above the sea. 

To enter the harbor pass half a mile to the southward of the Light- 
house point, and then steer £. } N. for Macon, whioh is situated op 
the north side of an inlet on Panghu, and will be readily recogniped 
by a citadel and line of embrasures. The large junks, waiting for a 
favorable wind to take them to Formosa, lay to the S W. of the town 
in 7 and 8 fms. water, with a black rock, which is midway between 
Fisher's island and Macon, bearing about N£. by N. lu the Plover 
we ran into tl^e inner harbor to the eastward of Macon , passing be- 
tween it and Chimney point, and anchored with the latter bearing N. 
54* W. distant six cables, which is also the width of the channel here. 
The junks belopging to the place lay close to the town, in a creek 
which runs back to the northward of the citadel. There is water 
sufficient for a square rigged vessel, but the harbor there b much 
confined by coral reefs. 

Dangers to he avoided on entering the harbor. The only dangers, 
on entering the harbor by this passage, are a shoal with only nine feel 
upon it at low water, which lays NW. ^ W. from the centre of Smali 
Table island. Its SW. extreme, having 4 fms. water, bears N. 50* 
W. 1.1 mile from the south end of Small Table, and its N£. limit 
bears N. 55* W. from the north point of the same island. The 
western limit bears S. 65* W. from Dome island. 

Dome island lays N. by E. } p. 1^ mile from Small T^ble island, 
and bus a reef which is just awash at high water five cables to the 
westward of it. It is 2^ cables from the SW. end of Panghii. 

Flat Island. Tq tbe northviri^rd of Dome island is Flat island, 
which is two cabl^ to the westward of the Chimney p^ipt, ^nd is 
snr^ounded by reels which ei^^nd a cal>le's length frqm high water 
mf^rk. Shoal water extends northerly ^ of 4 ^Mp ^^om Chimney 
point, on which is the old Dutch fort. 

The inner harbor rucis back three milea tp the eastward of tl^e Chim« 
ne; point : there are four coriU patches iq it, which are awaal^ at low 
W^ter spring tidea and may always be detected from the mast-head in 
tim^ to avoid them. The westernmost bears from the Chimney point 
S. ^9* E. and from the £(ome Hill (a rem^kable elev^tioin in the 
S9i|^thern part of the harbor) ^f. 14* W. Op the a^me bearing from the 
Chimaey fort, and 2^ cables f^'^her to the eastwi^'d, is another patch, 
9Q whJQ^ the Oome Hill bears S. And with the Dome Hill S. 5* ^f. 
and the Dutch fort N. 48* W. is another r^ef : — also with the fort 
bearing N. 49* W. and the Dome Hill S. 32* W. is a fourth shoal. 
They are all small in extent and steep to. 

1345; Sailing Directions for the PangM. 253 

The Chimney or Dutch fort, above alluded to, is on the southwest 
point of Panghrj, which in some places is barely a cables length 
broad, and so loi^ that a vessel in this part of the harbor might be 
$red into from one outside. 

Panghu extends 9.6 miles from north to south, and seven miles 
frpfD E. to W'., it is however separated into three portions by narrow 
^l^ftl^nels, which h^ve only two feet at low water, and are further block- 
ed l^y stone wi^rs. Th^ whole of the western face of the island is 
fronted by coral reefs. WM^r wi^ obtained from wells; the three 
whlPh we use<i yielded three tons daily. Bullocks and fish were 
^pi^sonable and plentiful. 

SkfMer in the NE. monsoon in the Light-house Bays. Vessels in 
a portheast gale, seeking shelter will find smooth water between the 
)^igl|t-house and the S£. point of Fisher's island, where there are two 
san4y (^^y^f ^^ ^^^ northern of which is a fort or line of embrasures, 
fn^ in the soathern is a run of water except during the dry season. 

P(^k rack,— The SE. point of Fisher^s Island is a bold pliff 170 
feet above the sea, N. 54"* E. 1} mile from which is the BUck rock, 
part of which is ^ways uneovered. Vessels passing to the north 
^a{|twur() of it must keep withip four cables, as the coral patches 
extend in this direction from Panghq. \ 

flfs^s Isl^i^, — ^The const line of Fisher's Island trends north 
f|[9m the Sp. point, forming several small bays,, which are steep tf# 
within a cable of the beach, Mptil yp\i are 2i mil^ north of the 8E. 
poip^, when the reefs extend nearly three cables. To avoid which the 
fall of the SE. point must not be brought to the southward of S. 14* 
W. after Macqn citadel opens to the aprthward of the Black rock. 

Xh^ Plpver lay beyond this point in 3 fms., with the {Hack rock 
liearing S. 19* E. iipd the higheoit part of Centre island £. } N. In 
the bay i|breast of her was a good stream of fresh water. 

'^^e harbor ^yond this poipt is much choked with coral patches. 
These is ^ pipage put to the northward between Fisher's island and 
Panghu for vessels pf sixteen feet draught, to render it available 
hpweifer local i^nowled^e is neceai»ary. "^ 

Coral reefs extending from Panghii — To avoid the coral reefs 
which extep4 from th.e shore pf Panghu, do not stand futher over on 
that side than to bri^g the Black rocks SSW. 

SheUer in the southerly monsoon, to thjt nort^yfqrd of FHsher*s 
IsUpkd. — Shelter from southerly winds will be found in the bay form- 
ed by the northern ends of Fisher's island and PanghCi. The NE- 

^4 Sailing Dirtctions for the Panghu. Junk, 

point of the former is a table bluif, wfth reefs which cover at high 
water extending two cables north, easterly from it. 

Tortolit rock, — ^Thia rock, which is 2.1 miles from the NW. point 
of Fisher's, is nine feet above high water and is steep to. There is a 
shoal patch of two fms. bearing S. 10** W. 0.7 mile from it, when on 
it the NE. point of Fisher's island bears N. 36* W. On the western 
face of Fisher's island is a reef which breaks at low water seven 
cables from the shore, which bears N. 14'' £. from the Light-house. 

Northern part of the Archipelago.^^The Archipelago, to the 
northward of Fisher's island and Panghu, does not afford any induce* 
ment for a vessel to enter it. The external dangers therefore will 
only be noticed. 

Sand Island. N. SS*" £. from the Tortoise rock is Sand island, 
which will be known by a hummock which rises on the low land in 
the centre of the island ; off its SW. end is a rock and the reeft 
extend north westerly three cables from it. To the east of it half a 
mile is a flat black island, and to the north of it a cluster of stones, 
some of which are always above water. 

Low Island. Low island bears E,NNE. from Sand island. A 
long sandy point forms its southern extreme. From the north point 
the shoal water extends three miles. 

North Island, North island^ which is nearly connected by reefs 
with Low Island, is one and a half mile from the north point of it, 
and has a house for the shelter of fishermen on it. 

North Reef The northern extremity of the reef uncovers at low 
water, and bears from N. 29"* W. to N. 9*" W. from North island dis- 
tant L4 mile, from its west extreme which is steep to (for the lead 
gives no warning) Sand island bears S. 20** W. also from the west 
pointof I«ow island rock extend towards the north reef. Sand island 
must not be brought to bear to the westward of S. by W. Until the 
west point of Low bears to the eastward of £. by S. There is a shoal 
patch N. 19"* W. from Sand island and west from north island, on 
which however we did not find less than five fms. Shelter from 
southerly winds will be found to the northward of these reeb and 
Low island. 

Northeast Sand Island, From the northeast end of lk>w island, 
NK Sand island bears SE. by S. five miles. It is a small islet with 
a sand patch on its south cliff and is surrounded with rocks, being 
nearly connected with th,e two islands to the south of it. The 
southern of which has a large village on it. ' 

Organ Island, S. IG"* E. three miles from NE. Sand island is 

1645. Saiiing Directions for ike Pangkd, 255 

Organ island ; there is a reef bearing N. 37"* E. one mile from it : 
when upon it NE. Sand Island bears N. 34** W. 

Ragged Island. Ragged island bears SE. by E. 1.2 mile from 
Organ island. The whole of the east coast of Panghu opposite to 
these five islands is shoal. 

Rmmd Island and Triple Island. The eastern extremity of Pang- 
hfi is a low shelving point; 1^ mile from which is Round island bear- 
ing from Ragged island S. 20* E. 3.6 miles, and S. 6** E. t.3 mile 
from Ragged is Triple island. N. 59" W. from Tripplet and 8. 45** 
W. from Round, is a reef which covers at half tide. And between 
Round and Organ islands are several over falls. The SE. point of 
Pangh(i bears S. 52"" W. from Triple island. Between the two 
are two bays with fishing villages, either of which would afford 
tolerable shelter in the northerly monsoon. 

Qreat Table Island. It b aptly named, the summit being a dead 
flat 200 feet above the sea; not far from the SW. end is a sudden 
fall nearly to the level of the sea, giving it at a short distance the 
appearance of two islands ; it is not quite two miles in an K by N. 
and W. by S. direction, and is seldom three cables in width. Towsrds 
the NE. end was a good run of water in the month of June. The 
two fathoms line extends two cables from its eastern extreme. 

Small Table Island* Small Table lays a mile to the NE. of it ; 
between the two there is from 12 to 19 fms. water, snd the distance 
from Small Table to the south point of Panghu is 2.6 miles with 
from 2 to 32 fms. water. 

Directions for avoiding the shoal off- Small Table island have 
already been given. 

West Island. From Great Table island West island bears S. e^^ 
W. 10.5 miles, snd from the light-house on the south end of Fisher V 
island S. 40" W. 12. It is two miles in circumference and uneven* 
in appearance. 

. High Island. South of West island 4| miles tB High island r. 
which is dome shaped, 300 feet high and f of a mile in circum- 
ference. To the eastward of it one mile n a low flat island ; be- 
tween the two are several rocks, one of which- rises to the height of 
60 feet with a remarkable gap in it, and S. 51" E. 1.7 mile from the 
summit of High island is a rock nearly level with the water's edge., 

Sauih Island. South island is two miles from E. to W. and<^ 
from N. to S.; the depth of water in its vicinity is 15 and 16 fathoms.^ 
On its SW. side is a reef of rocks extending six cables from the 
9hore^ within which is a small harbor for boate. On its eastern face 

2d6 SaiUng Diteclions for ih^ PangH, JuIve, 

ixt bold zV\fk, The western extreme is a long^ shelving point. TIM 
highest part of the island is 260 feet aboTe the sea. Prdm it HigN 
islahd bears NW. ^ N. nine mtle^. Re^f island NB. by £. ^ E. six 
fnile9. Ea^t island E. by N. twelve itiilds. 

Ruf Island, Reef islands are three in number, one of which ii^ 
a I'einarkable pyramid. The other two are rather more than a mile 
eaeh in circumference, and are counedted at low water by a stony 
)edge. To the southward of them the reefs extend half a ihtle. 
Sottth from the east end of the Eai^ isltod of the twa is a pyramidal 
rock 80 f<tei above the sea. Therd is also a low flat rock ndarly 
level with the water's edg^. S. ^ W. 1 .0 nfrile from the same place^ 
and S. 45** E. ffoin the east end, is a small peaked rock with a reef 
to th^ southward of it. 

East Island, East island lays east of Reef island 8.2 mites, fle^ 
tween the two and distant from the (after 5.2 miles is a smaller ishhid 
1.6 mile in circumference, with a reef extending easterly, not quitd 
m mile from itif north point. East island \t 2.4 miles in circumference^ 
and has a smalf islet live <5able8 from its western shore. 

Nms foot ruf. The Nine foot reef bears N. 19"" E. from the E. 
^fwd of East island ; when on it the Dome hiU on Panghtf bears N; 
73^ W. 10.7 miles. Triple island N. 29^ W. 4.1 milei. Tbe levd 
^ifvcia no warning, but if there is any tide the rippid wilf b6 saffifcient 
to indicate its position. 

Rtrnvr Chrimp, The Rover Group is composed of two larger islandii 
arid several rocks. The western of the two is two miles from' N. td 
1^. and one firom Ea to W. The iummit is near the elisfem shore, ifnd 
^ises like a dome with a large pile upon it SW. from it 2.6 nnMi 
is the end of a reef, which extends westerly from the soutK ^int of 
Ihe island. Its extreme! shows at att tiitoee of fide. TMMf is also i 
fock un(fer the highest part of the iHlMd, bearing S, 70* W. froiA It,- 
imo cables from the shore. The NW. point of the island itt- ncM^ 
Mtfepto, aiiifd off the NE; point is a roek whieh wilt alwaiyv slidw. 
There is a channel! between it and the pbint. 

ThiB distance between the E. aiid W. islands is barely t 6Kbld 
wide, the foi^mer ts a mile from N. to S. and 1.4 mile from E. 
Co W. Oki its NW. face afe twt> islets*; In the bay to the sonthw^rtf 
of the ^uthfefrn a sntali vessel mighc ta(ke shelter in a northdrly wind,: 
taking the precaution noil to stand too far in, as there is only sii fi^et, 
two cabfetf from the beach. On^fhe WeAt etfd of the island, which is 4 
eliff, tre three cfmbrasuTea*. Having patedd betw^^en the two islands, 
kr doing whieli thd westchrn isiafid ^hiould be kdpi en bcfaT^^ a small 



Sailing Dirtrtions far the PahgM. 


rock in the centre of the channel to the southward will be seen. Pass 
to the eastward of it; but the channel is narrow, and the only 
excuse for a stranger using it would be his being caught at anchor 
to the northward of the two islands in a breeze from the northward, 
and unable to fetch clear either to the eastward or westward. 

The west point of the east island is remarkable from an isolated 
cliff 100 feet hif^h, which forms the most striking feature in the 
group ; seven cables to the westward of which is a ledge of rooks, part 
of which is always above water. The islands are sufficiently large 
to afford shelter in either monsoon. The general depth of water on 
the southern shore is 7 and 8 fathoms, and on the northern 13 and 
14. From the highest part of the Rover Group, the Light^house 
bears N. by W. 10^ miles. The Reef islands bear S. 8* E. 3.3 miles 
from the same place. The general depth of water on the western 
side of the Archipelago is 30 and 35 fathoms ; there are however 
some places in which there is as much as 60. To the eastward of 
the Group the depth is 40 fathoms, and the current is strong. The 
tides are muoh affected by the prevailing winds; so much so that 
duHng the month of August we sometimes experienced a tide of four 
knots per hour on the flood, running to the northward, whilst witb 
the ebb the current slackened for two- and there hours, but seldom ran 
with any- velocity from the northward.^ Oh the whole a person na- 
vigating in this neighborhood may safely allow, that the effect of the 
current and tide together will set him, according to the prevailing 
monsoon, seventeen^ miles- in one ti()e.' 

Astronomical Positions. 

' ' HAMIt.' 

SPOT. ' 


• .J . . 


1 ' 

Obiervstory - -< 

l^cood poinLon nor^h 
side inner harhoc 


:£2:9. N. 

119* Z\}'M E. 





119 30:6 




119 34:7 

South Isl&nd 




119 83:4 

High Island 

Highest Part 



119 16.-8 

EsM lil^sd 

Santh Pomt 



119 36:6 

West Island 

Highest Part 



119 16:5 

Nine foot reef 



199 41:6^ 

Tftple Island 

HighfBit Part 



V19 39:6 

N.£. Sand Island 




119 36:2 

Tortoise Rock ' 


- 40!9^ 

n9 27: 

NotAhRtef! : . 

■ .. . , . . * - , . 


47,7 . 

m 38ir 

North laland 

Highest Part 



119 33.3 



258 Sailing Directions for the Coast of China. June, 

■^ :. . ., t . . . . . ; : 

Art. IL Sailing ^tfireetions for the coast of China; from the 
Capt of Good Hope. ^o Amoy. By.capt, Richard Collinson^ 
c. B.. JF\rom..the Hongkong Register , and revised by capt. 

^ • 1 

Capb 0/ Gopd Hope. The Cape of Good is in latitude 2^1^. 
N. and longitude 116'' 47^ £., forming the western extremity of the 
baj . ;of ' Namoh : it is 430 feet above the level pfthe .searr^he 
highest part having the appearance of- a dome. The eastern* face 
ptk isateep.tOy and in the bay to the north of it is a green islet, with- 
a patch of rocks between it and the Cape. .■ From it the» WestToint 
of Namoh bears Nfl. by N. 14^mrles,and the SW. part of the La- 

loook islands ^. ^- E. 24^' miles.. 

- Cotujs.leti . Nofth frqiB t))e"€ape 2^ miles is Cone islet, which ia 

distant from the mainland five cables; and S. by E. four cables from 

Cbhe islet is a square^rock,. having a reef, which shows at low water 

twdicabltis tQitbe westward of it;* v-Rocks extend from the points on 

the main 'opposite -to these .two: i^Iets^, a^id in the channel there ia 

three fajhomjlat Jqw \v.atQn n- t: .,, I i ;• , . ;» 

' St$gar Zaq/^.' {ifo^niCon^ islet the .coast trends NW. by ^(. threes 

miles to Sugar; Loaf island)— from.the N£L ' point of- which, there .is. a 

reef extend mgr^ne-pable^'! . . -r-- '•, - •-. '»- • • i' » • 

-:: River Man^.) >Froa^. the Sugar iLoaf tha coast ,tren^^ westward^ 

being the entrance to the River. H^u. which has 2^ fms. over the Bai| 

at low water. ...:,- -., • . 

—Intending to enter it, steer so as to pass two cables to the. east 

of Double island (which bears NW. by N^ f of a mile from Sugar 

Loaf); having passed it, the course is west for the town of^Shantau, 

which is upoh the -north bank bf -the river and four miles from 

Double island : half a mile to the SE. of the .town, there is- a depth 

of 6 fms. an<f at low water, the water is fresh in the rainy season.* 

The chnnnel ' between Double islet and the niain to the northward 

is five cables wide, the' mud ^extending six cables from that shore 

which ts lowvr : ^i-s ■' - r.. 

Sfi Joa^im's BaMey St. '^Joachim's blink is ah extension of this 
flat southeasterly. Th^ spttthern edge in two fms, bears-east from 
Double island two miliks, afhd it turns to the northward when the 
Pagoda bear»N» 27' E. A good guide,- to steer clear of it in a 

* Shantau is the sea port of Chinhai liien, from which it is distant about 2 
miles. The country in this vicinity is very highly cultivated. Tobacco and 
the sugar cane were growing very luxuiiiently. 

1845. SaiUnff t>irtct\Qns for ike Coast of China. 259 

Teasel of 14 feet draught, is to keep Brig island open of the east end 
of Fort island. - , « . • ^ ? 

: Pagoda. The Pagoda .beans N. S* E. 10} miles from the Cape 
of Good Hope. The land in. its .neighborhood is salow that when 
first made, it appears like an island. . .: ; > 

',:■ Fvrt Island liea-NE) by EL two miles: from the: Pagoda. The. fort 
is on the -table land at its west extreme.: ro 

Knolls at the western entrance to Namoh^ S. 68^7 E. from the 

Pagoda 4} miles, .and witkiihe west. point of Namoh iniine with 

iBreftker island bearing N.. 36** &, there was fprmeriyi a shoal with 

;only: eleiren feet at low water; at present, August 1844, tther^nre se- 

;yeral knoU^,. none of ..which. hpwever have less than I'i- feet ^ .. ^.j 

The following are their bearings. The .west point, of; I^^amoh in 

lipe- with;|Breaker. island is the mark for three^. The western upon 

.that line bears from the Pagoda S. 56" E.|.andiias a depth of 13 fe^t 

.atlpw water. Another bears S. W^ E- from the PagQda,'With i7:,fe^t. 

A. third' bears^ east from the. Pagpdi^^ rwith 18 feet. . And.with the 

■ Pagoda bearing. N.. 79"* W. and the west point of Namoh N.'d^tl^., 

there is a patch with 18 feet. .. Also with the Pagoda -bearing; w^st 

.and the west point of Namoh N.. 23"* W., is a knoll which ihi^spnly 

,14, feet: all- these are sand,- and will probably be found. ;to ; shift in 

coRtfequence of the /freshes from- the mouths of the River l}an, 

1 Brig' island. Brig island (so called from a rock at. its spulhern 

.extremity which, appears like .a brig; when seen in an east or west 

direction) lays NE. by E. j^ E. 4 miles from Fort island,, the depth 

. of < water varying. from 5 to 2^ fms. between the two, the. most wat^r 

^ being towards the. former. . . ::*-::: : 

Baylis* Bay. Baylia' Bay. is the first bay on the north side of 
.Namoh to the eastward of the.west point, and has a Chinese fort on 
the ridge to the westward of it and an outwork on the beach.; 

There are three knolls off the bay, bearing from the upper fort 
as'follows.: — 1st. N.. 78° W. rather less than a cable. from the fort 
point, having only five feet over it. 2d.. N. 43' W. ond cable from 
the point and nine feet upon it at low water. 3d. N. 36'' W. 2.^ ca- 
.bles from the same: point; when upon this, Brig island summit hears 
Nw 40''> W.. and Fort island summit S. 75''- W. ^ It has eleven feet at 
. low -water. > . /icn - :"•: .-.: .'-.:(. , -.- y ■. 

.. During the. northern monsoon the ppium veRse!s anchor off this 
bayy remaining here from [October to May. In the other monsoon 
they lay 1^ mile further to the east, as 4he sweU setting round the 
point renders this anchorage inconvenient. - • 

260 Suiting Directions for the Coast of China. JoNii, 

^ From Baylis' Bay a bank commeneea which extendi 2^ mfles aioag 
the N W. coast of Namoh ; the greatest distance from the shore is four 
cables, which is opposite to Stewart's boase, off which is the sammer 
anchorage : the lead gives no warning, and there is only nine feet on 
the edge of the bank. 

The tide at springs runs at the rate of foiir knots, the ebb coming 
from the eastward. It is high water on full and change days, at 
II o'clock, rise seven feet. ' 

-Tbtfse two anchorages must be considered more as^ safe Road- 
steads than harbors, as from the velocity of the tide and the. fetch 
'froRl the sea« boats laden would frequently have much ^litBeulty in 
passing to and fro. Water may be procured with great facility, and 
th^re was no difficulty iti obtaining fresh provisions. ' 

Foiksione Reek. — ^The Folkstone Rook has only five feet Upon it 
at low water. The bearings from it are; the Bfig rock in line 
with the NW. head of Fort islands. 63* W.; Coffin's island, the 
largest of a cluster of islets three miles north of Brig island, N. 44"* 
W.; and the flag staff of Steward's house is in line with a while 
washed rock at the back of it bearing S. 11" E. 

The leading mark, Brig Rock, in line with Fort island, will keep 
•4 vessel clear of the shoal ^ whidhextendir nearly all the way from 
Brig island to Breaker. Thiilatter bears from the fdfm^ N. 6S* E. 
•4.S miles and is a peaked rock, witb several others about it, which 
must not be approached nearer than two cables upon their western 
side. Opposite to Breaker, the coast line of Namoh trends the SB. 
forming a deep- indentation, which i» shoal with two islets and seve- 
ral rocks in it. The land at the bottom of the bay is low, and* it is 
only one mile across to the southern side of the island. 

JSkoai east of Breaker. To the eastward of Breaker the south- 
ern edge of the shoal, from the north shore in three fathoms, h^wfs 
east three miles from it. 

Pagoda Bay. The Pagoda bay is seven miles to eastward of 
Breaker ; there is a walled town nt the bottom of the bay, which is 
the residence of the magistrate of the district. 
" Vetoeis drawing less than three fins, may bring the Pagoda to 
bear E. by N., buc during thenortheiiy monsoon, Challum bay will 
be found a more eligtMe anchorage, as with a northeasterly breeze 
there is a considerable swell into the former, and from Challunr bay 
you are able to avail' yourself ef the land wind, which usually draws 
to the northward in the morning. 

Challum hay. To enter k, pass within » mile to the westward 

184& Sailing Directions far the Coast of China. 261 

of Middle islet which is a barren rock, bearing N. 60^ E. 5.3 miles 
from Breaker^ or do not shut Back Bay island in with Entrance 
isltnd, which will prevent your standing into less than 2^ fms. upon 
the western shore. 

Enirance Island bears NW. 2.4 miles from Middle islet. The 
anchorage is between the two, in from 3 to 6 fms. The bay north 
of Entrance island is shoal and there is a reef extending three cables 
from the 8W. point of Challum island, the latter lays north 1] mile 
tfmo Middle islet. 

Should yon pass to the eastward of Middle islet it mast be within 
liite cables, as there is an eleven feet patch between it and the Fort 
Head, bearing from the former N. 48** E. 

Under Fort Heid is a rock nearly level with the water's edge at 
high water, and also one in the bay between it and Point Difficult, 
9therwise the coast line here is steep to. 

: Ptfimt Dijficult. Point Difficult has a square fort upon the highest 
pasK of the hills over it, and ad islet to the eastward of it. 

- Tmiuxio Rock, The Temate Rock with one foot upon it lays N. 
78* E. 1.3 mile from the summit of this islet; on which bearing it is 
i» Kflfe with the third and last sandy hill oA the northern part of the 
tange extending. fr6m Fort Head. The Pagoda island in line with 
Namoh High Peak will place you to the eastward of it. 
' The North point of Namoh has a doidble peak over it, aikd forms 
tte^eastern boundary of the Pagoda bay : roeke extend from its 
Nfi. face three cables^ The land then trends immediately to the 

-/ 'Simik coast of Namoh. The southern cotst of Namoh runs 
frisni the west point nearly due east< five miles, where there w a smaH 
bay with a Pagoda upon its eastern point. This portiion of the 
island corresponds with the bay opposite to Breaker on the northern 

Somih Baif. South bay hys four mil^ to the eastward of the Pago- 
dft bay, and will afford good shelter in the NE. monsoon. Rocks 
extend 1} cable southerly from the point. 

Vetels of 18 feet draught nliay run into this bay until the end of 
the point bears SE. 

Orah Islet. Five and a half cfibles to thd SE. of the point, is a 
Jow' flat isle«, called Crab islet by the Chinese. T'h6 channel between 
it and Namoh-has foul ground. One and three tenths of a mile to 
the eastward of South bay point is a bold bluff, with three tall chin^ 
nevs on ic, which is the southern extremitv of the island. 

*262 Sailing Directions for the Coast of China, JbNi^ 

Lamock Islands, The Lamook islands are foar in number, and 
two patches of rocka extending in a N£» .and SW. direction .7} 
miies. The southwestern part of the group is two square rocks, about 
the size of boats with several detached reefs between them. The 
White rock lays NE .1.4 mile fr6m them, and is sufficiently large to 
afford shelter to the, fishing boats. Between the White rock and the 
High Lamock the distance is three miles,..affording a safefchtnnel, 
the depth of water varying from eight to fourteen fins. Hig^ Lamock 
island is 250 feet above the sea, and thickly covered^ with. brushwood. 
Thevchannel .between it and the: next, island ia 1.3. mile;, between 
the. t WO' is a rock* with. a reef, which, shows at low water,, extending 
southerly from it, .]-[ i m .:• :i ^ -i^^ju ,r. .,i 

The. three northern, islets lay close together ; thei northern; one is 
without vegfstfition,^ and has a pyramid upon it. The course from th^ 
southern end of the Lamock to the west point of Namoh isrNW.:.^ 
W., 22^ miles, ai|d from the NE. end. of them the east point of 
Namoh bears NW. 13^ miles. From the same point .the southeastern 
Brother ^ bears N. 56" E. 25^ miles, .and Jokakko. point N, ^V: E. 
19J miles. • . -^ l.i :. . : 

Between the Lamock isl^ds and Namoh are four islets j the nwrtb- 
ern of which is the highest, and from its appearance is called Dome 

islet. . . . .;■... .1. ■,: .ji.; !•:?.'(. ..•■ J'li ..;.'.:. . .'.<:l'£t'\ 

The twofouthern islets lay nearly E. and W. of each other^ The 
southeastern, or ReeC islet, has a reef of rocks extending . southerly 
one. mile from it, from the south end of which the Southwest islet 
bears N. SV W W. L..t;v -no. 

..The western islet is lower than: the others and flat. ; its SWr* ex- 
treme, open of the west end of Southw>eist islet, is. a good- mark for 
avoiding the above reef. r. j'^ -t r n • _ .^ ;•'• ./ •'. 

1 Sinia is a rock with two feet water on it, bearing S. 3S° E.AA 
miles from Dome islet. When on it the SW. extreme of Reef islet is 
4n line, with the centre of west or low islet,. bearing N. 67*^ SO' W. 
SW. islet summit bears N. T^"" W.; east point of Namoh N. 10** SOT 
W.; southern rock of the La mocks S. 28** E.;, north end of the 
l.amocks Easti; and the highest point of the Lamocks is S. 7It E. 

Yxngkanta is another rock, awash at low water,. 4|: mileaito the 
north of Sinta. /When upon it; ithei northern end of Crah islet,' on 
theisouth fac^ of Namoh, is in line with the SW. poiot.of Nlimoh, 
^bearing N. 77^W.; Dome island bears S. 74* 30' W.; Re€f island 
^.i51" 30" W.v High Lamook S. 37* j^.;, and east end df Namoh N. 
29* W. The north point of Namoh, seen clear of the eastern point, 
leads you north of it. 

1645. Sailing Directions for the Coast of China. 263 

Ritf between Dome Island and Namoh. There is also a patch' 
of rocks which show at half tide, between Dome island and Namoh. 
beilring from the former from N. 12'" to N. 2V £. one mile. The 
chimney Bluff on Namoh bears N. 33*" W. from them. They are 
rather 'niore than a mile from the Namoh shore. Mr. Anderson, mas^ 
ter of the sir Edward Ryan, also informed me of a reef which he-saw 
wh^n in cdmmand of the ^Times schooner, to* the =NE. of the La- 
mocksVii^hi^h'hedesfcrrbed as being just ^wash, the bearing placed it 
with all the Lamoeksiii one and three miles from the* northern rock. 
W*?h'6wever conld not find it ' > ' * ' ^' . > 

* '^Jkehieu/' Ghelsieu is a cluster of (bur rocks, which are always 

■ f ... 

Abore ir^ler, bearing east from the north point of Namoh seven miles. 
- DToyu. FromUheni N. 36' W. 3} miles, is Dioyu, a reef which 
is- fust awash at high ' water. The Pagoda, in Pagoda bay, in line 
with the Saddle Peak which overlooks the western side' of Pagoda 
Bay^ih Namoh, bearing {9.''63' W. will lead yoi» to the northward of 
it, Should high tides and smooth water prevent. its being- seen. 
I 'ij^fjU^s di the extern extremity of Namoh. - The flood tide enters 
at the'ifeasti^rn as Well as at the westemend of Namoh, but the tides 
in the 'neighborhood of Pagoda bay are not so strong as they are at 
tiie'werterh'e^cUeniity of the island: i // • 

General description vf Namoh, Namoh is' 12 miles from E. to 

f.-w .. ... 

W.^hdBjr miles from- north to south at its eastern extremity, whtcb 

' . '■■» .... .*. 

is iTs b¥dadest part. Notwithstanding its barrenness it is exceedingly 
pbpftt)oiis, the bccnpation of fishing affording a livdihoodto the great?* 
er portion of the inhabitants. The peaks, of which' there are three; 
rise to the height of 1700 and 1900 feiet above the sea, foi*ming the- 
inbst promineht'Fa'ndmarks in ithe neighborhood-. 

Si.^ and a half miles ENE.ofPoint Difficult is a shallow bay, witlt 
a Pagoda on an inland within it :' the botmdary of the Canton and 
j^fikien provinces "passes through this bay. "-■'■'■■ 
' - Chduan^ Bay,^ The West Point of Chauan Bay (which is the 
eastern point of the bay mentioned above) has a smalt Islet oflT its 
south extreme. This bay may be useful duriiig the SK monsoon; 
butfn the'NE. vessels should endeavor to rteach OWick bay, which 
is seven* miles further- to the eastward, as the other^runs far enough 
bafcV it) the NE. \b^ allow an awkwk'rd^ sea to arise. At the entrance 
islTmiddle gfoTindwith 2| and 3 frhs., thie south end ofwhich' bearA 
N. 80" W. frotii'east CWauan poinY; the west end^S. 11"* E. from 
Pagba'a Wy,"antfthls easf'ehd ^^^^ 

'Three'cables from the SW. point of square islet' (the southemv 

364 Saiiing Diteciions /cir the Cotut 0/ China. JunKi 

most islet in the bay) is a reef awash at low water.. When upon it 
the east point of Chauan bay bears. S. 60* R and the west end of 
Sqiiare island N. 83" E. The shoal water also extends 1.1 mile from 
the NW. side of the bay, which will be detected by the diccolored 
water. Anchorage in six fms. will be foand with the centre of Square 
island bearing SE. and further up the bay in three fms. with the 
South end of High island in line with the e^st point of the bay« 
between High and Square islands and the east point pf Chauan bay- 
the phannels ^e top narrow foe square rigged Tassels. !.; i v 

Owiek Bay. Owiek or Psyche bay lays three miles tp t^e eas^pf 
E^st Chauan point. It is protected by a nai'row isthmus with two 
rocks off its pouth extreme, the end of which may be brought tp 
bear SE. where a ves^l will have pmooth water in 3^ ffns. . Imi^e- 
diately to the east of Owiek bay is a remarkable sand hi|l| which 
will point out its position. 

Jakakftq Ptak, ^ok^kkp Peak is the higher part of th^ li^d at: 
the back of Owiek b^y, and is coniciil shaped. Bell ialand layi^ thre^ 
iniles to the east of Owiek b^y point,, and i> perforated, ^t its ^uth 
end,T which will be qaen on aSE. or N W. bearing. Ther^ is a smaller 
islet between it and Jpkakkp Point, making the channel fi?e caU^ 
wide, in the centre of which there is only 9^ fms.; fro^i Bell island « 
fjiesoiittieaft Brother heart S. 82* SIT E,,|5^mil^ v 

On Jpkakko point is an isolated hill N. by E. 1^ ppiie froin BeU 
island, off it a^® two. islands, Cliff islam) bearing SE* by E. one mile 
and Square Head N. 76" E. 1.7 mile. T|te chau&el between them 
and the Point is safe. , .\ 

Cbnf Peak. . N. 30** £. from Jokakka point ia Cone Peak, witb 
a peaked rock off its eastern point. The land between the two u| 
fK sandy plain, verj little above high water level, ^l^e. distance across 
wbicli to the bottom of Chailun^ bay is only If nileu . : ^ 

Brothers, The southeastern Brother is the larger of the two. and 
kes a reef extending nprth westerly from i^ . Tl^ isletrare 2)^ miles 
apart, bearing SE. } E. and^W. ^ ytT. fr'pm each othei^ the. norths 
western baa s remarkable, square top. ^ 

Tirngsm Jffarb&r. Toiigsan Harbor is oiie of the best upon 
ihe coast of CfhvMf and will be eaaiiy Tecogq,iaed by a remarka^ble 
|ieak " FaJl Peak," ineHia^g apmething (ike a axddle, but with a 
deeper indentation; and irppfi the ial.aod at theentraoce iaa pagoda^ 
whieh bears from t^be 9Eh Brpther N. SS"" W.^ 1,4^ qfiiles. 

There is a mi^d bank <imtaide« having Ipr ita leaal water 3} fatfaams^ 
bearing from the pagoda S. 40* E. and from Fall Peak S. 315* W. By 

1845; SaiUng Directions for the Coasi of China. 26& 

keeping the Siiterg, two ialeto in the northern portion of the bey, 
open of the east end of Middle ialeta (the group itnmedietely north 
of Pagoda ialand or Tung^Mtn Ying, ^ |JL| ^,) you will be to 
the eastward of the bank. 

Pagoda island and the eastern shore of the harbor are steep to, 
vntil yon open the low isthmus which connects old Thunder Head 
with F«ll Peak, when the eastern shore becomes shoal ; an4 the lar- 
ger Sister mast not be brought to the westward of N. by W. i W. 

There are also some rocks extending a cable and a half from the 
south point of Middle islet, and a mud bank extending northerly H 
cable from its east point. 

The Plover's first anchorage was in 4^ fathoms, with Fall Peak 
bearing N. 73* £L, and the larger Sister N. 19*^ W. under a long sandy 
poin4 and opposite to a creek. ' Afterwards for the convenience of 
watering, which was readily obtained and that during the dry season, 
sh» was moved under old Thunder Head ; the Fall Peak bearing 
N. 44*" E. and the east head of Middle ialand N. 52** W. << Old 
Thunder Head," by the Chinese, is called KAu4Udu shdfif ^ J^ 
^ ^l|r High-fair-head hill. 

■ Junks anchoring for the tide bring up between the pagoda arid Mid- 
dle islands. In passing to this anchorage care must be taken to avoid 
some rocks extending southeasterly, two cabtes from the £. point of 
the northern part of Pagoda island ; and thie best berth will be found in 
12 fktiioms, when the Sisters are seev througth the western opening of 
-the Middle islands. You must not close the Middle islands nearer than 
two cables, as there is a mud bank extending from them southerly. 
This anchorage is confined, but will be found convenient for a disa- 
bled or an unhandy vessel in case the e'bb tide should prevent her 
reaching the other anchorage; and in (he former case she would be 
nearer to the town of Tungyung, where spars are to be obtained. 

The latter is situated upon a petifinsular opposite to the Pagoda 
island, this channel is not a good one to enter by, as rocks extend 
from both shores narrowing the channel to three cables. 

It is high water at 11.30; rise and fall I2i feet. The b.iy runs 
back N.NW. 11 miles from Middle island, where I think there is a 
river's mouth, the boat baring three fms. water at the farthest point 
reached in the channel, but (hat was very narrow. Also due west 
from Fall Peak there is a boat channel leading into Challum bay. 
The northwestern portion of the bay i« bounded by a range of 
rugged mountains called Greene's Rfiitge, or NiH shan, ^t i|i . in 
proceeding to the eastward, the coast on the eastern side of old 

VOL. XIV. NO. VI. 34 

266 Sailing Directions for ike Coast of China. Junb; 

Thunder Head mast hot be approached within a cable, aa. there 
are three rocks which show at low water along it. 

Rees' Rock. Rees' rock bears S. 65" E. from Fall Peak, distant 
1.7 mile; at spring tides it is covered at high water; when upon it, 
the Chimneys (or, : as the Chinese call them, Md^s^ kung, "fj^ jjij^ 
^, M&tsd'a palace,) on the island which forms Rees' Pass bear 
N. 32" £. the summit of the eastern islet of that group (SE. islet) 
N. 81" E. There is a rook east of it one cable which only breaks at 
low water spring tides. The- channel between Rees' rock and the 
main is used by the junks, butiit is narrow and the ground is foul. 

Rees' Pass. In Rees' pass there is a shoal with 2^ fms. on it at 
1.0W water, three cablte from the shore of Chimney island, bearing 
from the Chimneys S. 78* W. The Plover rode out a very heavy 
gale of wind- ranging from NE. to E. by N. being anchored in six 
fms. two cables from the Black rock at the southern end of the 
sandy bay under the Chimneys ; but I do not think that a vessel will 
gain anything by going through the pass, as immediately on clearing 
the North end of Chimney island,, you are exposed to the same sea 
that you would experience to the eastward of the group. Anchorage 
also will be found under SE. island in five and six fms. with the 
south point bearing east. 

Wreck Island. Wreck island lays six cables to the NE. of SE. 
island ; ofi its eastern end are: several rugged rocks, on the outer of 
which the Stmplicia went to pieces on the 8th.October, 1^44, having 
struck upon a reef which shows at low water, and lays one cable NE« 
of the same rock. In this neighborhood theses rises very rapidly 
after the commencement of a breea^e, and overtops,, leading a seaman 
to suppose that there must be some change in the soundings. 

Danshorgs Island, Dansborgs island lays two miles to the NE. 
of Wreck island. It has three peaks. which are nearly the same 
height and is of an oblong shape, being six cables in a NE. and 
S W. direction, and 2^ in width. To the W.N W. of it at the distance 
of a mile and one mile and four tenths are two smaller islets. 

Ching reef. — ^The Ching reef bears from the western of the two 
N. 19" W. 1.4 mile. It shows at half ebb, and when upon it the 
following are the bearings: — NE. Head of Dansborgs island S. 51"* 
E. The chimneys upon Chimney isld. S. 49" W. The Awota rock 
S. 72** W. Black Head, Hutau sban N. 10^ E. It is of some extent, 
the northeastern rocks which break only at low water being two 
cables from the highest part of the reef. The Awota Rock is called 
by the Chinese ^AtA-yd-wu sz\ >B f|| {Q* i* 

1845; SaiKng Directions for the Coast of China. 5267 

The Goo reef which shows at the last qiiieurter ebb, bears S. 69* 
W. from it. The bearings upon it are-*^he chimneys upon Chim- 
ney isld. S. 41"* W.; Awota rock S. 81" W.; Summit of 'Wreck island 
S. 35*" E. Western islet ofTDansborgs island S. 62'' E.: The Awota 
rock mentioned above laya close to the main, to the NW. of Rees' 
Pass bearing N. 53* W. from Chimney island. 

H&tau shdn Head^ lays six miles north of Dansborgs island. It 
is composed of five' separate hills. The southern of which "^ Black 
Head '' is the roost remarkable. Vessels might ride out a strong 
breeze under it in four fms. at the distance of two cables from the 
shore, particularly if the wind holds to the northward; should how* 
ever a gale eome on, or the wind draw to the eastward, the sooner 
thir anchorage is quitted the better.. 

: Under which circumstances, refuge may: be had by running 
through Rees' Pass, and anchoring close under Chimney island, or 
in .Tungshan harbor. • j .. .i . 

On. the northern of the Five hills is. a walled town :> Hutau shdh 
river has deep water when inside, but it is not available for naviga- 
tion without buoys, as the channels are narrow and intricate; a 9pit 
extends three miles southerly from Hu-tau sk&n, j^ |@ jjj, 3ome 
parts of which are dry at low water, the eastern extreme of it bears 
S. 68* W. from Black head. v . 

' H^taushdn to Red Bay. — ^The coast line from Hritau sh^n to 
Red Bay lays NE. i E.« the distance being 10^ miles, and with the 
exception of one hill and two hillocks is a sandy plain. To the 
astward six cables from Hii^iau shdn^^ point are some rocks, a por^- 
tion of which are always uncovered. 

Spire, To the NE. of the point i&. a rock with a remarkable 
square column on (it ".Spire" ai^d a low flat rock to the westward. 
N. by E. one mile from Spire is cHeft rock, which must not be ap* 
proached within three cables, aa- reefs . lay off it to the east and 
northeast. •.«';; 

Nob Rock. Nob rock bears from Black Head east, and from the 
east head of Red Bay S. 15'' W. being 5} miles from the nearest 
shore; it is steep to. 

•Red Bay. ; In. workings up to Red iBay from the southward, care 
must be taken- to. avoid a reef, flaying six cables N. by E. from the 
low hill on the shore, three mibes tL»^he southward of the anchorage. 
When upon the reef, the eastern*. BUck rock bears N. 53** E. By 
tacking when the Black rocks are in *one with the point -beyond 
them, you will be one third of a mile to the eastward. Red bay 
is called by the Chinese T.iidng-kiun Tv<av, jj?P S J^, 

268 SaiUng Dirtciions for tke Coast of China. June; 

Red btjr Will be readily known by the two Black rocks off the 
point, as well as by the low Red sand hills at the back of it. . A reef 
extends northwesterly from the southern of the two rocks, learing* 
a passage only for small boats between it and the main at low water 
S. 65** E. seven cables from the southern Black rock is a reef which 
is covered at high water. The anchorage lays between the two and 
the reef has three fms. close to it. The water shoals gradually on 
going in, afler having passed thfe tocks. It will be found a very good 
roadstead in the northern monsoon. There is a village and a creek 
in the bottom of the bay. 

Red Bay to ChiiMi §^^ Bay. From Red bay to Chinh^i 
bay the distance is 17 miles, the coast trending NE. by N. It is steep 
to, with the exception of the NE. point of Red bay, and of some ree& 
mnd a sand spit which lay west from Lamtia, and to the southward 
of a low hill with a house on its summit, where there is a bay in 
which the water runs a long way back, but it is shallow. From Red 
bay. Chapel island bears E.NE. 21^ miles, and Lamtia NE. i E. 10} 

The west point of Amoy bay is three miles NE. by E. from Chiw- 
hai point, between the two, and five cables firom the shore, is a rock 
awash at high water.; and four cables north of the point is a reef^ 
which shews at low water. 

Th6 iaiand of Wtsiiishan bears. N. 17** E. four miles from the 
point, nearly mid way between the two is a rock which is covered at 
high water. From it the High pagoda bears N. ^S** W., the tides 
in ko vicinity are strong, therefore give it a wide birth. 

The distance between Wusiii and Woan (the islet west of it) is 
five cables, forming a secure but somewhat confined anchorage, 
which is now much resorted to. The best passage* is to the north 
of the former, and between it and Chinseao. The water is shoal off 
the northwest point of Wuaiu^ — ^the lead will however give yon 
warning. There are usually a number of fishing stakes which obsp 
tructtheisouthern passage, and it should not be used except with a 
commanding breeae and at slack tide. The centre and eastern 
channels should be preferred to the western. 

In n'avigaiing this portion of the coast during the northeasterly mon- 
soon, the breexe will b6 found to hang to the northward from 2 to 10 
A. M., and in the eastern quart«^4.he remaining period. And deeply 
laden vessels will find it more advantageous to seek shelter in one of 
the harbors or roadsteads above mentioned during a strong north- 
easterly wind, than to keep the sea, as ground can seldom be gained, 
in consequence of the perpendicularity of the seas. 

1845; SaiUng Directions for the Coast of China. 2G9 

£K4 Tan, ^ ^ Bay. Owing to the uncertain set of the currentfi 
in the Formosa channel, several vessels have mistaken this bay for 
the harbor of Amoy. The following remarks will point out the 
difference in the approach. 

The entrtmee to Hu*i Ton and Amoy compared. — Dodd's island 
called by the Chinese Pakting, is in iat. 24** 26^6 N., and long. 
1 18° 29^.4 E., and may be known from Chapel island by a reef 
on which the sea always breaks, three cables to the N.NE. of it ; 
the former also is uneven gradually sloping to the eastward. Chapel 
island rises suddenly, and there is a difficulty in saying which is the 
highest part of it ; it is eight miles from the nearest land, Dodd's is- 
land being only three. 

The entrance to Amoy, viz : from Chapel island to the south point 
ofQuemoy, is 11 miles, but from Dodd's island to HTi-l Tau point 
is only five miles. The rocks off the south point of Quemoy are 
peaked, the reef off Hu-i Tau point is flat. 

There are two Pagodas on Quemoy point which extends NW. by 
N. and SE. by S. On Hu-1 Tau point is a small obelisk, and the land 
turns suddenly to the north. 

Hu-1 Tau bay will afford very good shelter in the NE. monsoon, 
as the point may be brought to bear SE. by E. in 3} fathoms and 
vessels drawing less than three fms., may bring it to bear S.SE. 

R^f off Dodds Island. There is a rocky ledge from E. by N. 
to E.NE. 1.2 mile from Dodd's island; on it are two patches, one 
of which breaks, and the other has only one fathom at low water. 
The eastern extreme of the land, seen to the northward, bears N. 
43** E. from its eastern edge. North of Dodd's island one mile and 
on the same bearing 0.7 of a mile, are two rocks with only three feet 
at low water; and N. 60° W. five cables is a reef which will show at 
half tide. 

• flTrf-f Tau point. Hij-I Tau point is low, about 80 feet above 
the sea, on the' hills north of it, is a small fort, and a remarkable 
nob at the north head of the bay as you enter. The reefs extend S. 
AxV E. three cables from the point, also from the first point inside, 
they extend westerly two cables. There is a Sunken rock with 
20 feet water upon it, bearing S. 56° E. from the Obelisk 1.3 inile, 
and N. 48° E. from Dodd's island. 

Oyster Island and Rock. Oyster island is a low flat rock N. 
47° W. two miles from the point; vessels running in for shelter will 

* Sailing Directions by captain Kellett, for Amoy du;.,- were published in 
the Repository for May 1943. See p. 401, dec. 

270 aaXng Directions for the Coast of China. June, 

find smooth water between them, taking care to avoid the Oyster 
rock, which shows at low water spring tides, and bears from the 
island S. 2"* E. 9^ cables; when on it the Obelbk on the point 
bears £. 2T S.; the fort N. 67'' E.; and the summit of a flat island 
is in line with the left slope of a conical hill in the bottom of the 
bay, bearing N. 70^* W. 

ThaUa Bank, The east end of the Thalia bank b^ars W* } S. 
2.1 miles from the point, and N. IG*" £. from Dodd's. island;. it 
extends nearly to the White rocks in the. centre of the.bay;; the 
east end. having one and f of a fm. on it; its. western end dries. 
The NE. part of it is steep to, the lead giving no warning. ,. 

Anchorage west of Oyster Island. There is anchorage also to the 
westward of Oyster island in five fms., but it must not be brought 
to bear to the southward of east, as there is a rocky ledge with only 
one fathom on it seven cables from the island. 

Anchorage off Flat Island. Vessels requiring shelter in a souther- 
ly breeze may run up and anchor to the NE. of Flat island at the 
distance of half a mile, it bears W. by N. 5} miles from Oyster island. 
The northern edge of the Thalia bank bears S. 69^ E. from Flat 
island. Do not bring it therefore to the westward of N. 69VW*> i^nd 
keep Oyster island open to the northward of the fort, to avoid the 
shoals on the northern shore of the bay. . 

Channel between the Thalia Bank and Quemoy, There < is a 
channel between the Thalia bank and Quemoy,. but. the: ground is 
foul with several reefs, and should not be attempted without the chart 
or some previous knowledge, . A leading course to dear the south 
end of the bank, is the Chimneyson the north point of Quemoy 
bearing W. by N. until the White rocks bears N.NE., when a course 
must be steered to pass half a mile from the points of the bays on the 
Quemoy shore. In the west end of Hii-i Tau bay are two remark- 
able sharp peaks, which from good leading marks from the sea. 
The eastern is 1390 feet high, and is in latitude 24'' 40 '.5 N. and 
longitude 118* 22'.5 E. 

fVesh Water, Fresh water can be obtained under the fort at the 
point. The ten miles of coast line between Flij-f Tau and Chimmo 
bay is low, the sand hills . being about 300 feet High. There are 
two walled towns between the two, the southern of which has a small 
pagoda near it. 'None of the small sandy. bays afford shelter, the 
boats being all hauled up on the beach; six miles from HM Tau 
point, and three from Pagoda island, is a peak with iaite chimneys 
on it. 

1845.' SaiHng Directions for the Coast of China. 271 

Chimmo Bay^ Chimmo Bay will be easily recognized by the 
Kii'Sau tdhj m^ j^ JK, or Chimmo pagoda, which is 760 feet 
abore the sea, and is in latitude 24"* 43' N., and longitude 1 18"* 33' 
6. £. It is 1.8 mile from the beach at the north head of the bay. 

Sovih and Pagoda Island. On the southern side of the bay are 
two islets, South island and Pagoda island. The channels between 
which, and between Pagoda island, and the south point of the bay 
are full of rocks. 

Reef N. 4^ W. from South island, 6 and 7 cables, are two rocks, 
which show at low water spring tides. When on them the east end 
of Pagoda island is in linie with a flat reef outside the south end of 
the bay. To pass to the northward of them, keep a large tree half 
a niile from the beach in the northwest part of the bay, open to the 
left of the north fall of a remarkable Shoulder peak, which it will 
be bearing N. 45^ W. and also when Point island is in line with 
the east end of the first point beyond it, you will then be to the 
westward of them. From the reef to Point island is 1.2 mile ; the 
latter is steep to, but there is a reef which covers at half tide W. 9"* 
S. three cables from it. The water shoals gradually , and vessels 
drawing 15 feet or more must not bring the Point island to the 
southward of E. 9^ S. This bay at the best is but a roadstead, and 
a dangerous one in the southerly monsoon. The walled town 
Englang, Yung^ning, y^ |^, is at the northern side of the bay, and 
Chimmo on the southern, with large villages along its shores, the 
inhabitants of which do not bear a good character. There is a large 
fleet of fishing boats belonging to this bay, whose nets will be faTlen 
in with six miles from the shore, all the way from Hu-1 Tau to 

Coast line towards Chinchew, or Tsiuencbau ^^, ^ ^ Jj^, 
the department of Tsiuencbau, or Chinchew. — ^l^he coast toward 
Chinchew bay trends northeasterly the distance from Point island 
to Chinchew point being eight miles. Several sandy bays occur 
which aflbrd shelter to junks, but being shoal will or»)y be of service 
to vessels of their draught. From Chenchf or Tsiangchi, jp^ ^, 
1} mile is a small islet in a bay, with a building like a bell on it. 
ChenchI point is about 400 feet above the sea, and forms the south 
end of Chinchew bay. Sunken rocks extend from it two cables to the 
eastward; it is in latitude 24'' 45' N. and longitude 118' 44'.7 Ev 
The course hence into Chinchew bay is north until Cho-ho (Jih^hii, 
n fflR ) pagoda is shut in with Siau-toi, when it may be steered for. 

373 SaiUng DitectioM for the Coast of ChhuL ivun, 

Directions, The following directions will take you over the bar 
into the anchorage south of the Boot sand, and the poaition and 
description of the dangers will follow: being half a mile to the south- 
ward of Passage island, steer for the aoath end of Ta*toi (or Ta4sui, 
^ ^f Great Army) which will be known by its being the highest 
island in the neighborhood. When you are within three cables of 
it, edge away to the southward, passing to the east ward/ of Si£u-toi 
(or Sidu-tstii, f^ ^, Small Army) (a low barren islet) at a cable 

length. Haul to the westward round it keeping at the same distance 
from high water mark. Wheii Si&u-toi west summit b in line with' 
Ta-toi summit, you are in the narrowest part of the channel, which 
here is barely a cable wide at low water. Having passed Si&u-toi a 
W.NW. course will take you up to the anchorage above Pisai in 
mid channel. By keeping this islet to the westward of N. 73* W., 
the rock off Cho-ho pagoda will be avoided; and by not bringing 
Si:iu-toi to the southward of S. 62"^ E. the knee and toe of the Boot 
win be avoided. The outline of this bank is however generally 
vidible. The anchorage is north of Pisai 1 J or 2 miles where the 
channel is three cables wide. 

Rocks off Passage Island, There are three rocks to the eastward 
of Passage island, which cover at high water. The southeast of the 
three bears £. 8^ S. i mile from the island. There is also a ledge 
extending from its southwest point 1} cable; N. 40^ E. from Passage 
island are two White rocks, always partly uncovered; the channel 
between the two is unsafe. To the northward of the White rocks is 
Tdh^kuhf yS ^Sy an island at high water, with a large town 
upon it ; there is a sunken rock between them, bearing from the 
highest part of the northern White rock N. 17^ E., and is distant 
Hve cables from it ; the summit of Ta-toi' bears from it S. 71* W. 

Anchorage north, of the Boot Sand. Vessels intending to anchor 
to the northward of the Boot sand, must steer to pass north of Ta-toi, 
which is distant three miles from Passage island, and if drawing less 
than three fathoms may run up until Cho-ho pagoda bears south, 
when you will be about lA mile from the usual anchorage to the 
southward of the Boot. The north edge of the Boot will be avoided 
by keeping the White rocks mentioned ab<»ve, to the southward of 
east. With Ta-toi summit bearing S. 17"* E. there is a half tide rock 
on the north side I ^ cable from the shore. There is good anchorage 
in 3^ and four fathoms, with Ta-toi bearing southeast by south. The 
Boot may be crossed by a vessel of light draught at high water, but 

1845. SaiHng Directions for the Coast of China. 37:f 

it should be sounded first, as the sands shift. A vessel drawing 1 1 
feet is reported to have struck on a bank Ij^ mile easterly from 
Si4u-toi, but not less than 2\ fathoms was found on it in March 1844. 
The southerly monsoon may however cause the sands to accumulate. 
Cho-ho pagoda open to the north of Si^u-toi will place you in three 
fathoms on its north edge» and the south end bears 8. 80* E. from 

Lynx Roek. The Lynx rock with only six feet upon it at low 
water lays S. 77* EL not quite five cables from the highest part of 
Siiu-toi ; when on it Ta*toi summit bears N. 14* W., and Passage- 
island N. 62* K 

Saheen Rock. S. 1 1 * E. two cables east from it is the Saheea 
rock, which shows at low whter spring tides ; when upon it Cho-ho 
pagoda bears N. 87* W., and Taptoi summit N. 14* W. The hot* 
torn between it and the rocks which lay S.SW. from Siiu-toi is rocky 
and uneven, and in some places there is only six feet, but a channel 
through it is used by the vessels coming out of Chinchew, when the 
wind is too far to the eastward to permit them to fetch through be* 
tween Si/iu*toi and the Lynx rock, by keeping the highest part of the 
rocks S.SW. from Si^u-toi in line with Cho-ho pagoda. 

Uid Channel Ruf The Mid Channel reef south of Si^u-toi is a 
cable's length from the SW* point of that island; it is two cables in 
circumference, and three rocks show at low water spring tides. The 
channel between it cwd the rocks south of it is rather more than ^ 
cable wide ; when on the reef the west summit of Si^u-toi is in line 
with the highest part of Ta-toi. Rocks extend J cable from Siiu*toi 
on its south, southwest- and eastern sides. 

C%o-Ao Reef A sand spit extends easterly from Cho-ho pagoda 
1.2 mile, and the reef off it bears N. 52* E. 0.6 of a mile from the 
pagoda, and from the summit of Pisai S. 73* E. 

Ota Rock, The Ota rock, which is also covered at high water, 
lays east from Pisai five cables, Cho-ho pagoda bearing firom it 
S. 40* E. 

Tsium^haufti. The entrance of the Chinchew river bears N^. 
65* W. five miles from Pisai. The channels are shoal and intricate, 
the large junks being obliged to wait for high water ; near the mouth, 
on the lef\ bank is a circular fort, called Fah'Shik^ j^ >p. The 
city is on the north bank of the river four or five miles above the 
fort . . 

Pyramid PonU or Tdtsikt -f^ ^, the northeaslern horn of th^ 
bay, is m lat. 24* 52'.2 N., and long. 118* 58' E. Passage island 

VOL. XIV. NO. VI. 35 

274' SaiGng Directions for the Coast of China. > Juirs; 

bearings from it S. 73* W. 8.7 miles. Vetaels reqairing shelter^ 
during the NE. monsoon, will find it in the first bay west of the 
Pyramid, taking care to avoid a sunken rock one cable's length 
south of the first point to the eastward of the walled city of Tsung'^ 
v^, ^ ^C' The Pyramid rock is connected with the point at low 
water ; to the SE. is a rock which is never covered ; and east of it are 
several rocks, the outer of which bears N. (>5* E. six cables from the 
Pyramid, and the highest part of the land forming the north side of 
Matheson's harbor N. 11* E. A cHff head at the end of a promon** 
tory extending southwesterly from the hills -mentioned above,; in one 
with a remarkable cone in the bay bearing N. 16* W., will put yon^ 
on it. *". .. • 

Matheson's Harbor called by the Chinese Gtilai or Siiutsih- 
/K ^, lies immediately to the north of Chinchew bay, the isthmu» 
near the town of Tsungwii being only one mile across. -The bay is' 
four miles wide at the mouth, and will afford tolerable shelter to ves-* 
sels drawing 12 feet, if the wind be to the northward of east; but iV 
is only a roadstead, and that a bad one in the SE. monsoon. There 
are no dangers in it except a rock which lies north four cables from* 
the largest istet on the south shore. The highest part of the north- 
headland is in latitude 24* 56'.6 N., and longitude 118* 59^6 E. 

Met Chan )B jM Sounds is six miles across, at the entrance, and' 
will be known by the Nine-pin rock, which lays in the centre near 
the entrance. South of it one mile is a cluster of rocks, one of 
which, Square rock, does not cover at high water : the outer part 
of the reef extends southwesterly, 1 j^ cable from it. West nine cables' 
from the Nine-pin is a patch which is level with the water's edge' 
at high water; between this patch and Rugged point, which forms the 
north head of the Sound, is good anchorage in the northerly monsoon. 
Rugged point may be approached without fear except on its east' 
side, from whence there is a reef rather less than - a cable's length 
from the shore; 3^ and four fathoms will beibund at the distance of 
three cables from the Sandy beach. N. 19* E. one mile from the- 
Nine-pin is a rock which will be seen at low water, and if bears N. 
69* W. from the highest part of Rugged point. There is a passage 
between it and the Nine-pin, but rocks extend one cable in this 
direction from the latter. 

Inner Harbor. In the southerly monsoon vessels will find a good 
harbor to the NW. of Saddle island, which bears NW. by N. 3|. 
miles from the^ Nine>'pin. Pass to the southward of the Sonth islet 
off It, and bank to the northward- round the/ western islet, giving it a 

184S. SdiKng Directions for the Coast of China, 275 

berth of a cable at high water to ' aToid a ledge. The ground ia 
uneven hereabouts, and there is only 2^ fathoms one mile to the 
W.NW. of west Saddle island. N. by £. from Saddle island one 
mile is a low cliff islet, from the west point of which is a sand bar.k 
extending 1.7 mile to the northwestward. The south peak of Sad« 
die being kept to the eastward of S.SE. will avoid it. Saddle island 
is called Chuhkdn, 4^ ^ . 

Sand Bixnk, Mound Peak, When Mound peak, (which is on the 
biain, and is three miles north of the Saddle with a walled town and 
a pagoda near it) bears east, you are past the Sand bank, and may 
baulin towards the town. N. 73* W. 2.4 miles from Mound peak is 
a bank with only one fathom on it. The junks use the channel 
between* Mound peak and the Cliff island, but it is awkward without 
a personal knowledge. They also pass to the northward of Nui-chau 
island, but this channel has but nine feet and is strewn with rocks. 
The sound runs back ten miles to the northward of Mound peak, 
forming narrow isthmuses between Ping-hai and Uing-hwa fu bays. 
Mound peak is called Siting hidng^ ^^ 7^ ^. 

South Rock. South rock bears W. % N. 38 miles from Rugged 
point: it is in latitude 25* 23' N., and longitude 119* 10'.6 E. 
being about 60 feet high, with a rock south of it % of a cable. 
' North Rock. North rock bears N. 34* E. 9.4 miles from the 
South rock, and lies on the north side of Ping-hai bay : it is 90 feet 
high and conical shaped, and is four cables from the shore. There 
is a sunken rock S. 57* W. 2.j^ cables from it. The Fort on the low 
hills west of the town bears N. 37* W. from it. 

Ping^hdi, Anchorage in three fathoms off the town will be found 
with North rock bearing SE. by £. Five miles west of the ancho- 
rage is a high reuge of hills, one of the peaks of which (Marlin spike) 
will form a good guide for this part of the coast. The bay runs back 
{^ast the foot of the Marlin spike range, but is shoal, there being sel- 
dom more than two fathoms to the west of the range. Ping-hai , 

Ock'seu or WukitK From thie North rock the highest part of 
bck-seu bears S. 44* E. not quite 15 miles. From the south rock 
Ock-seu bears S.' 76* E. 15.9 miles, and from the Pyramid point N. 
V 6*^ E. 28 iniles. It is in latitude 24* 59' N., and longitude 119* 
29'r'E.. Wukiu, ^j&ifr. 

iMsz' Reefs, From the North rock the centre of Liltsz' bears 
E.SE. 5.8 miles; there are two sunken rocks between thorn which 

&dSng Directions for the Coast of China. JoNt, 

bear 8. 50* E. from the North rock, Marlin spike being in line with 
it. When on them northeast islet of Lfitsz' b in line with the islet 
off the south face of Lamyet; they are 1.8 mile from L^itsz'. Reefs 
extend nearly one mile from the main to the northward of the North 
rock. LUtsz', tt V. 

There is a rock which shows at half tide N.NW. two cables from 
the NE. Luuz'y and another S. 9"" W. 8 cables from it; the latter lays 
east from the summit of Lutsz'. The sand bank extends 2^ miles 
southerly from the S W. point of the Lamyet By keeping the west 
end of the island (which has three chimneys on it) to the eastward 
of north, its western edge will be avoided. There is also a rocky 
patch having only 1^ fm. in some places : the east end of it bears S. 
by W. two miles from the east islet in the channel between Lamyet 
and the main. On its south edge the Chimney point mentioned 
above bears N. 77* E. 

Anchorage to the westward of Lamyet, , The junks anchor under 
the first point south of the Chimneys, off which there is a rock which 
will always show. This will be found a snug anchorage for small 
vessels, as there is a considerable swell in the channel between 
Lamyet and the main with a northerly gale ; care must be taken to 
round the rock at the point close« as there is a sunken rock in the 
bay six cables to the southward of it, and the reef must not be brou* 
ght to the westward of N.NW. as the water shoals suddenly. Ancho- 
rage for large vessels will be found to the northward of the Chimney 
point in four and five fms., the depth of water opposite the point is 
from 12 to 15 fms. Vessels intending to pass to the northward and 
westward of the Lamyets ought to use the channel to the northward 
of Passage islands (which are three in number and bear N.NE. five 
miles from the Chimney point). Between the north point of Lamyet 
and the Passage islands is Cliff bland, in the neighborhood of 
which are several reefs, rendering the channel between it and Lam- 
yet, also between it and the Passage islands, precarious. 

A ledge extends westerly two cables from the SW. point of west 
Passage island. The channel to the northward of it is four cables 
wide, being bounded on the north by a rock, with a reef which 
shows at low water a cable and a half west of it. North of the rock, 
one and a half cable is a small islet, and northward of the islet four 
cables is Rugged island. 

The northeastern of the Passage islands is a bold bluff, which is 
steep to on its northern f«ice, from whence you may steer to pass 
either north or south of White island (which bears west from the ' 

184«^. Sailinff Dlrtetions for the Caaat of China. 277 

Passage islands 4^ miles); if to the south, beware of three rocks 
which lay S. by W. 1.1 mile from it. 

E. 12^ N. 2.2 miles from White island is the south rock of a reef 
extending from an island on the coast. Having passed which vessels 
may haul to the northward, and work up inside Chimney island, to 
the westward of which there are no dangers, except a rock at the 
entrance of the inlet (on the south point of which is a walled town 
and a pagoda) on the western shore, which will be avoided by keep- 
ing a cable and a half from the shore. 

Hing'hwd fii Sound. Vessels bound into Hing-hw4 fu Sound 
must steer to the^northward from the Chimney point (on the west 
side of Lam-yet) seven miles, when they will be a mile to the north- 
ward of Nob island, and may steer for Fort point which bears NW. 
7^ miles from Nob; there is a patch of rocks to the NW. of the 
latter, the easternmost of which bears N. 1 T W. from it eight cables, 
and the north westernmofrt N. 50^ W. 2.8 miles ; part of them always 
show. Hinghwd fif ^{l(,f^ 

Reef off Fort Comer. Another patch will be found E.SE. from 
the Fort point, the southeasternmost of which bears S. 68^ E. two 
miles from the Fort Corner. Good anchorage in six fathoms will 
be found with the Fort corner bearing E.NE., but the point extend- 
ing from it has rocks which will show at low water IJ cable from 
high water mark ; the sand line at low water trends NW. by W. 
firom the point. Fort Corner or Wan'tigan^ |^ ^. 

The entrance to Hing-hw& fu river bears W. by S. from the 
Fort Corner, the depth of water shoals to six feet, five miles from the 
Fort. On the main SW. from the Fort, is a piratical establishment. 

To the northward of the large Lamyet is a group of small islands 
(called by the Chinese the 18 yit) between this group and the large 
island are numerous rocks and shoals rendering, the bay useless for 

. N. 81* E. six miles from the highest part of the Lamyet is an 
islet called the Cap, which is the southeastern of the 18 yit. Vessels 
entering the Hai-tan strait, should pass to the eastward of this and 
the Double island, three miles N. of it, keeping to the westward of 
a group called Reef islands which bear from the Cap N. 49* E. five 
miles. N.NB. four miles from Double island is a remarkable White 
island with sandy beaches and detached hills; the channel between 
this and Reef island group is foul, having many rocks in it, but it 
has not been sufficiently examined. After passing to the westward 
of Sand island, which has several Tocky islets upon its.NW. face,, a 

278 Sailing Directions for the Coast of China. ivtn, 

pagoda situated upon the south point of a shoal bay, with the ruined 
walls of a town near it, will be seen to the westward. Here vessels 
will have smooth water being protected from the easterly swell by 
three Chimney island, which is the large island immediately to thd 
northward of Sand island. In the centre of the channel between 
this island and the pagoda the water is deep. The best anchorage is 
dose under the shore of Hai-tan, near to Observatory island, avoid« 
ing a reef to the westward of it, which is nearly covered at high 
water, Observatory island is in latitude 25"* 25' N., and longitude 
119* 45' E. 

Vessels intending to pass through the' Hdi-tan straits (which I re- 
commend them not to do) must steer SW. by W. from Observatory 
islet (on the Hdi>tan shore) two miles, to avoid a sand spit which 
extends from the point NW. of it, and then haul to the northward 
for Junk sail rock, from whence a reef extends half a cable to the 

From Passage island, which lies NW. by W. 1.1 mile from Junk 
sail, a sand bank extends southerly, the e^d of which bears west 
from the Junk sail. The channel between the two being rather less 
than a mile. A reef of rocks lay N. 45"* E. from the summit of Pa;f« 
sage island distant three cables, which will show at ha^f tide. Pass to 
the northeastward of it, and between it and a small islet four cables 
to the northward, from whence a mud spit with rocks on it extends 
S.SE. three cables, and it must not be approached within a cable's 
length of high water mark on its western side. 

Having passed the reef off Passage island, steer N. by W. J W. to 
pass to the eastward of Flat island, which is two miles from'Passage 
island, and has a spit extendinor southerly a cable from it, and a led- 
ge of rocks off its NE. point, on which the Plover lost her false keel ; 
then bring the east end of Flat island in line, with the west end of 
Passage island, which it will be bearing S. 4*^ E., and will carry yon 
up in mid channel five miles beyond Flat island. Care however 
must be taken nut to open them as there is a reef 1.2 mile above 
Flat island which shows at low water ; a hill on H4i-tan with three 
chimneys on it bears E. by N. IVom it. By keeping the chinr- 
neys on the summit of Chimney island to the southward of the west 
point of the islet to the NE. of Passkge island, it will be avoided. 

When Pillar rock (which is on the Har-tau shore, and biears N. by 

.E. 6.} miles from Flat island) bears NR by E.. steer N W: by W. 

until Hope island* bears north, when it may be steered for, passing 

4o thewest of Castle rock which bears N. 7^.W. from Flat island Sj; 

1645.'. Sailing Directions for the Coast of China. 

miles, and has a reef one xable and a half to the westward of it. The 
summit of Hope island bears N. J 5° W. from Castle rock four 
miles ; between the two are several reefs. The west extreme of the 
nearest to the Castle bears N. 9^ W. from it, distant eight cables; 
part of it is always above water. N. by E. 2.S miles from the Castle 
rock is a patch which shows at low water only ; when on it the Cow's 
horn, a remarkable peak on the main outside the straits, bears N. 
10* W. being in line with the east end of Hope island. The Pillar 
bears S. 33"* E. and the Castle rock is in line with the SW. point of 
Hii-tan. Pillar rock is called Shih-pdi'^ydng^ ^ Kjli ^, and Cow's 
horn, Niu'kioh shan, ^ ^ |.L|. 

The channel lies between it and a Black peaked rock, which 
bears N. 76* W. eight cables length from the reefs. Rocks extend 
from it at low water southeasterly 2J^ cables. There is also a reef 
south of it five cables, both of which will be avoided by keeping the 
summit of Hope island to the northward ofN. 5* E. 

The passage out is to the eastward of Hope island ; a reef of rocks 
extend from both islands in the channel, narrowing it to three cables. 
In working out, the summit of Hope island must not be brought to 
the southward of S. 40* W. as there is a rocky patch with only nine 
feet upon it seven cables from Hope island, or Tang yu, jlj^ ||]f[i. 
. There is a rock on which the sea breaks at low water N. 24* E. 
from Hope island ; on it the Cow's horn bears N. 33* W. N.NE. 
six miles from Hope island are four islands; S. 71* W. from the 
western of which five cables, is a reef bearing also N. 24* E. from 
Hope island, and a ledge extends southerly (bur cables from the 
eastern island. 

'There are three other channels between Hope island and H^i-tan, 
none of which are so good as the one described; and as there is 
generally a heavy swell setting into the bay to the northward of HdL 
tan, vessels will find some difficulty unless they are fast sailers in 
clearing the dangers in one tide. 

. The junks invariably use the Ftraits, but we found one that had 
been detained 27 days, waiting for an opportunity to get out at the 
northern end. The flood tide comes in from both ends of the straits; 
the two tides meeting in the neighborhoo<I of the Castle rock. 

P. S. The sailing directions to the northward of Hdi-tan with the addenda 
have already appeared in the Repositorj, with the exception of the following' 
re«ardinjr tne— 

River Min. The middle ground at the entrance to the Rtver Min, mention- 
ed by papt. Kellett^as having 2| fms. on it (last line pa^e 11, Reposttory foi;, 
August 1843,) now hits only 9 feet upon it; and a reef iff reported to have 
been seen five miles NE. from the Heisium island. 

380 Tke Rugsian Trade at Kiockia. Junk, 

Art. hi. Notices of ike trade carried on iy the Russians at 
Kiachta,* upon the frontiers of China. 

Tas Russian trade with China, by a treaty made between the two 
countries in 1728, ia confined to the town of Riachta, on the north* 
em frontier of China, which is thus the sole entrepdt for the ex- 
change of the commodities of both countries. The Russians are 
prohibited from trading at Canton, in consequence of the privilege 
they have of trading overland. In the year 1806, two Russian 
ahips visited Canton, after making a voyage of discovery, for the 
purpose of taking in a cargo of Chinese produce for Russia. The 
Canton authorities at first refused, but afterwards permitted them to 
load, at the same time making reference to Peking. Before the 
answer arrived, the ships had sailed, but an edict was dispatched to 
Russia prohibiting farther intercourse except by the northern fron- 
tier. Of late years this trade has become of great importance; and 
the attention of commercial men, connected with China, has been 
called to the Russian woollen manufactures, which have begun to 
compete successfully with those of English manufacture, which 
formerly supplied the Chinese market. 

A few statements (although necessarily meagre from the want of 
direct information,) may therefore not be unacceptable. 

The great advance which Russia has made in the arts during the 
last half century, will be partially shown by the fact that, in the years 
1793-05, she annually imported cloths to the average amount of 
3,978,000 silver roubles ; the only woolen manufacture then carried 
on being coarse cloth for the use of the army ; while in 1837-39, the 
import had nearly ceased, and her own manufactures supplied the 
internal consumption of the empire, besides a large oriental export, 
(chiefly to China) which in 1842, amounted to nearly 2,000,000 
silver roubles. Again, in 1800 the import of tea into Russia was 
2,799,900 Russian pounds; and in 1837-^ the average annual 
import was 8,071,880 Russian pounds. Forty (40) Russ. pounds are 
equal to 36 lbs. avoirdupoise. 

The following statement shows the quantity of Woollen cloth 
exported to China by Russia from 1833 to 1841. 

* KiMhta,or Kiakhta is know lo the Chinese by the namoof JV^^mst- 
dUm, ^ @ ^, literally the ** Bajing and eelling station." It is alio 
called Baying and lelling oily, dUn^, il£ . . 


Tkk Riissim Trade al tBaehidL 




1 J . . 


PolM daUk. 

m • 





. 789353 





• — ' • 

Equal to jnee$» 



• • 

Eqamlto pitett 






.In former years Russia exported to China the woolen manufao-. 
tures of Poland, (as will be seen by the above table,) and still earlier, 
those of Prussia, in addition to her own. Prenous to the year 1812, 
a considerable quantity of. English woolens were sent to Russia, 
intended for the Chinese market The cost of this cloth was at that 
time, from 17«» a 20s. per yard, though the same quantity in 1830 
could be had at 10s. a 12s. or even leaa This trade was stopped 
by an increase of the duty laid by the BLussian goTernment on 
English cloths and a reduction of that on Prnssiani cloth. 

At present, however, only cloths manufactured in Russia are 
exported. Thej are made fyrincipall^ at. ftfoecow attd its neigh- 
borhood, of different qualities, similar to the English cloths called 
Spanish Stripes and Habit cloths, l^hey are classed into three 
varieties: ■'''""' ' ' '....<-. ;^ . ■ 

1.1'. The Mezeritsky cloths; 2. t6ose> of Masloff or Maslovia; 
..'• * * ' '■J.J • 

3j.|taniovoy cloth r m each of which. varieties these are four or five 

grades of quality, as No. 1, No. 2, d&c. The assortment of colors 

in iOO pieces of Mezeritsky cloth is neai^ly a^ follows. 


K-* •. 


Light blue, 
VioW^ . 
TsUow, . 




Potbegranate red, 8 
Violet btowni ,', .4 

Scarlet, 10 

Green,. 3 

Fashions of the day, 2 


These are packed in ten bales, each having in assortment of the 
diflferent colors. The first quality of Meseritsky cloth costs at 
Moscow 150 a 105 roubles aissign : per piece of 25 arshines (6s. 
OdLrA 7s. 4^. per yard); and the charges from itfoscow to ifiachta 
amount to about 250 roubles assign : per each bale. They meaauiw 
from 60 a 67 inch^ in width. 

Vol. XIV. NO. vi# 86 


Tfi Riuna* Trade ut KxaeUi. 

The iirat' quality of Misloff ^loth costs at Moscow 7 a 7^ R. 
assign : per arshine, (ds. a Ss, 6d, per yard ;) the length of the pieces 
40 a 45 arshins, or 3t a 35 yards ; breadth between the lists, 67 a 70 
inches. They are made up in bales of 8 pieces each. In ao export 
of 1000 pieces of these two cloths the proportions are, about 750 a 
800 pieces of Mezeritsky^ and 250 a SOO pieces Maslo?ia. 

Of velveteens (Pleess,) a considerable quantity is annually bar* 
tered at Kiachta. They > are manufactured in pieces of about 50 
arshtoes in length (39 y^ds), and of two breadths, riz : 10 yershocka 
and 16 vers : (17^ inches and 28 inchea); the price of the former at 
Moscow, is about R. 1.40 co: to R. 1.80 per arshine, and of the 
latter R. 2.80. - . ; 

--The camlets exported to China are principally of Duteh manufac- 
iure, a very trifling proportion being Russian. The quantity bar- 
tered at Kiachta, in 1843, will be found in a table given below. 

The other principal articles of Russian export to China are liiien 
goods of a coarsie' description ; leather; skins, and furs. They 
also send firearms, cutlery, corals, mirrors, watches, and divers 
articles of ornament. The cost of carriage from Moscow to Kiachta 
18 aSout R. 25 per pood (361bs. English). 


f > 

^ '„LV \ JfuiriptUm of gooi». 



CtOTH: Mezeritsky - • pieces 



• Masloflb • - - „ 



:: :■': . . .Kjyrnovoy - . - . . « : 


. 6,740 

Camlets : Russian - - arahins 



. -Dutch. - -- -. ,,. 



Linen goods: Tcheshuyka • „ 



-- "Ticking - - - ,f 

' i 85,655 


*'^-' '■ Konovat •• • - „ . 



Velveteens: 10 tershocks broad „ 



: .. - 16 . do. da „ 



Lbathbr, Goat skins • - skins 



Furs Squirrel . - - », 



Otter • . I, 



Lamb,' Bircharian Grey „ 



:*:'.-. rr.-.ilxi,-:*.: da... .Bhkck „.. . 

:• • .ia.4!8»- 

:. 48.955 

.. v.. : do. -Ukraine White „ - 

■- 155.172 


^' - - do. •. - dow Piebald „ . 


. 18;844 

'.^' '"- do. ^/.do. Black ■ .V."' 

- .' 2,581 

. -28,811 

• '^ Catsjkin, Black - ''"•■ "" „ 



i^v^. J r L^j^skias, Russian -„ 



do. American „ 



Musquash . ,, 



M4& The Russian Tfadc at Klaekl^. S83 

A note, appended to the foregoing report, states that the amount 
of trade therein specified, as compared with that of pfevrons' years, 
doM not exceed one third of tfie average. No cause is assigned foi' 
such a great falling off 

the foreign far trade at Cantons -twenty yeais ago amounting -to 
a million of doiliirs annually-^is now nearly or quite extinct ; on the 
northern frontier, however, as shown in the foregoing table, there 
is still an extensive traffic; and were all the ftcts of the case at our 
command, we might find that this traffic is annually increasing. 

The mode of transacting business at Kiachta deserves particular 
notice -from its peculiarity. Commissioners are- appointed on each 
side, who fix by Tegalation the price of every article of import, 
and of the tea to be given in exchange for it ; and not only the 
price of the tea, but the proportion of each sort to be bartered for 
the different articles. — ; 

The "Chinese Olio" says that, "a commission. of six mtoibers 
chosen among the Russian merchants, and presided over by the 
custom-house director, treats for Ru^etan merchandise/ Another 
commission of an equal number of members taken amoofg the Chi- 
nese, and presided over by their governor, treats for Chinese mer- 
chandise. These twp commissions discuss the prices, which, once 
determined, become law for. the merchants of the two nations." 

The tea is classed into Family, and Flower tea ; both which 
are said to consist chiefly of Pekoe, with a slight. admi^Kure of 
other leaves. 

In 1843 the Chinese brought for sale 120,000 chests ; of which 
80^00 were Flower tea, and 40,000 Fantiiy tea.* The prices, which 
have been unaltered for years^ are— ' , \ 

R. 60 for one chest "quadrat" Flamiiy tea: 

R. 120 for one chest 3d soft of Flower te«[: 

R. HO for one chest " polootornoy " * *ainily tea (i. e. 1^ as large). 

The prices of Russian produce were raised in 1843 from those of 

former' years. Farther it was arranged (as alluded to above), that 

one chest of Family tea is to go along with every three chests of 

F14Wer tea. 

We^ive the regulation fer th^ prices' of one or two articles in 
the year 1843. 

* Inihe papers, ftooL whichr thiv articb hs* been compiled, no mention 
if uiftda^f tbe diitriet» from which the teas for Kiachta are carried. We re» 
member^ however, to have seen it somewhere stated that considi^rable amount 
of leas ibr the wertern and northern frontiers are fcnniially carried frtfm 
Fukien. Editor. 


The Russian Trade at Kiaehta. 



DeMTtpCtan of gooi». 

Family tea. 

Flower tea 
2d Mart. 

3 Ckesu 

Flower tea 

1st sort. 

Rs. Co: 

Rs. Co: 

Rs. Co; 

Cloths : 


Mezeritsky, 1st sort per piece 


131 25 

2d „ 


125 — 

3rd „ 



121 25 

4th „ „: 



116 25 

6th „ 


. • 

,81 25, 




p«r ekesL 

per chest' 

fori ektttt. 

Muloflf, 1st sort 

12 — 



Explanation — 


3 ch : Flower tea= 54 arsh. 

■ • 

1 ch : Family tea= 12 do. 


4ch: Tea =66 da 

1 1 



Masloff cloth, 2d sort | 


' 20 




3d „ 




4th ., 



• • 


— 1 

Rs. Co : 

Rs. Co:* 

Rs. Co: 




• % 

Ist sort per piece 


81 35. 

2d „ » 



..78 76 

3d 91 it 



4th ,, 


67 50 

6th ,r 9f 




Cabilets : Mt sort per anih. 

3 65 

3 81 

2d ,, „ 

2 20 


2 75 

Pleess (velveteens) narrow 





Ist sort (Riga) per arsh. 

1 Us 


1 31 ' 

2d „ ( •« ) 



1 32 

3d „ (Moscow) 


I 21. 

4th „ ( v» ) »i 




Otter Skins 



Ist sort each 




2d ,. 


22 60 

American, 1st sort ,„ 


12 50 

2d o .1 



1845. Tie Russian Trade at Kiackia. 385 

The nature of the abofe regulation will be better shown by an 

example of the transactions by barter. 

Against the 2d sort of Mezeritsky cloth the Russians re> 

ceive 9 chests Flower tea, at Rs. 120 per chest := Rs. 1080 
And 3 chests Family tea, at Rs. 60 per chest B. Rs. - - 180 

(being the fixed proportions 6l prices named above) Rs. 1260 

For which the Russians pay, 

R. JOSO is equal, at the regulation price of - 

Rs. 125 p. piece, to - 8§ pieces. 
And „ 180 at, Rs. 100 p. piece, to - 1| „ 

R. 1260 nearly 10^ pieces of cloth. 

Pursuing the illustration, we will show the result of such a tran- 
saction in 1843. 

The 10 J pieces of cloth cost at Moscow hi 1842, 

Rs. 145 cash per piece, making - - - R. 1^22.50 
Interest for 15 months — 15 per cent. •# - ^ 228.37 

Charges from Moscow to Kiachta - - - ^ 250.00 

Cost at Kiachta of 10^ pieces of cloth 2,000.87 

But the value of tea in Russia in 1843 was 
9 chests Flower tea at R. 555 per chest 4,995 
at 12 months credit. 
.■> 3.chests Family tea at R. 455 per chest 1,365 

^ . . R.~(p60 . 

Deduct 12 months interest R. 763.20 

Duty and charges 2,265.9 3,029.1 3,330.90 

Leaving a profit of R. 1,330,03 

In this peculiar traffic we thus see that woolen cloths costing 
Rs. 2000 are exchanged for teas estimated at R. 1260, or at a loss 
of 37 per cent. But the tea taken in exchange, the Nominal cost 
of which is R. 1260, realises a profit of R. 2070, being 103} per 
cent, on the actual cost, (R. 2000,) thus leaving a balance of profit 
on the transaction of 66^ per cent.* 

The prices of tea at Nijni Novgorod in 1843 were (on 12 months 

RcM. pouadk 

} ftS, 58 &. ( 

J ' I 

Flower tea, Ist sort, per chest> Rs. 705 

«,. „ 2d „ „ . 655 . ^55. 58&.60 

„ .,, Ou ,, _ III I uOd 

Quadrat Family tea ,,- 455 60 a 70 

Polootornoy. „ . „. 605 '. . :86 a 8^ r 

„ . „ 2d „ 535 a 5o5 81 a 85 

• * • 

* The abore caleolatidn is (fopied from a paper written at Nijni Novgorod 
and communicated from Moscow 

Tke Russian Trade ai Kiacktd, 


. Tbe:8d sort of Flower tea it dirided mto about fifteen " famili^/' 
sold by retail under different names applied to them by the Rue- 


A. « 


Fawiilf taa 


Speeyieation rf ekargۤ. 








Import duty and custom charges 


R. 138^0 


Commission at Kiaehta 




Packing in Hides 

Reeeivmg, weighing and cartage in 








Carriage to Nijni or Moscow 

1 . • 




R. 188 |R. 191 .SO|R. 229.401 

Beaides these difierent sorts, the Russians receive what is called 
*' brick tea/* being tea dust formed by pressure into the shape of 
tiles or bricks. The greater part of this is consumed in Russian 
Tartary and Siberia, only a small proportion being carried to the 
fair at Nijni. It b not used as an infusion, but is stewed with milk, 
butter, salt and herbs; and eaten as food, as our matrons are said to 
have used the leaf when it was first introduced into England. 

Besides tea, which is the staple article of produce bartered by the 
Chinese, they bring to Kiaehta silks, nankeen cloth, preserves, lac- 
quered ware, dec. 

From the secrecy which the Chinese maintain on their side of the 
commercial intercourse, we are unable to estimate the actual co8[t 
i>rilie tea at Kiaehta, or the expense of transport thither from the 
place of growth; and consequently have, at present, no means of 
ascertaining wh%t the articles taken in exchange actually cost them 
at Peking, as compared with the prices at which they could be sup- 
plied by other nations. In 1830, a statement was laid before the 
Parliament committee on East India affairs, showing the retail prices 
of tea at St. Petersburgh, and the valuations by London brokers, of 
samples brought, over from thence. They were as follows: 

Uack Flower tea '« - Hs. lid, 5s. Sd. 

Black Family tea 

Oitro ' ' ' - 











t845: The Rusiian Trade at Kiachla, 

From the statements which we have given, it is plain that the 
profits of the export trade, and the ability of Russia to compete in 
the China market with England and other nations in the article of 
woolens, depends entirely upon the sale of the tea ; and if we sup- 
pose the above valuations to be correct, or allow somewhat for de- 
terioration of the samples in the voyage from Rassia to England, and 
kx>king at the price at which woolens can now be produced in Eng- 
)aod and Germany, it is equally plain that unless their tea trade was 
protected by the present prohibitory duties, it would, even allowing 
for a considerable reduction in the large profits of the Russian im- 
porters, be driven out of the field by the merchants of other nations ; 
and that in consequence they could not afford to sell their goods at 
Kiaphta at the present low nominal prices, nor offer competition in 
the supply of woolens required for the consumption of China Proper. 
In supplying furs and other articles, suited to the north of China, 
they doubtless possess advantages over other nations, which would 
probably secure to them that branch of the trade ; but even in that, 
the Americans might offer some competition, as in former years they 
sent considerable quantities to China^ although that trade after* 
wards dwindled down to a very trifling amount. 

It is said that a part of the tea imported at Hamburgh is smuggled 
into Russia, where doubtless it yields the contrabandist a hand' 
some profit. 

' Regarding the other articles of Russian manufacture, sent to 
Kiachta, we are not possessed of sufficient information as to what 
description of goods they are, and the prices at which similar articles 
CQuld be manufactured in England and other nations, to giv6 any 
data for a calculation of what the result of a shipment would be, in 
comparison with those of Russia. 

The rigid prohibition of opium which has so many times been 
thundered forth against the " barbarians'' in the edicts of the em« 
peror of the Chinese donimioiis, of course extends to the northern 
frontier, and probably with much the same effect as that resulting 
from the vigilance of the authorities on the seacoast. The Russian 
autocrat issued an ukase, to his subjects,, forbidding any attemps 
at its introduction into China ; and in' tEeir diplomatic intercourse 
wVth tlie Chinese cdnrt, the Russian officials take'^credit to them- 
selves for excluding the'cTrug froin their caravans, thus' showing 
themselvies in a more favorable fight as compared with those nations 
whb'persist in bringing it to the celestial shores. 
' It is nevertheless asserted that the Russian emperor is not averse 

Mar:, B. SociHy Library. Jtjtat; 

to his subjects adding that to the other branches of their trade, and 
that opium is actually smuggled across the fronties by the Tarlar» 
who inhabit the neighborhood. We learn by a translation from a 
continental paper, which appeared : in the columns of an English 
publication^ that the. idea of this trade was first suggested to ther 
Russian minister of finance in 1833, by u Greek merchant^ who was 
well acquainted with Asiatic commerce; . He obtained sereral au- 
diences of the minister, and by his plausible arguments gained I his 
consent, securing to himself the! privilege of transporting his opium as 
for aa Kiachta, for 20 years, at the exp.ense of the state. From which 
we may safely infer that the emperor's revenues are in some mea- 
sure assisted thereby. The traffic is of course carried on with too 
much secrecy to allow of any information being obtained by foreigners 
regarding its extent,, and the means by which they: secure the 
connivance^ of the Chinese officials, if (as is most probable,) it is 
carried on with their knowledge. ' 

The Bombay Times, 1842, says, ** We learn by letter from Smyr- 
na, received by. the present mail, that one hundred chests of Turkey 
opium have' been purchased there by a Russian house, and shipped 
to Odessa, to be thence conveyed overland to Kiachta, . and eten-p 
tuaily smuggled, across the Chinese border." If the existence of 
such a traffic be true, it is quite possible that in the event of its 
becoming known to the emperor, there may one day happen a col- 
lision between the countries, the result of which may prove as mo- 
mentous as that which has sprung from the late hostilities between 
Chilis and England. •; >: .i 

yote. To the writer 'of lome excellent articles in the Bombay TTinet, to 
Mr. MacGregor*s work on Tariffa, and to sentlemen in Sh^ngh&i and Hong> 
kong, our readers are indebted for the foregoing article. EdUor. 

• • I I * 

' ^^'-"-^^^^"""""-^•'"-^""""r^ ^"^^ ~i"^i-i ~in n nrTjx~i-n-n_ii. 

■ I. 

Art. tV. Caialogue of^ Books in ihe IJhrary of the Morrison 
Education Society. Published at the office of the Chinese 
Repository^ Vtcioria^ Hongkong^ 1845: 

This Catalogue has beea recently published under the direction of 
the Rev. Mr. firown, principal of the Morrison Education Society's 
school, who has bestowed no small pains upon it. The former 

1845; Mor. £-. Society Library. 289 

Catalogue was prepared by the late Hon. J. R. Morrison, esq. in 
1838, and came forth from his hands bearing the marks of the judg- 
ment and neatness of execution peculiar to its compiler. At that 
time the number of volumes in the library was much smaller than it 
now is. Some private donations of books have been made to it, but 
the chief increase is owing to the addition of the late Mr. Morrison's 
entire private library, which was bought in by subscriptions from 
the foreign residents and presented to the Morrison Education 
Society. It was well known that Mr. Morrison had intended to 
leave his library to . this institutiooj and it was presumed that such 
a disposal of it would be more agreeable to his family and friends 
than a sale at public auction. This large accession to the number 
of books in the library, together with the condition of many of the 
old volumes rendered an entire rearrangement of the library and a 
new catalogue necessary. The Trustees therefore requested Mr. 
firown to make a thorough revision of it, casting aside such works 
as it might be thought advisable to dispense with, and after rear- 
ranging them, to publish a catalogue of the remainder. The result 
was that some 1500 old volumes were sold at public auction, and 
the rest amounting to 4140 Vols, were arranged after the manner 
exhibited in this catalogue. The present mode of arrangement iu 
the cases strikes us as being decidedly superior to the former, ^n 
now the books are placed where they can be best accommodated, 
and not as formerly thrown together without reference to the size 
of the volumes^ but only according to subjects. The mode adopted 
in the present instance has certainly th& advantilge of giving a neater 
and tnbre regular, appearance to the library, while it is as easy to 
find any book now ae it was before.: 

The Morrison Education Society's library is the property of the 
community, who have contributed so liberally to sustain that excel- 
lent and useful institution. It is designed for the use of the mem- 
bers of the Society, i. e.: of those who contribute $10 annually to tlie 
Society's funds, or $25 at one time. By inspection of the catalogue 
before us, it will be seen that it comprises a great variety of valuable 
works. Many of the books of the E. I. Company's factory are to be 
found there; many from private libraries of gentlemen long resident 
hi China, with all those belonging to that of the late Rev. Dr. Morri- 
son and snbsequently to his son. 

We find here something upon almost all the principal languages 
of the world, both ancient and modern. There are not less than 40 
different works upon the grammar and lexicography of as many 
different, tongues, besides books written in a great number oi* c^v\va^ . 

VOL. XIV. NO. VI. 37 

290 Mar, E. Socieiif Library, June, 

In the department of Bibles, Biblical Literature, dec, we notice 
70 and more versions of the Sacred Scriptures, or parts of them, em- 
bracing, it is presumed, the greater number of those published by the 
British and Foreign Bible Society. The section of religious works 
is large and replete with most valuable works. Another section fur- 
nishes a number of standard works on jurisprudence, government, 
political economy and commerce, particularly works of reference in 
relation to the government and commerce of countries in the east. 

The lover of natural history will find here, among others, the writ- 
ings of Blume, Buffon, Blumenbach, Goldsmith, Horsfield, Linnaeus, 
Cuvier, Kirby, Roget, Michaux, Shaw, Swainson, Wilson and 

The section of ge<igraphy, voyages and travels, embraces 305 
works, and 373 vols. 

That of chronology, general history and statistics, 250 works, in 
553 vols. • i' 

The section of biography is likewise full of memoirs of distin- 
guished men in all the walks of life. 

Those who are fond of the lighter kinds of literature, such as 
novels, tales, romances and poetry, will meet with a sufiicient supply 
in their appropriate sections. 

A most useful section is appended, near the end, of all the works 
found in other parts of the catalogue, relating to this country of our 
sojourn, and those adjacent to it. This comprises, it is believed, a 
larger collection of works than is to be found anywhere else in these 
parts, on tlie same subjects, — almoiit all the old works of the Jesuits, 
and others who have written upon China Proper, Tartary, Tibet, 
Corea, Siam, and Cochinchina, the accounts of the various diploma- 
tic embassies to the country, together with nearly all that has been 
given to the public at various periods respecting the languages of 
ibis and the neighboring nations. 

We notice here the works of the French savans on the Chinese 
language, particularly those of M. Stanislas Julien, who has done 
perhaps more than any one of his contemporaries to elucidate the 
principles of construction peculiar to the Chinese language. Besides 
his learned and excellent productions, we have here the works of 
Morrison, Gon^alves, Remusat, Marshman, Klaproth, and Four- 
mont, and those of Medhurst, Pautbier, M. Bazin Aine, and his 
excellency the learned governor of Hongkong, altogether forming a 
rare collection of those works which a student of the Chinese lan- 
guage must find of immense advantage to him in his pursuits. 

1845. Notices of Hongkong. 391 

Our object in this cursory notice of the library is to make its 
value better known to the community, and to secure for it, as far as 
we can, the attention which it deserves. If we can thus induce any 
to become subscribers to it, we shall have the satisfaction of know- 
ing that we have lent aid to a noble monument of the philanthropy 
of foreigners in China, the Morrison Education Society. 


Art. V. Notices of Hongkong: situation, shape and extent 

of the island; its surf ace, productions, geological features: 

principal divisions, Victoria, Chekcha, Shekpdi Wan, ^*c.; its 

, original landlords ; cession to the British crown ; erected into a 

colony : its government, population, and prospects. 

ON'the northern shore of Hdngkoug, about midway between the 
extreme^eastem and western points of the island, close to the beach> 
upon the western side of W&ngnai Chung, and within a stone's castr 
of the house of the Morrison Education Society, there is a hillocl^; 
the position of wi^ich, as. carefully ascertained by sir Edward Bel- 
cher, is in 22* 16' 30'' N. lat., and 114' 06^ 30" E. long. This 
point, therefore, for all general purposes, may be considered as giving 
us the true position of Hongkong. 

The little map on the following page, printed from a rude block 
cut by a Chinese, shows the exact shape of the island, which -some- 
what resembles a right angled triangle, the northeastern point of 
the island being the right angle. - Starting from the headland near 
the islet off the northwest point of Hongkong, and proceeding in a 
right line,' pass over the summit of Mount Kellett; thence going on 
through the village of little Hongkong, touching the headland of 
Deep-water Bay, and leaving Shallow-water Bay and Chekchu close 
on your right, you will pass near the centre of Tytam harbor and 
reach the extreme southeast point of the island. This is the longest 
right line th^^an be drawn- in Hongkong, and is about nine miles 
in-Jength.' The longest lane, that can be drawn due east and 
west Will not exceed eight miles ; and from north to south it would 
be about five miles. The shortest sailing distance round the island 
is twenty-six miles and eighty-iive hundredths. The islet before 
alluded to, off the northwest* of Hongkong, is Green island. North o( 



Notices of Hongkong, 


1S45. Notices of Hongkong. 293 

Green island is the entrance from the river of Canton, through Kap- 
skiu Man, on Swift-water Passage. The point of land, north ol' 
the harbor of Victoria, is the extreme of Kauiung, called by the Chi- 
nese T^sten ska tsui. Still to the eastward there is seen, on the little 
map, another point of land. Tlie passage between it and Hong- 
kong is the Li-yii (Lyee) Mun. Thence you pass round the south- 
eastern point of the island into Tytam Bay, at the head of which is 
the village of the same name. Sailing round the next point, called 
Tytam promontory, and steering a course due northwest, between 
the Lama and Hongkong, you will enter the harbor of Victoria near 
Green island. 

The surface of Hongkong is exceedingly uneven, rising into nume- 
rous ridges and peaks, and having only a few narrow patches of level 
and arable land. The highest peak, called " Victoria," does not 
exceed two thousand feet. In the deep ravines, there are streams of 
excellent and neverfailing water. Names have been given, on Bel- 
cher's chart, to several peaks, and their heights indicated. Thus, 
"Victoria," or ''Possession peak," is 1825 feet; ''High West," is 
1774 feet; MoUnt Gough," 1575; "Mount Kellett," 1131; Mount 
Pifkar," 1711; " Pottinger peak," 1016 feet. 

In 'the vallies and on the hill sides, in many places, you may find a 
deep rich soil, and a luxurient covering of tall coarse grass. Forest 
and:fruit trees appear only here and there. If planted they would 
no doubt grow plentifully. Previouly to 1841, nearly every patch 
of arable ground was cultivated, yielding rich crops of rice, peas, 
beans, sweet potatoes, d^c. 

Trap, granite, and hornblend, are the principle rocks. The first 
named seems to be the most plentiful. Much of the granite is found 
in large round masses, and is procured in great abundance for buil- 
ding. Much of the soil along the ridges is mere disintegrated rock, 
and in some places the strata of new earth are as distinctly seen as 
they could have been when solid rock. 

- Victoria^ the capital of the colony and the seat of the government, 
has as yet merely the outlines of a city. Its length from east to west 
is nearly three miles; and it has been proposed to divide it into three 
districts — Central, Eastern, and Western. The first is to include all 
the grounds occupied by government, extending from a hospital near 
the old burial ground on the east, to the residence of the harbor- 
master on the west. 

One of the oldest and most wealthy mercantile establishments, 
atiiong the foreign merchants in China, occupies the extreme east, 

294 Notices of Hongkong. JvN^i 

a very eligible site called ** East Point." Around that establish* 
nient, and in the rear of it, there are of all sort*, Chinese and Euro- 
pean, perhaps thirty houses. Next to it, proceeding westward, is 
the valey of Wingnai, having three or four new European houses 
and a little village of poor Chinese houses, forty or fifly in all. The 
house of the Morrison Education Society, the hospital of the Medi- 
cal Missionary Society, the Seaman's Hospital, and the residence of 
the chief justice of the colony, with a new guard-house, appear pro- 
minent on high ground this side of the valley. Next, and almost on a 
level with the sea, there is a duster of substantial commercial houses, 
with some buildings occupied as commissariat stores, barracks, 
6lc. The ground between the sea and the hills is narrow along this 
part of the town, called by the Chinese Hid Wdn. The Roman 
Catholic and the old Protestant burial grounds, with a few small 
buildings on the beacb fill up the remaining part of the (contem- 
plated) eastern district of Victoria. 

The ruins of a market with an old military hospital and a maga- 
zine come first in the central division of the town. Next, on high 
ground, are. the badly contrived, half-built and halMemolished, 
death-generating buildings, ouce known as the artillery barracks. 
In front of them three buildings are being erected, which will be an 
.ornament to the settlement. One is a military hospital ; the others 
are lor the engineer and ordinance departments. Between these 
and three large commercial houses, and behind the latter, are some 
twenty or thirty Chinese shops. A line of commissariat buildings, 
partly occupied by the ordinance and engineer departments, fill up 
the space to the streamlet, descending from the east side of Govern- 
roeni House. Behind these commissariat buildings is the Canton 
Bazar ; and above it, westward, some new buildings, designated the 
*' general^s quarters," are in progress, the old ones, occupited by 
lord Saltoun, having been justly condemned and demolished. 

Passing the streamlet, the ground eligible for buildings^ instead 
of being only a few rods in breadth, stretches off up a gentle ac- 
clivity a full half mile. Close by the mouth of the streamlet are 
some barracks, with naval stores on the beach. South of them 
.three buildings are being erected for ofiicers and soldiers. Beyond 
them» southward, are lines of mat-houses, etc., in which are the 
-Indian troops and camp-followers. And i miserable quarters they 
are. The parade-ground comes next, as you go westward. Between 
ii and the Queen's Road is the Colonial Church, a building without 
a prototype, but worthy to be sketched and preserved among the 

1845. Notices of Hongkong. 295 

annals of the colony. The post-office is on the south, and the gov- 
vernor's private residence on the west, of the parade*>ground. Farther 
westward and higher up the hill is Government House, dec. West- 
ward still, and on the beach, are three commerical houses, among 
the best in the colony; above them, on the south of Clueen's Road, 
is the harbor-master's house. Here terminates the central district 
of Victoria. 

The ' western district is an embrio cityi having streets, terraces, 
Slc. Here you may read, Windham St.; D'Aguilar St.; Stanly St.; 
Wellington St.; Pottinger St.; Cochrane St.; Graham St.: Peel St.; 
Aberdeen St; Gough St.; Staunton St.; Elgin St.; Old Baily ; Lynd- 
hurst Terrace ; Aburthnot Road; Holy wood Road; Caine'sRoad; 
d^c; dec. Nothing but a map can give the distant reader a correct 
and full idea of this part of the settlement. It is a mile in length, 
and about one third that distance in breadth. Within it are the buil- 
dings of the magistracy ; the jails ; four chapels ; a mosque ; and 
of other houses, of all descriptions^ perhaps three hundred. It in- 
cludes the central and upper Bazars,— call by the Chinese Chung 
Wan, and ShAng Wdn^ in each of which is a market. Also two 
new guard houses, both occupying commanding sites. 

In the material, and form, and qualities of the buildings there is 
great variety; you may see granite, brick, and mud house. AH the 
buildings early erected for government were every way very poor. 
The house of the chief magistrate is the only exception^ and we are 
not sure that it was built by or for government. All the barracks 
were particularly bad, most of them^ even the hospitals, were unfit 
to keep cattle in. Private houses were generally better^ and some 
of them were good. At present the style of building is superior to 
any thing we have seen in China. Among the best specimens, now 
in progress, we may name the Officers' Quarters, the Military Hos- 
pital, the Club House, the Exchange, and the Union chapel. Good 
verandas and good roofs are now the principal desiderata. In a 
climate like this, so hot and where typhoons afe frequent, no resi- 
dence should be considered safe^ that has not a veranda on all sides, 
and a strong double-tyled roof, faithfully built of the best materials. 
These are necessary to give security from the heat of the sun, and 
from the rain and winds. 

The Queen's Road extends eastward from Victoria io a military 
post, just without the Liyii Mun ; and westward around Possession 
Peak to Shekpai Wan, which is to be called " Standi y." Close to 
Standly, eastward, is Little Hongkong. These places are yet of 
but little note. 

206 Xoiices of Hongkong. June; 

ChekchiJ is important chiefly as a military station ; good barracks 
have already been erected, for the accommodation of the troops 
stationed there. It has a few tens of poor Chinese houses, whose 
inhabitants gain their liYelihood chiefly by fishing. 

The island of Hongkong so far back as the Ming dynasty was 
owned by a respectable family by the name of Tang, When King, 
hf ordered the coast to be cleared of its inhabitants, the possession 
of Hongkong was abandoned. But when the emperor revoked his 
decree, the occupation of it was again resumed, and title-deeds grant- 
ed, authenticated records of which, remain to this day in the offices 
of the chief magistrates of the districts of Sin-ngan and Tungkw^n. 
The land tax for two centuries, and upwards, has been regularly paid 
by this family, its members being considered, by the emperor's go- 
vernment, as its true and rightful landlords. 

By the treaty of Nanking the island was ceded to the British 
crown ; and on the 5th day of April, in the sixth year of her ma- 
jesty's reign, it was erected into a separate colony, to be known and 
designated as " The Colony of Hongkong." But in ail this no provi- 
sion seems to have been made by the Chinese government for the 
original proprietors of the soil, who are now making suit to the 
British government, humbly praying for rennineration. If correctly 
informed, some eight or ten thousand dollars have been paid for cer- 
tain fields in Wangnii Chung and Sukon Pu — not to the members of 
the Tang family however, but to the persons occupying the soif, and 
claiming to be its true and rightful owners.- Whether these are 
thef true landlords or only tenants it is not our prerogative to deter- 
mine. Those in authority no doubt will see well to it, that no injus- 
tice be allowed in this case. 

Regarding the colonial government we have little to say. An 
residents, we have enjoyed all the protection and every immunity 
that could be expected. As eye witnesses, for three years, we have 
marked the progress of events, yet seldom commenting on them. 
We found here an efficient and economical magistracy; and on 
it, for a long time, nearly the whole of the executive labors de. 
volved. The organization of councils, courts, d&c., has brought itr 
some improvements ; yet not a few desiderata, are still wanting. 
Chusan no doubt would make the nucleus of a noble colony, and 
afford advantages far superior to Hongkong, in some respects ; but 
we. are not prepared to say that her majesty would have acted wi.««ely 
or justly had she claimed that island instead of this. However, a 
better policy surely could have been devised for this than that which 

1845. Notices of Hongkong. 297; 

has been developed. It has been indeed an experimental policy, and 
we can therefore easily overlook past errors. Were every legislative, 
enactment, now extant^ cast into oblivion^ and a few plain and prac- 
ticable ordinances introduced in their stead, no one we think would. 
griQve thereat As the legislative council is now constituted* we- see 
not howit'possibly can work well, and give satisfactory results. There, 
inay be goo^ intention enough, and ability enough ; but th^sa caniipt 
compensate for the absence of practical knowledge, experience, and 
local sympathy. In India, for years, it has been the practi^ of go- 
vernment to make public its proposed legislative acts; ^nd in this. 
way it has, by means of a free press and an enlightened community, 
brought to its aid much practical knowledge. 

Regarding the supreme court we hardly dare hazard any opinion. 
Its leading members are able men, and have shown themselves worthy 
of the trust reposed in them. As friends of the Chinese, we should 
like to see this court provided with its learned Chinese advocates. 
We have occasionally attend its cessions, when Chinese have been 
at the bar; and we have there supposed the case reversed, and the 
Chinese made the language of the court, and the ablest sons of Han 
administering justice, and the foreigner seeking redress or laboring 
to make defense. Would the foreigner, in that case, be satisfied ? 
Great care should be taken, in giving testimony, especially were 
life is concerned, that every word h^faithfuUy translated ; otherwise 
how can judge and jury decide rightly ? 

With the magistracy we have had good opportunity of being ac- 
qnainted ; and can bear testimony to the able manner in which case 
after case has been considered and decided. Sometimes we have 
heard complaints, but not against the magistrates. In them the Chi- 
nese have great confidence. It is false witnesses that they dread ; 
05 well they may. The present municipal police is excellent, and 
gives good security for life and property. 

Our limits forbid us to remark in detail on several topics deserv- 
ing attention in this infant colony. It has now, we suppose, s po- 
pulation of 25,000 souls, including all classes, foreign and native : 
and of these more than 20,000 are Chinese. Among the latter there 
are a few respectable families, and it is high time that some more 
extensive plans of education were established for the benefit of those 
permanently residing on the island. The Morrision Education 
Society has a strong claim to public patronage. Hitherto the in- 
stitution has been sustained almost entirely by private liberality. It 
deserves munificent support both private and public, and aught to be 
greatly enlarged. 

VOL. XIV. NO. VI. 38 

293 Mr, Gully's Journal. June,' 

We canoot close these notices without alluding to the dreadful 
mortality that has prevailed on the island. In the summers of 1842 
and 1843, we Tisited some of the hospitals, or private rooms of the 
siek» almost daily ; and have had considerable opportunity to witness 
the progress and effects of disease, and to ascertain its causes. The 
climate is evidently unhealthy; but is becoming less and leas so, 
and may, for aught we see, be made as salubrious as that of any 
other place on the coast of China. The principal causes of sick- 
ness, we think, have been, first, exposure to the heat of the- sun; 
secondly, excess in eating and drinking, — especially the latter ; and 
thirdly, bad houses. Were exposure to the sun properly avoided, 
strict temperance maintained, and elevated and dry and well ventu-"^ 
Uted residences enjoyed, we should expect the sickness to decrease 
full nine-tenth. 

Art. VI. "Journcd kept by Mr. Gutty and capt. Denham, during 
a captivity in China in the year 1842. Edited by a barrister, 
London^ 1844. 

On or about the 13th of August, 1842, one hundred and ninety- 
seven men, late of the British vessels the Ann and Nerbudda, were 
placed on their knees near to each other, their feet in irons and 
their hands manacled behind their backs. . This was on a wide plain 
just outside the gates of the capital of Formosa, and in the presence 
many thousands of Chinese. Those unfortunate men knew not for 
what purpose it was that they were brought from their prisons and 
thus made a public spectacle. In this state of suspense the execu- 
tioners appeared, and with their heavy swords coolly proceeded in 
their mortal work. Their heads were all severed from their bodies ; 
the former, placed in small baskets, were carried away to be exposed 
upon the sea-shore, while their bodies — one hundred and- ninety^ 
seven, were all thrown together into one common grave ! 

Capt. Denham's and Mr. Roop's journals have already been notic- 
ed in our pages. See vol. XII. pp. 113,235. Also some public 
documents, issued by sir Henry Pottinger, will be found in vol. XI. 
pp. 682, 683. 

Among that multitude murdered by the officers of the Chinese 

l84iF, Mr. Gnilif's Journal 299 

government, on the plains of FormoM, there was a gallant young man 
who bad been on board the Nemesis, and honorably distinguished 
himself at the taking of Ningpo. This was Mr. Robert OuIIy. He 
had been engaged in commercial pursuits, previously to joining the 
Nemesis, and was now, March Qth, 1842, embarking at Chusan, on 
board the Ann» to revisit bis friends in Macao, " intending to return 
again in time to see Peking taken.'' We have carefully read his 
journal and letters, from that date till a fews days before his death— 
of which he probably had no intimation previously to being brought 
with the others to the field of blood. It is not our intention to dwell 
on the melancholy particulars of their imprisonment and death ; we 
shall content ourselves with gleaning from the journal of Mr. QuUy 
a few interesting particulars regarding the country and the people 
which he saw. And these we shall lay before our readers either 
in his or our own words, being careful always to exhibit the facts 
as they are stated in the journal. All the particulars of the wreck, 
dLC, are already in the hands of our readers. 

*'Marth 14tL Shortly afler breakfast we heard a noise outside, and sa^ 
speais and flaga Our guards told us we were going away. One of them 
called Mr. Roope aside, and took him up a ladder where he sung out to me 
for assistance. Captain Denham and myself went up to him and found the 
soldier trying to persuade Mr. Roope to go up stairs^ and made motions for 
us not to go out to the mandarins. We went up to a small clean rooro» where 
the num wanted us to remain, but thinking it was only for the purpose of 
plunder that he wished to keep us, we determined to go with the resL Per- 
haps the fellow had beard of our offer to the junkman and really meant well, 
but it was difficult to judge. We were then all taken before three "^ly^Rrinf, 
tickets put round our necks, and we marched under a stroQg escort of 
-soldiers to a small walled town inland about three miles. The walls were 
of round stone and chunam. We passed from one end of the town to the 
other, where we were seated under the walls close lo a mandarin's office 
fbr about half an hour, I suppose for the people to have a good look at us. 
We were then taken into the mandarin's premises and divided into two 
parties, the soldiers having previously told us we were going to be behead- 
ed, which I should have believed if they had not overdone the thing by 
beginning to sharpen their swords on the stones. We were put into two 
cells about eight feet by seven eacii, in each of which were stowed twenty- 
five of us and three jailers or guards, the weather extremely cold, nothing 
to lay our heads on, and nothing but a sprinkling of straw to keep us from 
the ^mp bricks. The land on .each side of the road was cultivated and rice 
growing, the fields were very small, and only divided by a low round em- 
bankment about one foot high. The villages appeared to be pretty, from their 
being surrouaded by bamboo. Here, for the first time, 1 saw a wheeled 

300 Mr. Gully s Journal. June, 

6art, but we had before noticed the marfce of wheels on our first march. It 
^nd a very clumsy affiiir, dnwn by a bullock. It was paaaing across the 
ploughed grouud for no reason that I could see except that there was no other 
ro4d. The wheels were composed of two solid pieces of wood joined together 
in the centre, with a hole which merely slipped on to the axle-tree and was 
confined by a iinch*pin. The cart was of bamboo. The irheels made very 
curious gyrations in their passage through the mud. In the villages we were 
stared at by every body, women and all. The women were unaccountably 
plfldii even fdr Chinese women, both here and through all parts of the island 
I liave seen, but they have a very pretty fkshion of wearing natural flowers 
in their fiair. On bur road We paned several parties empfoyed Carrying the 
bfig^ guns in the same direction that we were traveling' Altogether, I think 
under other circumstances I should have enjoyed this trip much, but my feet 
were so painful with the sores oS our former march that I could not As it 
was, it was a great relief after the crowded granary, and I think did me good. 
15th. Nothing of any moment occurred except that wc were joined by 
the gunner and sea-cunnies, missing up to this time. They had been 
touch better treated than ourselves, and had clothes given to them, though 
rather of a fantastic nature. The treatment may, perhaps, be partly attri- 
buted lb their thinking the gunner to be some great man, firom his having a 
Inermaid marked on his arm, in the way common among sea-faring people. 
They partly labored under this mistake up to this present meeting. Both 
thiJB day and the 16th we were crowded by visiters, who were a great nui- 
'bance. The government people who'~~came, all told the same lie, — that we 
%6re going to be sent away in a jnnk. One fellow took the trouble to draw 
tiie out one side to explain it more clearly. If we ever placed relisace in. 
their words we were undeceived on the evening of the 17th, for we were 
then all taken before mandarins, ticketed, a fresh name given to each, and 
ornamented with handcuib, we were placed in chairs and conveyed out of 
the town. We passed outside, and for some miles over a coontiy tolerably 
cultivated. We were told in the villages we passed through that we were 
going to have our heads taken off During the passage my bearers capsized 
my chair three times, which was occasioned by the slippery state of the 
fbotp^. I enjoyed this much more than the bearers, who got a good blow- 
ing up from the soldiers by whom we wers attended every time it happened. 
At last they persuaded the man who had charge of the key of my handcufib 
to allow me to walk, which I agreed to do as long as the road continued 
soft. (The man witli the key attended me all the way to T&iwan fd) I was 
glad enouflfh to take advantage of the permission to walk. I particularly 
observed that the soldiers in many instances carried a very superior kind of 
matchlock to any I had seen in China before, and they were kept in much 
better order. The barrels were cut outside, six square, and as well as the 
bore were quite smooth and bright Some again were wretched-looking 
beings with rusty spears, shields and old caps, without any stifl^ning in thi^ 
• borders. These I conjf*etur«>d were the militia, the others regulars. A 
short time after I obaorved wheat growing, but the crops were only small 

1845. Mr. Gully's Journal. 301 

and poor in companson to those comiiion in England. This was the case 
thraiighout the whole joarney to thie town, and I date aay the Chioeae 
underatand as little about growing wheat or barley aa our farmera know 
abont rice. We aoon cam-i to a very barren deacription of conntiyy inter- 
eating to gedogiata only. Immenae plaina atretehing inland as far as we 
cooldaee, compoaed of round atonea, the aame aa we call ** boulders" in 
Yorkahire, with hilla or mountaina formed of the same, no vegetation being 
visible except now and then a green spot on the very tops of the hills, the 
first of which was aome miles from the sea. Up to the time of our 
wreck I had always imagined the shore of Formosa to be very bold, from 
having seen these hills often while at sea. The land, between them and the 
sea, is so very low and without trees that it must be very deceiving to any 
one at sea, and I doubt very much if the channel, as laid down in the chart, 
is not too wide. During this, bur first trip in sedans, we were shown many 
little roadside public houses, where we were taught how to spend our mace 
by the man who had charge of each. These houses, together with every 
building we passed, were formed of the before-mentioned boulders and mud, 
with, in many insiances, a large wide-spreading tree or trees with seats 
close to them. The country had a most wild and heavy aspect, more so 
than any I ever saw, and I began to think Formosa a sad misnomer. The 
scattered houses were few and far between, and the people appeared a more 
wretched ill-clothed race than I ever saw in China before. This day's 
march, altogether in a southerly direction, was about twenty-five miles ; we 
crossed several streams ruaning to the westward, all of which were evidently 
smaller than at some other seasons of the year. We also passed several 
small towns not walled, or if so^ the walls were only of mud, but all had 
gates, one a brick one, the other bamboo. We suffered all sorts of abuse 
and indignities in passing through these, as well as all the others throughout 
the whole journey ; but the women did not join in ihisy although they showed 
the usual curiosity of the sex. We arrived at our halting-place, a large 
town with high walls made of brick, about dusk ; for some miles previous to 
getting there, the country was a continued paddy swamp interperacd with 
email hamlets, surrounded with bamboo, which grows here larger than I 
ever saw in other places. I have noticed it full sixty feet high. I found, 
on minute inspection, that the axle-trees of the wheeled carta turned with the 
wheels. The bazar of this town appeared well furnished with fish. We 
observed the mast heads of several junks a short distance to the westward, 
and these were the only signs of the sea that met our eye until we got close 
to Taiwan fd. -^ . 

Mr. Gully throughout his journey on Formosa saw a great many 
graves " precisely like our own,'' and but very few with the usual 
Chinese-shaped tombstones. He complains much, and evidently 
with gcxKl cause, of cruel treatment. He says : 

** Our jailer I believe to be the moat wicked brute that ever was created. 
We were in a den so small that not one of us could stretch our legs at 

•10*2 J/r. Gully s Journal. June, 

night, being coiled up like dogs. Dtiring the time I bad the piles, I did not 
sleep for nights together. Ten of us, viz., the five sea-cunmes, two Manilla 
men, the gunner, Mr. Partridge, and myself with a bucket in a wretched 
hovel only eleven feet six inches by seven feet nix, and for two months and 
more we were confined in it, and never allowed out but once a day to 
wash, and at firat this was not allowed, and when it was, fortTpwards of a 
month, only one or two could waBh every morning, unless they washed in 
the water used by the others, the villain of a jailer being too lazy to furnish 
more than a few pints every morning." 

AH sorts of provisions, especially vegetables and fruits, seem to 
have been plentiful, but the supply for the prisoners was ofteii small 
enough. The mangoes were good, and were sold among the people 
at the rate of 1500 and 2000 for a dollar. He found this fruit 
wholesome, and ate it, rind and all, to cure the dysentery. He 
also took opium for the same purpose, and thus notices its effects: 
''in a quarter of an hour it began to make me feel quite happy, in 
an hour quite sick, and laid me on my back the whole day." He 
often also complains of the nightmare, bad sleep, d&c. He thus 
describes his residence : 

**Ju/^25^ Up as usual. Fine morning, but slept badly. Nightmare 
all night I have just thought that in case this should survive us it may be 
interesting to know the furniture of our abode. The cell is all but as large 
as the opposite one from which we were removed, but we have three advan« 
tages over our opposite neighbors, viz., 1. There are only three of usl 9. The 
window has dnly single bars. 3. We have air-holes in the rooH To sleep 
on we have ^ye hard-wood planks about eight feet long by fourteen inches 
wide and two thick. The floor is of broken bricks. A bamboo is slung 
nearly the length of the place, on which in the daytime we hang our mats, 
two in number, for sleeping on. Besides these I now see two towels hang- 
ing from it, one made from part of an old pair of cotton dnwers, and the 
other of grass cloth given me by Zu Quang Leon. Ditto belonging to Mr. 
Partridge, and a bundle of papers, sketches, &c., tied up by a string. On 
the east wall are the remains of a picture of Chin Hoe damaged by the rain. 
The window faces the west. On one side of it is hanging my pipe, given 
me by the captain's party. On the other is a small looking-glass given me 
by one of the jailers, a number of pencils and four monghoons. Our pillows 
of pieces of bamboo, with a quanny-mat for keeping the afiernoon^s sun out 
of the place, and a checquer-board are on the planks. On the north wall are 
hanging our washing-tub, which cost us 50 cash, a broom for sweeping 
the planks, a basket containing some hooks, &c., belonging to the former 
occnpants ; a basket containing our chop-sticks and spoons of bamboo, the 
gunner's towel and a stick for carrying a lantern. In this wall is a small 
recess containing a clay lamp and stand, a few bamboo sticks, and two iron 
wires for cleaning pipes, three papers, of tobacco and some waste-paper. In 

1845. Mr. Gully's Journal. 30n 

the corner two sticks have been driven into the wall on which rest the log-. 
books and some papers. Below that is a small shelf, on which are placed 
several cups, and broken saucers, and paints, two chow-chow cups (I broken 
the third a week ago)^ given us by Jack, a small earthenware kettle for 
boiling tea-water and brewing samshu when we can get it, given us by 
Aticoa. Below the shelf is suspended a hollow piece of bamboo holding 
our firepan, and below that a small fireplace, likewise a present from Aticoa* 
a cooking pot bought by ourselves, another containing charcoal (the pot 
given by Jack)^ several old straw shoes and pieces of bamboo' for smoking 
out the musquitoes. On the south side are pendant, ist, the Bank, a string 
of cash about 80 or 90, a fan, a small basket containing a few opium pilla and 
our stock of tea, my hat which cost 30 cash ; I have covered it with oiled 
paper. I am sitting on a bamboo stool which belongs to the former occu- 
piers of the place, my foot resting on another given Mr. Partridge by the 
towka (I suppose the head jailer). Opposite is the door, behind it the 
bucket ; on my left is the window, on the sill of which are two combs, one 
of which bought for thirteen cash a few days after my arrivel at this town, 
being money I had saved from the mace per day allowed us during the jour- 
ney. My fan is sticking in the window, and I am writing with this book 
resting on a board painted red with black characters on it, and two green 
eyes above looking at them. I think this is all. No, I have forgotten to 
mention that on the south wall hang my long ell trousers given roe by Kit* 
chil, lascar, my grass cloth ones, given me by the lotier, and a pair of woolen 
socks given me by Francis ; and from the same string hangs Mr. Roope's 
log. If you can call any thing in this list a luxury, you must recollect that 
we have only had it lately ; for two months we had nothing, and were an- 
ttoyed by myriads of fleas, bugs, lice, ants, musquitoes, and centipedes, with* 
out a possibility of getting rid of them, except by death or a miracle. I 
have on my back now the only shirt (and a woolen one too) I have had for 
nearly five months, and half a pair of cotton drawers are on my legs, t 
omitted to mention, that on the north wall is my calendar. Every morning 
I scratch with the head of a rusty nail, the day of the month We have also 
a third wooden -stool lent to us by Aticao. Employed we are, but the days 
are awfully tedious, and I am sadly at a loss for something to pass away the 
time, and feel the want of books.** 

We h|ive space for no more extracts ; these however are enough, 
and they show fairly and fiilly the manner in which the prisoners 
passed their days and nights, and show us also somewhat of their 
sufferings. But the authors of their sufferings, and their cruel 
murderers — where are they ? Have they been brought to justice 1 

304 JifHtnal of Occutttnttts 

Art. VII. Joutnal of Ocrut^tences : dnadfut loss of life by the 
burning of a theaite in Canton i commetce of Fuchaufu; return 
of the major^cnercU lyAgnilat from the north : surveys on 
the coasts of China and Pomupsa : Chinese pirates: relations^ 
of the Chinese with foreigners. 

On Sunday the 25th ult., early in the afternoon, a large theatre, 

which had been erected near the hall for public examinationt in 

Canton, was consumed by fire r and 2300 persons, men, women and 

children perished in the flames. About 30 buildings, adjacent the 

theatre, were also consumed. 

By a goTernment notification in the China Mail, dated the 18th 

instant, we see H. B. M's. consul, at Fuhchau gires assurances of 

the feasibility of procuring teas directly from the Wu i (Bohea) 

Hills, instead of bring them oYerland to Canton. On this point 

we have had no doubt since Mr. Gordon's visit some years back. 

The consul says : 

** I have asf oranec fVom more than one souroe, that tea can be sent here 
from the districts where it is grown, with such reasonable facilitv and mode- 
rate degree of risk as to remove the apprehension of either difficnlty or danger 
offering any serious impediment, and a at cost altogether trifling, compared 
with the expense of carriage of its transport to Canton. This difference in the 
expense of carriage is of itself sufficient to make a Ivge diminution in the price 
of tea to the English merchant. As to the feelings of the first producers and 
the tea merchant in the interior, my informant expresses not only the anxions 
desire of his own firm, but that of the tea-growers generally, to find a market 
for their produce here in preference to Canton. In conjunction with houses 
in the city, I have every reason to believe undertakinn will readily be entered 
into to bear all the expense and risk at transit, and deliver teas at a fixed 
price, safe and sound, either at Fuchan, or the anchorage of larger vessels at 
Pagoda islands.*' 

The hon. major general D'Affuilar, commander of H. B. H/s 
forces in China, arrived in Hongkong on the 17th instant, from a 
visit to the northern ports. 

Our readers will be glad to know that the surveys of the Chinese 
coast are now completed, from Wiisung to Hongkong. Capt Col- 
linson has kindly favored us with an opportunity of inspecting his 
new charts, of the coast between Namoh and Hongkong ; in a few 
days these will be completed, and he will proceed to the east coast 
of Formosa, to prosecute surveys in those unfrequented waters. 

One of the lesser benefits resulting from all these surveys will b^ 
the detection and disludgement of numerous bands of pirates. We 
have before us a petition presented to one of the officers of the sur^ 
vering squadron, from the peaceful inhabitants of Y&ng Sh&n, one of 
the idands north of Chusan. The protection sought was granted. 
We have not space to give the petition, but it shows how defenseless 
the islanders are, and how much they are harrassed by these ** tigers 
and wolves." 

The relations of the Chinese with foreigners continue most 
pacific and satisfactory. An installment, — the last but one, of the 
821^000,(M)0 — is about to be paid in Canton. 



Vol. XIV.— July, 1845.— No. 7. 

,* , 

Art. I. . The Jews in China : their synagogue, tJiHr Scriptures, 
their history, S^c, S^c., ^c. By Jatnes Finn, author- of the 

^^ history of the Jews in Spain and Portugal, London 1843. 
Pp, jSo, duodecimo. 

By way of introduction, Mr. Finn says : "This little work may serve 
.to'call atteantipn to a very peci^iar branch of the children oi Israel, 
to whom but au occasional allusion, aimOsl without remark, has 
hitherto been made in this ^TAMLvf. Ilather more has been done 

-on ihe eeniinent. and some learned foreigners have written disquisi- 
tions upon various pomts of the subject: y-^i all have been too much 

'contented to give the blire statements oft hi; missionaries, with' their 
mbtakes and inconsequences; not always citin<T even these with 
precision, apd therefore:^ dj Bering somewhat from ench otaer. The 

.^present digest is by no means a mere translation, ^or the sake of 
a uniform orthography in European letters, the Chinese.. names and 

(terms heire cited are reguiated by Dr. Morrison's Dieiionary, and 

' his "vView of China for Philological Purposes,'' the vow.el& having 
their English sour»d. The difference of spelling the same words in 

* the various books referred to, is often sufficiently amusing. We are 
indebted Tor our present knowledge of the Chinese Jews to the 
Jesuit missionaries in that country. Let us hope to receive new 
information concerning them from future missionaries, who shall 
preach only acpording^ to the written word of God, who. shall be free 
from the least taint of idolatry ; men animated with zeal for the 
salvation of mankind, and at the same time rendering obedience to 
ecclesiastical discipline. The new position of England, arising 

VOL. XIV. NO. VII. 39 

306 Tkt Jews in China. July, 

from the treaty of Nanking, 29th August, 1842, ought to encourage 
many such men to proclaim Christianity in that empire. Facilitiea 
of Yarious kinds for such a work are now before us. The Jews there 
will be unimpeachable witnesses to the truth of the Old Testament, — 
the New Testament and our scriptural Liturgy are already rendered 
into Chinese by English predecessors in the field, — and we may rest 
assured that the divine blessing will not be wanting to sanctioa 
every effort made in promoting the spiritual good of China." 

To his preface Mr. Finn subjoins the following list of books re- 
ferring to the Jews in China. 

1. Trigaltius, de Christiana E!zpeditione apud Sinas. Aug. Vind.'1615| 

p. iia 

2. Imperio de la China, i cultoia evangelica en ^L Per el P. Alvaro 
Semmedo. fVIadrid, 1642, p. 196. 

d. Letters ^difiantes et curieuaep, Recueil vii. Paris, 1707, Lettre Ire. 
. 4. Duhalde, Description de la China. Pol., Paris, 1735, torn. iii. p 64.' 

5. Degoignes, Histoire g6n^rale des Huns, &c. Paris, 1756, p. 26L 

6. Brotier, Tacitus, Paris 1771^. torn, iii p.. 567. The dissertation on this 
iubject is qpiitted in the later editions. 

7. Kinnicott, Dissertatio generaiis in Biblia Hebraica. Fol., Oxon., 
1776. p. €.•>. ' . ' 

■•. Mkhaeiis, Oneutaii'^che Bibi? k. ":^. v. p. 70 ; Th. ix. p. 40 ; Th. 
XV. p. J 5. ' " ^ «. . ^ 

9. Letters edinanies el curie u- . .vi''^ ^xi. 
10 Eichhom, Einleitung in das alie TesiamenL Leipzig, 1781. Th. iu 

p. 131. 

* ... • 

11. MurrtChr. Tbcoph. de; Diarii litterarii. Hale, 1797. Th. ix. p. 61. 

12. Murr (Chr. Gottli<*^^ v^*^^ Neue« Journal zur litteratur und kunstges* 
chichte. Leipzig, 1708 a. i. p. 147. 

13. Cibot tPif>rrej Digression sur le temps </.. l*^i Juiis ont pass^ in China, 
dans lee *' Menioires concemant I'bistoire, les mcBurs, dtc, des Chinois." Par 
les MissioiuKtires de Pekin. Paris, 1791, torn, x v. p. 52. 

14. Keglerii (P. Ignatii) Notitin S.S. Bibliorum Judeorum in Imperio 
Sinensi. Hale, 1805. This is a reprint, from the *^Neues Journal,'' &c., 
of Murr., Th. viL, and accompanied by the treatises, 1. De Sacy era Jude- 
orum Sinensium. 2. Chr. Theoph. de Murr., '* Series chronologica rerum 
Judaicarum in imperio SinensL" 3 Cibot, reprinted above-mentioned '^Me- 
moires concemant, &c. 

15. Traits de la Chronologie Chinoise par le P. Gaubil, et public par De 
Sacy. Paris, 1814, p. 264. 

16 Jewish Expositor. London, 1816, pp. 101, 135, 414. 

17. Groaier, Description de la Chine. Paris, 1819, torn. iv. p. 484. 

18. Calniet*s Dictionary of the Bible. London, 1823.. Vol. iv., p. 251. 

19. Sionnet (LWbbc) Essai sur les Jcifs (ft la Chine. Paris, 1837. 


1845. ^The Jews in China. 307 

We shall make no apology for quoting entire chapters from thi« 
little book, which comprises in narrow limits the most important 

particular known respecting the Jews in China, and in a better style 

• ... 

than, we have met with elsewhere. 

Discovery and intercourse. 

The Jesuit missionaries were but a short time settled in Peking, 
when one summer's day, at the beginning of the seventeenth centuryi 
a visitor called upon Father Matthew Ricci, induced to do so by an 
account then recently published in the metropolis, of the foreigners 
who worshiped a single Lord of heaven and earth, and yet were not 
Mohammedans. Entering the house with a smile, he announced 
himself as one of the same religion with its inmates. The missionary 
remarking how much his features and figure differed from those 
among the Chinese, led him to the chapel. It was St. John Bap* 
tist's-daf, and over the altar was a painting of the Virgin Mary with 
the .infant Jesus, and the future Baptist on his knees before theni. 
The stranger bowed to the picture as Ricci did, but explained, at 
the same time, that he was not accustomed to do so before any such 
representations ; only he could not refrain from paying the usual 
homage of the country to his great ancestors. Beside the altar w ere 
pictures of the four evangelists. He inquired if these were not of 
the twelve? Ricci answered in the affirmative, supposing him to 
mean the twelve apostles. Then returning to the first apartment, 
he proposed questions in turn, and an unexpected explanation en- 
sued. The stranger was a descendant of Israel, and during his 
survey of the chapel, had imagined the large picture to represent 
Rebekah with Jacob and Esau, and the other persons to denote four 
of the sons of Jacob. 

It was some time before this simple explanation could be elicited, 
on account of the misunderstanding on both sides, which impeded 
the use of direct interrogation. The visitor, however, knew nothing 
of the appellation, Jew: he styled himself an Israelite, by name 
Ngai, a native of Kae-fung-foo, the capital of the province, Honan, 
where, having prepared himself by study for a mandarin degree, he 
had now repaired to Peking for his examination ; and led by curio- 
sity or a fellow-feeling for the supposed fraternity of his nation, he 
had thus ventured to call at the mission-house. 

He stated, that in his native city there were ten or twelve families 
of Israelites, with a fair synagogue, which they had recently restored 
and decorated at an expense of ten thousand crowns,* and in which 

* Decern aureorum millibut inttaurirant.— Trigaut. 

308 The Jews in China. July, 

they preserved a roll of the law, four or five hundred years old ; add- 
ing, that in Hangchow-foo, the capital ofChekeang, there were con- 
siderably more families with their synagogue. 

He made several allusions to events and persons of Scripture 
history, but pronounced the names differently from the mode usual 
in Europe. When shown a Hebrew Bible he was unable to read 
it, though he at otice recognised the characters. H6 said, thftl 
Hebrew learning was still maintained among his people, that his 
brother was proficient in it ; and he seemed to confess that his own 
neglect of it, with preference for Gentile literature, had exposed him 
to eehsiire from the congregation and the rabbi;* but this gave him 
little concern, as his ambition aimed at the honors to be gained 
from Chinese learning — a disciple rather of Confucius than oiT 

Three years afterwards, baviiig had no earlier opportunity, Riccfi 
dispatched a Chinese Christian to investigate, at Ka6-fung-foo, the 
truth of this singular discovery. All wa^ found to be as described, 
and the messenger brought back with hiin a copy of the titles lind 
endings of the five books of Moses. Thdse were toinpared with thb 
printed Plantinian Bible, and found to correspond exactly : the writ- 
ing, however, had no vowel-points. Ricci, ignorant of Hebi^w, 
commissioned the 'same native convert to return with an epistle^ ih 
Chinese, addressed to the rabbi, announcing thai At Peking he Was 
possessor of all the other books of the* Old - Testament, as well as 
those of the liew Testament, which contains a record 6f the acts df 
Messiah, who is already come. In reply, the rabbi lisserted thst 
Messiah is not only hot come, but that he would not appear for ten 
thousand years. He added, that having heard of the fame of his 
correspondent, he' would willingly transfer to him the ^tovernment 
of the synagogue, if Htcci would abstain from swine's flesh, and 
reside with the community. .» • - 

Afterwards arrived three Israelites together from the same cit^, 
apparently willing to receive Christianity ; one of these was son of 
the brother, already mentioned, of the first visitor. "They were 
received with kindness, and instructed in many things of which 
their rabbis were ignorant :" and when taught the history of Christ, 
they all paid to his image the same adoration as their entertainers 
did. Some books being given them in the Chinese language, such 


''None of the mistionaries aie this word; but in Latin thiey say, ** Archi- 
syna^giis," and in French, "Chef de la tyna^ogae;" but we Bhall find 
reason to justify the use of the more familiar term. 

l^ri The Jews in China, 309 

an, '^ A Compendium of Christian Faith/' and others of the same 
nature, they read them, and carried them home at their return. 

They described their congregation as on the brink of extinction* 
partly from the decay of their national language, and partly because 
their chief had lately died at a very advanced age, leaving for his 
hereditary successor a son, very young, and very little versed in the 
peculiarities of their religion. 

These personages readily fell in with several opinions of the mi»- 
Bionaries. Trigaut tells us that they expressed a desire for pictures 
as helps to devotion, to be in their synagogue and private oratories, 
particularly for pictures of Jesus. Thiey complained of the interdict* 
tion from slaughtering animals for themselves, which, if they had 
not transgressed recently upon the road, they must have perished 
with huhger. They were likewise ready to renounce the rite of 
circumcision on the eighth day, which their wives and the surround- 
ing heathen denounced as a barbarous and cruel practice. And 
iltey held out the expectation, that inasmuch as Christianity offers 
telief in such matters, it would be easily adopted among their peo- 
"ple. Yet the author gives no account of any consequent conversions. 
He passes on abruptly from this subject of Jewish Jilth io relate the 
prog'tess of C^rts^ton truth in China. 

It Appeared, on further inquiry, that the Chinese comprise undet 

'the one designation, Hwuy-hwuy, the three religion of Israelites, 

'Mohammedans, and the Cro6S*worshipers, descendants of early Sy- 

rran Christians, subsisting in certain provinces, but occasionally dis- 

tingoishiiig them thus : — 

t. .'The Mohammedans, as the Htouy abstaining from pork. 

'52/ The Ismelites, as the Hwuy viYko cut out the nerves and siiiewB 
from their meat ; and, -^ 

3. The Cross-worshipers, who refuse to eat of animals which 
h^ve an undivided hoof; which latter restriction, it was said, the 
IsraeHtes there did not observe. 

Julius Aleni, after the death of Ricci, being a Hebrew scholar, 
visited Ktie-fung-foo about the year 1613, but found circumstances so 
much changed from some cause or other, that although he entered 
the synagogue and admired its cleanliness,* they would not withdraw 
the curtains which concealed the sacred books. 

In Nanking Semmedo was informed by a Mohammedan, that ih 
that city he knew of four families of Jews who had embraced thie 
religion of the Koran, they being the last of their race there, and 
their itistructons having failed as their humbers diminished. 

* "If any synagogue can be free from uaclevmeM." — Semmedo. 

916 The Jews in China. Jult, 

Indeed, the visitors from Kae-fung-foo had before assured Ricci, in 
Peking, that the same cause would soon reduce them to the alterna-p 
tive of becoming heathens or Mohammedans. 

However, Semmedo, writing in 1642, consoled himself with the 
hope that whereas a Christian church had been recently erected in 
that, city, the congregation of the synagogue would rather receive 
Christianity, which besides the consideration of being the truth, is 
most nearly allied to their own religion; 

The Mohammedans of Nanking he described as a motley collecs* 
.tion from various nations and aeras of settlement ; one of whom had 
surprised him by conversing about David, Abraham, Isaac, and Ja«> 
cob, pronouncing these names very distinctly. He compared their 
condition to that of the Jews; while in Spain, they being mostly mer- 
chants or physicians, only held in higher consideration than the 
Spanish Jews had been : inasmuch as in China the public honors 
'ar0. open to all aspirants. ., 

Such was the amount of intelligence received in Europe concern- 
ing that remote off-shoot of Israel up to the middle of the seventeeth 
century. Christendom was not unconcerned at the discovery; Chi- 
na itself was but a newly-opened mine for European research.; the 
indistinct glimpses afforded by Marco Polo in the thirteenth century 
were indeed extending into broader fields of vision, by means of the 
obedient zeal of Romanist missionaries. But when Xavier,. expir- 
ing within sight of China, before admission was conceded to Chris- 
tianity, prayed for its conversion with his latest accents,, and when 
Valignano so frequently turned his looks from Macao towards the 
prohibited land, exclaiming, "Orock, jock, when wilt thou open?" 
they were not aware that within that strong solidity was to be found 
a relic of the peculiar nation who are everywhere witnesses of the 
" goodness and .the severity of God." .1 

The devout rejoiced at this fresh demonstration of Scripture truth 
respecting the scattered yet guarded race ; the philosophical mar- 
velled at.jtlie face pf a Mosaic people so ancient as to be ignorant of 
,the denomination Jew, emigrants out of empires now long since 
extinct, into a very different phasis of civilization, but preserved 
with theii old language and religion even to these days; and, more- 
over, that with s(i slight efforts made, these should be known to 
exist at four various points, containing a line of seven hundred 
miles, viz., from Peking to.Hangchow-foo. 

But, perhaps, no class of men felt greater concern in the event 
than the laborious Biblical critics of that time. To them the finding 

1845. 7^ Jews in China. 311 

of some of that nation *' to whom were committed the oracles of 
God," yet supposed to be of too ancient a separation to be cogrnizani 
of either the Samaritan, Septuagint, or Masoretic texts of the Old 
Testament, yet still guarding their copies of the law of Bfoses, was 
a circumstance most pregnant with hopeful interest, and the more 
a matter of anxiety as these Israelites were represented as' almost 
ceasing to subsist, and there was great possibility that wuffthe fai*- 
lure of Hebrew reading, consequent on the adoption of a novel 
creed, the manuscripts themselves might be suffered to perish. - The 
subject was referred to in the Prolegomena (Hi. § 41) of Walton's 
Polyglott Bibfe, and in the Preface to Jabfonski's Hebrew Bible 
(^38), and further information as to the text of the Chinese copies 
of the Pentateuch was ardently desired. 

A fuller account was afterwards received from Father Gozanr, 
dated Kae-fung-foo, November, 1704, and published in 1707.* Dur- 
ing this interval of more than sixty years' residence in the samexity, 
with the only known synagogue in China, no intercourse had taken 
place between the missionaries and them, beyond one visit from Ro- 
driguez de Figueredo, and another from Christian Enriquez, but 
'wlib had shown no curiosity to inspect the Hebrew books, and made 
'iio respect on the subject to their superiors; the Yact that they had 
made any visit was only learned by Gozani from the people of the 
synagogue. It is true that the Jesuits had found abundant occupa- 
iiSsta *in their direct duties, in political intrigues, and in dispiites 
'With' their rivals of the monkish orders, 'biit for these lattisr employ- 
^m^nts the wise and the learned in Edrope had but little cause ta 
thank them. ' - - * 

From the communication of Gozani, it appears that in 1702 he 
Had intended to visit the Taou'kin^keaou^i i. e., "the sect who cut 
out the smew,*' as the Israelites were expressively designated, but 

'was deterred by some imaginary obstacles, and' by the real difficulty 

•It,,* ... ,^« ■...,,, 

in his ignorance of the Hebrew language, but had resumed the task 
two years afterwards in obedience to instructions sent from Rome. 
He commenced by advancing certain civilities ; in return they 
visited him ; and then he proceeded to their synagogue (Le-pae-sze), 
'ihie distance being only that of a few streets, where he found them 
assembled. They showed hitn their religious books and even XeA 
him to the most sacred part of the edifice, to which onfy the rabbi 
(Chang-keaou) has right of access. With great politeness the j 

* In *^ Lettrea editiantes et cnrieuset." — Recueil vii. 

t The Chinese characters for these words are 'Ft nft ^ski* ' 

913 Tke Jtws in Ckma, Juu% 

gave him all the explaoatious . he requested as tu thetc Scriptures, 
Iheir history, and their religious ceremonies; On the walls .he perj 
ceiTed inscriptions both in Chinese and Hebrew : these they permits 
led, him to copy, and he dispatched the copies with his letter to 
RpqEie. The whole reception, testified that the unfriendliness of the 
last half century between the neighbors was not. attributable to ^h^ 
Israelite community. ., . ,♦ ,. , .,i.^ . .. 

/JThe curiosity of Europeans being pnly the more excited from this 
narrative, as. there .still . remained much to learn, at the instance of 
Souciety- who was compiling a large work upon the .Bibles. t)ie mi^ 
sioiuries Gozani» Domenge, imd Gaubil, w:ere - successifely directed 
to., procure, additional parl;ieulax8 on the subject, which, they did. 
Domenge sketched a plan of the synagogue, and Gaubil copie^ 
afresh the inscriptions upcm its walls.-. Shortly afler the last of these 
visits, in 1723, the missionaries were expelled from that province by 

...An effort was afterwards made by the celebrated Kenqicptt.-of 

Oxford, ta obtain a collatipn of their Scriptures with our popie?^ 

when sir.F. Pigou, being on his way to Canton, carried out.for hioji 

a printed Hebrew Bible r of Amsterdam edition : but the only, ^eQujIt 

hi^ been a jettePTeceived in 1769»:from a ^iend ther^^.prpip^sin^^^p 

exert himself for the. purpose, and stating. that the.titula^ bishfop^^f 

the province was willing to render l^is assistance.. 

. .The learned Tychaen» upon two later occasions, in J 777, and 

.1779, forwarded friends in Batavia, addressed ip the syna- 

gogae of Kaerfung-fpo, but jior information has :b^eu returned, as, to 

their having even reached 'China. i, .t..^^. 

. Ia48i5,.the year previous to the last embassy from England to 

the celestial empire, some Jews of London had dispatphed a letter |n 

.Hebrew to Canton for this synagogue. It was conveyed thei]M:e by 

.a traveling i)ookseller . of the Honan province. He delivered it at 

.Kae-fuug-foo, to a person whom he found to understand the Jeiter 

p<^.rfectly, and who promised to answer it in a few days. )>ut the 

bearer taking. fdarm at a rumor of civil war, lefl the place without 

'■*-•* ..-. m. ' t • ^ -•1ft .. .'.••-.1— 'V'«^* 

waiting for the reply.* .^ , .. . . ... 

.^Xhe recent missionaries from England have learned nothing con- 
cerning this colony, only in 1816, Dr. Morrison heard of them from 

^ i •• ■ ■ • • ■• » . .4. •-'l.'.I-.i.'i 

,a. Mohammedan near. Pekingyt a^ subsisting in Kae-fung-:fpo und^r 

..their old name of '* the religion of cutting ovit the sinew'' an ap- 

peilation so appropriately Jewish, that no other people than desceu- 


* Journal of the EmKaasy to Vyhina. By Henry Ellis. 1817. 
t Davis's Chinese. • Vol. I, p. 15.' - 

ISioL The Jews in China, 313 

claiits of Jacob could 6vcii assign arcasoD for its origin, if they were 
to assume the name for any purpose. 

Proceeding, then, from the information given by the Jesuits al- 
ready mentioned, the account in the following chapters of the syna- 
gogue, Scriptures, inscriptions, &.C., must be understood only of 
Kae-fung-foo, and upon the statements there detailed must be based 
the after-inquiry, as to whether the people are Jews or Israelites, 
that is, whether emigrants from* the Assyrian captivity or the« Roman 
dispersion. » t^ 

The Synagogue. 
The first report made concerning the house for divine worship of the 
Hebrew in Kae-fung-foo was meagre in the extreme. Aleni visited 
there, and the attendants for some temporary and unexpected reason, 
refused to draw the curtains which concealed the sacred volume. 
He de-scribed the building as very handsome, and carefully kept. 

The early missionaries, Ricci, Figueredo, and Enriquez, appear 
to have. been absorbed in the stupendous task placed before ihqm — 
that of converting unknown millions of heathen to the discipline of 
the Roman Church. They were, probably, men of robust mental 
character and untiring industry, fitted for rougher duties than the 
pursuits of. a learned leisure; such, indeed, is the prevailing tone of 
their correspondence. They were unacquainted with the Hebrew 
language and Jewish customs, both of which their early education 
hrid trained them to despise. Gozani, being one of the same stamp, 
while obeying singly tltp urgent instructions from his general, in 
respect to the Jewish colony of Kae-fung-foo, he had the good sense 
and honesty to write down exactly what his eyes and ears witnessed ; 
yet with a proper degree of prudence, he himself prescribed the 
difference to be observed between the narration of what he heard 
and what he saw. . 

^^ But the intelligence restulting from the visits made between 1712 
and 1723, is far more circumstancial in details, which Donienge and 
Gaubil, being Hebrew scholars, were able to elicit by propounding 
suitable questions. In giving a summary of their letters, aud of the 
prior one from Gozani, out of Brotier, it mJiy be well until further 
knowledge is gained, to continue in the description his use of the 
present tense. 

The whole place of worship occupies a space of between three 
and four hundred feet in length, by a(>out one hundred and fifty in 
breadth, comprising four successive courts, advancing from the east 
!«» the syu:igojTiio ilsolf at the pxfrenic \\Vi>i. 

'vol. XIV. NO VII. 10 

314 The Jews in China. JuLr, 

The first court has in its centre " a large noble, and beautifuf 
arch" (Paefang), bearing a golden inscription in Chinese, dedicating 
the locality to the Creator and Perserver of all things. There are 
also some trees interspersed.* 

The second court is entered from the first, by a large gate with 
two side doors, and two wickets beside them. Its walls are flanked 
to the north and south by dwellings for the keepers of the edifice. 

The third court has the same kinds of entrance from the second 
as that has from the first. In its centre stands an arch like that in 
the first court. Upon the walls, between trees, are marble tablets 
(Pae-w&n), with inscriptions in Chinese. Part of this court is flank- 
ed by commemorative chapels : that on the south,t in memory of an 
Israelite mandarin named Chao, the judge of a city of the second 
degree, who formerly rebuilt the synagogue afler its destruction by 
fire, that on the north, in momery of him who erected all the present 
edifice. There are also some reception rooms for guests. 

The fourth court is parted in two by a rows of trees. Half way 
along this line stands a great brazen vase for incense, at the side of 
which are placed two figures of lions, upon marble pedestals; and 
at the westward sides of these lions are two large brazen vases, con- 
taining flowers. Adjoining the northern wall is a recess, in which 
the nerves and sinews are extracted from animals slain for food. 
The second division of this court is an empty space, with a '' hall of 
ancestors " (Tsoo-tang) at each of its sides to the north and south. 
In these they venerate, at the vernal andNatumnal equinoxes, the 
worthies of the Old Testament history, afler the Chinese manner, 
but having merely the name of the person upon each tablet, without 
his picture. The only furniture these contain are a great numbeir 
of censers; the largest one in honor of Abraham, and the rest, of 
Isaac, Jacob, the twelve sons of Jacob, Moses, Aaron, Joshua, 
Ezra, and others, both male and female. In the open space between 
these chapels, they erect their annual booths of boughs and flowers, 
at the Feast of Tebernacles. 

Then occurs the synagogue itself, a building of about sixty feet 
by forty, covered by a fourfold and handsome roof, having a portico 
with a double row of four columns, and a balustrade before it. 

Within this edifice, the roofs (as usual in Chinese domestic archi- 

* Probably litinted to a dwarf size, by an art in which the Chinese Uke 
great delight. 

t At the door of this chapel, or ceil, is a figure of some animal, upon a 
pedestal ; but what animal it was mtended to represent, exceeded the ability 
of Domenge to tell. 


1845, T!u Jetos in China. 315 

lecture) are sustained by rows of pillars besides die walls. In the 
centre of all is ** the throne of Moses/'* a magniHcent and elevated 
chair, with an embroidered cushion, upon which they place the book 
of the law while it is read. Over this a dome is suspended ; and near 
it is ihe W&n-suy-pae, or tablet, with the emperor's name in gol- 
den characters, enclosed within a-double line of scrollwork. This, 
however, is surmounted by the inscription, in Hebrew letters of 
gold : — 


' V 


• ■ ■ * 


After this, a triple arch bears the following inscription, likewise iu 
Hebrew: — 




Then a large table, upon which are placed six candelabra in one 
linej with a great vase for incense, having handles, ^nd a tripod- 
standing, half-way along the line. These candelabra are in thre^ 
different forms, and bear three different kinds of lights. Those 
nearest the vase bear torches, the next on each side have candels, 
and those at the extremities, ornamental lanterns. Near this table 
is a laver for washing hands. 

Lastly,, the Beth-el, or T^en-fa?!^ (house of heaven), square in 
outward shape, but rounded within. Into this none but the rabbi 
may enter during the time of prayer. Here, upon separate tables, 
stand twelve rolls of the law, corresponding to the tribes of Israel, 
besides one in the centre in honor of Moses, each enclosed in a 
tent of silken curtains. On the extreme western wall are the tables 
of the Ten Commandments, in golden letters of Hebrew. Beside 
each of these tables is a closet containing manuscript books, and in 
front of each, closet, a table, bearing a vase and two candelabra. 

-The congregation when assembled fof devotion are separated 
from the Beth-el by a balustrade, some standing in recesses along 
the walls. Against a column is suspended a calendar for the read- 
ing of the law. 

* Was the Mosei' leat in Matt, xxiii. 2, merely a figurative term P 
i See Appendix A. 
t See Appendix B 

516 The Jttoa in China. JuLV, 

Sucli is the cdiBce in which the children uf Israel at Kae-fuiior-fdo 
worshiped God within the last century. Gozani affirms it to be the 
only synagogue remaining in -the empire. If this bcrtrue, that of 
Hangchow foo, mentioned by the first visitor to Ricci-, must have 
shared the fate oi that in Nankincr, as related to Semmedo. 

:Some writers have regarded this as rather a temple than a syna- 
gogue, "bat without sufficient reason, for the special characteristics 
of a temple are dicidedly wanting. In China, as elsewhere, it may 
be truly asserted in the Hebrew Liturgy, that the worshipers have 
neither altar nor ofTering.* The homage paid to ancestors may 
pariake somewhat of a sacrificial nature, but it is carefully dissever- 
ed from even local association with the adoration paid to Almighty 
<jod. The candelabra, the laver, the solitude of the rabbi in the 
Beth-el, and his use of iucense there, as well as in the courts, toge- 
ther with the courts themselves, these suggest clear reminiscences 
of the Jerusalem Temple, but they do not prove that in China there 
^as ever existed a rival temple to that of '* the city which the Lord 
did choose, t(^ put hisr name there," as was erected by Ouias and his 
colony in Egypt,t or by the Samaritans at Gerizim. 

It does not resemble the great synagogues of Amsterdam, Leg- 
horn/ or those of the Gallician province in Poland, on which con- 
biderable wealth has been lavished; still less does it copy the 'modes- 
ty of the primitive synagogues, in which the people assembled to 
hear the law and taphtorah, to recite the "eighteen blessings," or 
tQ join in some very simple form of supplication ; but the Very dis«- 
similarity attests the high antiquity of this community's seclusion. 

Among their religious forms and customs, may b^ Numerated 
the putting off of shoes on entering the house of prkyer, and wearing 
a blue head-dress while there (a circumsttinc6 by whibh the heathen 
/distinguish them from the Mohammedans,' who wear white). Iii 
readiiig the law, the minister covers his face with a transparent veil 
of gauze, in imitation of Moses, who brought the law to the people 
with his face covered, and wears a red silk scarf depending from the 
right shoulder apd tied under the left arm. By his side stands a 
niooitor to correct his reading, if necessary, who is likewise attended 

* ** I^ofd of the uniyene^ vhU« the temple remained, if ^ man sinned he 
^rou^ht an ulferinif and made atonement for himself; but now,' because of 
our iiiiquites, we have neither sanctuary nor offering, nor priest to atone for 
us, there is nothing lefl us but the commemoration of them. O may that be , 
pur expiation, and we will render tlie prayers of our lips instead of our.olfer- 
W^'" — Morning Service. 
' I /osephus Ant., xixx. 3, and Wars, vii. 10. 

1845. The Jem in China. 317 

by- a monitor. Tlic prayers are chanted, but without musical instru- 
ments. The congregation wear no talilh or garment of fringes dar- 
ing the service. They observe circumcision, passover, tabernacles, 
the rejoicing of the law, and, perhaps, the Day of Atonement, for it 
is said that on one day of the year they fast and weep together in the 
synagogue. They keep the Sabbath quite as strictly as do the Jews 
in Europe. They make no proselytes, and never marry with Gentiles. 
They use their sacred books in casting lots, and their literary men 
pay the same homage to the memory of Kung-foo-sze (Confucius) as* 
their neighbors do. They never pronounce the ineffable name of 
God', but n^ Etunoi (Adonai), and in writing Chinese they render 
that name by Teen (heaven), just as the Chinese do, instead of 
Shang-ie (Lord above), or any other ancient appellation of the deity:* 
Tliey have no formulary of belief, but hold to the unity of God, 
and tb the doctrines of heaven, hell, a sort of purgatory,' the resur- 
rection of the deud, the day of judgment, and the hierarchies of 
angels. ' 

'Of the Lord Jesus Christ they had never heard, only of one Jesus 
a son of Sirach. They expect Messiah, and frequently repeat the 
words of dying Jacob, '* I have watted for thy salvation, O Lord."t 
Td'ihe iquestion, what they understood by salvation, they made no 
reply. When shown a crucifix in the mission-church they regarded 
it with no symptoms of displeasure; from which Brotier (includes 
that they knew nothing- of the Talmudic prejudice against**' the Cru- 
cified,'' but it would seem that if they have no canonical Talmud 
with its Agadoth, they have .some ridiculous legends of old tradition, 
f' They related to me," says Gozani, *'such foolish tales" (mingled 
>yijth even the law of Moses), **that I could scarcely refrain from 
la,ughing." And .in another place, ** They spoke tome about heaven 

and bell, in a very senseless manner." 

• • . , . • . • ■ ■ • .. ■ ., 

,;. Their alienation from idolatry is particularly striking,, after, so 
Ipng an exposure to the superstitions of the country, guided as these 

* Goxant and others referred to this substitution, in the controversy as to 
whether the Chinese adore the material heaven or the person who' is its Crea- 
Xpt* ■ The . Jeeuita contended that if Jews could conscientiously f employ the 
word heavtn to denote God, that sufficiently indicates the sense in which the 
Gvntiies understand the term. They also appealed to Luke zv. 18, and 2 
Maec- vii. 11, on the same aide, as well as to the common use of the word 
heavtn in the Talmud. It is curious to have Israelites called in. to decide a 
point 'between the contrary decisions of Popes Innocent X.,"and^' Alexander 
VlI. At length it become usual for the missionaries to adopt the designatioa 
TeSn Choo (heaven's Lord). 

1 Gen. xlix^.ld. . 

•^9 The Jews in China. J(;ly, 

are by imperial influence. They refuse to take an oath in an idol 
temple ; and the conspicuous inscriptions upon the walls and arches 
proclaim their steadfastness in this matter, even upon that delicate 
point of the emperor's name, which in the synagogue they have 
surmounted by the most significant of possible . warnings against 
confounding any reverence whatever with that due to the " blessed 
and only Potentate." ., , \ ; 

Nor must we omit to remark their interesting practice of praying 
westwards, towards Jerusalem. Many large bodies of Christians 
pi^ay eastwards, from a feeling in favor of- mere Orientation ; but 
when we find European Jews praying eastwards, and their brethren 
in China turning to the west, both towards one intermediate locality, 
that one pust be the station which an ancient psalmist considered 
'^a^ve his chief joy." '* If 1 forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right 
hand be forgetful."* And it must have been westward that Daniel 
tttroed when '' his windows being open in his chamber toward Jeru- 
salem, he kneeled upon his knees three time a-day, and prayed and 
g.^y.e thanks befqre his God, as he did aforetime,"t .for he remem- 
bered the prophetic prayer of Solomon, '' If they shall bethink them- 
selves in the land whither they were carried captives, and repent, 
and make supplication unto thee . and pray 

unto ihee toward ikeir land which thou gavest unto their fathers, 
the ciiy which thou hast chosen, and the house which I have built 
for thy name : then hear thou their prayer and their supplication in 
heaven thy dwelling-place, and maintain their cause."| 

Scripture and literature. 

The writings of a people are in most cases interesting, as being 
the expression of that people's intelligence and sentiment-^the pro- 
duct of their previous mental formation: but the Hebrew standard 
writings are tiie original mould in which the feelings and thoughts 
bf its sfUbjects are cast. And the sense of divine authority to which 
the mind is by them subdued, tends in like manner to guard their 
own integrity. The sacred law is preserved in order to be obeyed, 
and the obedience thus rendered ensures its perpetual correctness. 

The Lord of the new covenant has declared, that ''till heaven 
aod earth pass, one jot or one title shall in nowise pass from the 
law till al! be fulfilled ;"|| and the Hebrew scribes have been every- 
where and always careful that not one jod^ or any one small indica- 
tion of the sense -of a word should be lost or changed. ' - 

" f9. cxxzvii. t Dan. vi. 10. t Kings viii. 48, 49. || Matt. v. 16. 

Id45. The Jews in China. 319 

Aware of this inflexibility, both the friends and impugtters of 
divine revelation were desirous to ascertain- to what extend rh(s sepa- 
rated Israelites in China possessed a text of the Bible conformable 
to ours ; and the discoveries made there have served to establish' the 
previous hopes of all who found'ed their expectations for eternity 
upon the word of God. 

As* we have already seen, the synagogue' of Kae-fung-foo possesses 
thirteen copies of the law, kept within coverings of silk. These are 
denominated the T&-king, or temple scripture. The rolls measure 
about two feet in length, and' are mther more tban^ one footf in' 

Besides these, there is in the B^stb-el a large* number of nearly 
square books (not rolls), of about seven inches by four or five,.' some* 
new, other very old ; but all much neglected^ ancf Fyin^g iiv confu^ 
sion. The people classified them nominalFy, as follows*: 

1. T^^tit^, in fif\y-three books, each containing one' section of 
the law, for the Sabbath-days. 

2. 7*5111-500, or supplementary books; called, also, Ha-ibo-ta-la^ 
or Haphtorah. These are portions of Joshua, Judges, Samuef,- 
Kings, and the Prophets. 

Historical books, viz. : — Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicled* 
(four or five of the first chapters), and the two first book» of^Mac^ 
cabees, called Mattathi, the latter whole, but not in good' conditlom 

4. Keang-chang^ or the Expositors. These are much defaced*, 
and have lost their titles. The brief leisure of the missionaries did^ 
not allow of a close examination into these books, their attention* 
having been especially directed to the law of Moses& 

5. Le-^ae, the ritual or ceremonial books> about fif)y in number, 
and slightly differing in shape from the rest. One of these bears on^ 
its cover the title, " The Perpetual Afternoon-Service." 

Such is the best account that can be made out of the varied lists 
given us, of the books in that synagogue; afl ofwhicirv however, 
can be shaped into the above form, by allowing the easy supposition" 
that the missionaries were unfamiliftir with the Jewish Haphtorah' 
and Ritual ; had they not been so, they would not haver founded 
upon' these portion-books so melancholy a narrative of the de- 
ficiency of Scripture in Kae-fung-foo, nor would' the Europeans • 
liave followed one after another in the same track, detailing exactly 
how much each book of the prophets was mutilated; when; in fact^ 

* Brotier, Grosier, Calment, and Koegler,— the laller a bailee mathematician 
liau Hebraist. 

d20 Tht Jews in China. JuLC, 

these small books were never intended to afford the whole of each 
prophecy, nor even the selections from each^ in a regular sequence. 
The portions are chosen as harmonizing in sentiment or doctrine 
^ith the section of the law for the particular week : and while the 
people exhibited these as their books of the synagogue, it is not. im- 
possible that they had elsewhere the complete rolls of the prophets. 
iTpon this view it becomes clear why Gaubil could not find Isaiah 
vii. 14, when they, having asked him to read them some Hebrew, he 
wished to fix their attention ,on that passage : he would have been 
equally unsuccessful in seeking for the chapter liii. 

It is said that the books of Job, Proverbs and song of Solomon, 
EScclesiastes, Ruth, and Lamentations, are missing. The four last 
would have been found, if sought for at the end of Elsther ; which, 
together with the two 5rst, and the list given us as the historical 
books, exactly make up the clasS; usually called the iiCeMti6im, or 
IvritingSi •!.• •, . . . ". ; 

In this class ought to he found the psalms; but the name of David 
is placed along with Samuel and Kings : however, as these books 
weiefHot at all inspected^ it is reasonable to conclude that only^ the 
history of David was meant, and that the T<Ai7/tm, or psalms are ia 
their proper place. . . I 

It ia also said ^ that the book of Ezekiel is entirely lost If so, . we 
eann^t identify the Tsin^soo^ or, Ha-foo-ta^a, with Haphtorah, in 
Which there are several portions from Ezekiel ; but on Gozani's first 
viait,rthe people in the synagogue related to him the vision of the 
resurrection of dry bones in the valley, which very subject is in the 
Sephardim Haphtorah.* It may therefore be doubted that the recor- 
ded visions and denunciations of the son of Buzi, are lost, in China. 
This portion is either in their Haphtorah or in a volume of Elzekiel ; 
and although from the calamities to which the synagogue has at va- 
rious times been exposed, some of their books may be lost, and others 
neglected, the Jews in Kae-fung-foo certainly possess in full their 
law, their Haphtorah, and ritual. 

Some idea may be forpied of the jealousy with which their Scrip- 
tures are kept, from the resistance made to all the entreaties and 
tempting offers made for obtaining a transcript from any of them, or 
for permitting the visitors to copy for themselves. In Gozani's first 
letter, it was stated, that. " all these books are preserved with great- 
er care than gold or silver." And it was afterwards learned that they 

* It is not \ik that of the German and Polish Jews. 

I84r, Tkr Jews in China -HI 

have a rule among dicm, ^* never to show llicir Scripiutes to the 
Uack people "* Duriog eight months' residence there, all tlic eF> 
forts of Domenge were fruitless to procure leave to copj the books 
of Maccabees, as an q>pendix to his Hebrew Biblct One Ngai- 
Ten, promised for a certain sum to get for him a volume of the 
TsinF'Soo^ but his attempt to extract it from the Betb-el being detect- 
ed, he was made to replace it, and was rebuked with the proverb, 
*' He who sells his Scripture sells his God." Anotlier, named Kao- 
ting, having made a similar promise, demanded openlj of the rabbi 
the beautifullj-written manuscript of the law, which he had inherit- 
ed from his late uncle, and had deposited in the synagogue : he too 
was rebuked, and retired with shame. 

In explanation of these anecdotes it is to be observed, that books 
of Hebrew writing are scarcelj ever kept in private dwellings ; and 
it is said, that when a rich man presents a copy of the law to the 
synagogue, the merit of the gift is rated so high, as to supersede all 
necessity for public devotion during the remainder of his life : he 
seldom again attends divine worship. 

Information was received that a manuscript of the law of Mosei* 
existed in a cretain temple at Peking, where the government had 
secured copies of the sacred books used by all religions in the 
empire. The Jesuits, therefore, procured a license to search for 
this treasure, but nothing of the kind was found, only some ancient 
writing, in Syriac. They suspected that the keeger of the temple 
had been induced to conceal the real object of their investigation, 
while exhibiting that which in some degree resembled it Attempts 
were afterwards made to institute a fresh scrutiny of that library, 
but in vain. A Christian Tartar, to whom the missionaries showe<l 
their Hebrew Bible, declared ihat in that temple at Peking, he had 
seen books in the same character of writing, of whose contents or 
antiquity he knew nothing, only that one of them was called Torah. 

* Tliit term was nndentood to denote all who eat twine's flcsli ; but in later 
tunes we know that ^ black-heads* ' is a fiuniiiar appellation throughout thu 
cauntry for the native Chinese. 

4 The Second Book of Macabees has not been known to exist in Hrbrrw 
suiong any other people, ll has been commonly reirarded as a Greek com 
piMidiuin of a Greek history, wriUen by one Jason, or Cyrene. 

The first book was seen in its original Chaldaic Hebrew, by 8t. Jfrouif, 
under the title of ^ The Sceptre of the Prirce of tlic sons or God ;*^ but nu 
such a text has been mentioned from that time nntil, as above, in the cigli 
U*rnth century. 

That these are found in China, is in somr flr«rree conHrnied by thte ni«*iilinn 
likpwi:<e m:iitc* to GoMni, or JuHilh, anT^ of Jcsu3 the ooii of Sirarh, whi*-h 
li'Miks w**rr foruierly exfsint iu <*htilctre 

vi»|. 1CIV NO v|| .11 

At length Uaubil couciuded u bargain for a tiaiiscript of the lau . 
but before it could be completed, the uiisaiouarici^ i%ere .ex^ieiied 
from the province. 

From the direct statements, and from unintentional glimpses con* 
tained in the missionary correspondence, several of the first oriental 
scholars in Europe have framed dissertations upon the antiquity and 
consequent value of the manuscripts in Kae-fung-foo. 

It is known from ancient inscriptions upon the walls of the syna- 
gogue, that in 1462 their loss of books by an inundation 4>f .the 
Hwangho, was supplied from Ningpo and Ningkea : that being again 
deprived of books by a fire at the close of the sixteenth century, 


a roll of the law wasf purchased from a Mohammedan at Ning-keang- 
chow, in Shen-se, who had received it by legacy from a dying Israe- 
lite at Canton, recommended as a relic of great antiquity. Possess- 
ing tills, they made Irom it several copies. 

It is also known, thit in 1642, the synagogue again sufiered from 
an inundation, which destroyed or carried oiT twenty-six volumes of 
diflereiit kinds, notwithstanding great efforts for their recovery. 

Now there is one manuscript kept apirt from the rest, in this 
synagogue, held in peculiar veneration, and named in honor of 
Moses. It was so honored in 1704, while it bore serious marks of 
injury caused by the water, the writing in several places being 
almost efluccd. It has been supposed, with much apparent reason, 
that this is identical wiih the Canton manuscript procured from the 
Mohammedan after the conflagration, and with that which the visitor 
toRicci, about 1604, described as being four or five hundred years 
old. This, therefore, constitutes a very prominent object of regard 
in connexion with the Chinese Jews. The earlier Ning-po manu- 
script nmst have perished hi the flames. 

But in the clo.ieus there may also be books of considerable anti- 
quity, as it does not appear tlint all were lost in l(>42. One small 
page has particularly arrested the attention of the curious. At the 
end of the section-b<H>k IhrcMth^ there is* a list of rnbhis, with u 
diiir, which Dc Sacy lias shown, by a careful computation/ to cor- 
rcspoiirl with \, n. IG'iU, i. c., twenty-two years before the last 
inundaiion ; although he considers it very probable that this leaf may 
not now be in its original place, but be a fragment of some lost 
manuscript, since it is known that afler this calamity, a great num- 
ber of loose leaves and detached parts of books were bound intp oii< 
thick volunio. 

S-i- \n|H>iiili.\ C 

184J. The Jews in China. ^2^ 

This record is in Hebrew^ mixed with several Persian words in 
Hebrew character. The learned Olave Gerhard Tychsen interprets 
it as follows, in a letter to C. T. Murr,* a. d. 1799 : — 

^' In the city anciently (caUed) Pin-lignan,t the divine city, by 
divine help. The law of fifty-three sections, ordained for Israel, 
the word of God, the faithful King.| 

''This beginning of the law was written in the year 1933, in the 
month Ab, on the first day of the week, and twelflh day of the month. 

" The law was completed in the year 1937, in the month lyar, on 
the fourth day of the week, on the twelflh day of the month. 

'' Our master, our rabbi, R. Jacob, son of Abishai, the son of 
R. Eldad the scribe, and meiamraed (teacher), finished this. 

'* R. Shadai, son of R. Jacob, revised it. 

" R. Mordecai, son of Simeon Besprisht, and R. Akiba, son of 
Aaron the son of Ezra, subscribed it. 

"The youth (student) Simhhah, son of Joshua the son of Joseph 
the exalted, gave it || as a free-will offering. 

" R. Jacob, son of Reuben the son of Buzi. 

'' Mordecai, son of Benjamin the son of Buzi. 

" Blessed shalt thou be when thou comest in, and blessed slialt 
thou be when thou goent out.^ 

''And he was very rich in cattle (and) in silver.^ 

" I have waited for thy salvations, O I^ord."* 

The commencement of this document does seem to assert that it 
belonged to a roll of the whole law, rather than to one section only. 

Thus much for the external description and history of these manu- 
scripts. The internal examination is, at least, a subject of equal 

It was from the first ascertained that the books of the law of Mo- 
ses were named, as with us,' from the opening words in each book, 
as Bereshith^ Shemoih, &c. Ricci's convert and Gozani had learu- 

* Diarii litterarii II., 304. See Appendix D. 

f Or, according to De Sacy, " in the city anciently (called) Pien-4eaii|?, 
the divine city, by divine help, the law of fifty-three sections, contains, O 
Israel, true words," &«. 

t Tychsen believes this word "l^^^ to represent a Talmudic phrase (Sanhcd. 

III., i. 1), ** faithful king;'* and thence concludes (indd paUm lit) that in 
China the Jews are not Karaites but Talmudists. 

II By the rendering of Tychsen the gifl was from R. Akiba, but the words 
as we have them do not sanction this meaning. 

§ Oeut. xzviii. 6. 

f Genesis xiii. 2. The name Abraham is omitted, as also the words, ** and 
in gold.'* The allusion is to some living person, and certainly the metal, 
gold, is very scarce in China. 

* Genesi:i xtix. Iti. 

324 The Jtws in China, July, 

cil thus much, although unacquainted with Hebrew. Also, the law- 
was read in fifty-three instead of fifty-four sections. The latter fact 
was remarked afterwards by Domenge, who found in the week of 
tabernacles that they read the section Wa-yeltk, having thus united 
the Masoretic fifty-second and fifty-third into one. 

The people showed no desire to collate their Scriptures with the 
European text, only in one instance. Gazani with his Latin Bible, 
and the rabbi with his Bereshith, (^' for so they call the book of 
Genesis"), compared the names and ages of persons in the gen- 
ealogy from Adam to Noah. In these they found a perfect accord* 
ance, particularly he observed that they agreed in Gen. xi. 12, 
where the name Cainam is introduced by the Septuagint, and in 
Luke iii. 36 ; but is omitted in our Hebrew, and consequently in the 
Yulgate. Tbey also compared, with the same result, several other 
names and ages in other books of the law. 

Domenge having been instructed from Rome to collate the He- 
brew of the following passages in the law, Gen. ii. 17; iii. 17; vii. 
1 1 ; viii. 4, 7 ; the. whole of chap, xi ; xiii. 3 ; xviii. 22 ; xxiii. 2 ; 
xxiv. 2; xxxiii. 4; and 4he whole of chapters xlvii., xlviii., and xlix.; 
in all of these he found the most entire correspondence. However, 
in Deut. xxxii. 25, instead of '' destroy," their text has '' devour,V 
the letter g being changed for ^. It might be wished that Deut. 
xi. 29, and xxvii. 12, 13, had been examined, with reference to the 
Samaritan text. 

These Israelites were pleased with the interpretation given by 
<jaubil to the Lord's ineffable name, as implying a past, present, 
and future existence, and said that they had always preceived in it 
that signification.* 

■ When asked for the meaning they attached to the word Shiloh^ 
ibey remained silent for a time, but as soon as the visitor began to 
explain the sense attributed to it in the Christian Church, a youth 
who was present very deferentially requested leave to speak. He 
stated, that he recollected one of his great-uncles having formerly 
taught him that the word Shiloh contained a sacred mystery ; writ- 
ten in this manner, the letters corresponding to the words. 

*Qg = Great«. 
, ^ =One. 

J) = Descending 
j^ = Man. 

' ,Sep Ap]p^ndix E. 

1845. The. Jtw<i jn C/iiti/i. JWii 

This he remembered, but he knew no more on the subject. 

Gaubil was deliglited with this information, as it seemed to corro- 
borate a curious discovery he had made shortly previous. Being at 
Hankeow, he learned that the missionary there. Father Couteux, 
had under instruction a Chinese learned in antique modes of writ- 
ing, and feeling persuaded that the word Shiloh was a word of mys- 
terious or sacramental import among ancient nations, he showed to 
the catechumen (who was totally ignorant of Hebrew), that word in 
the perpendicular manner of Chinese writing, adopting the phonetic 
system required for foreign names, i. e., a sound or word for a letter, 
and the explication given was this :— > 

XO = Most High. 
1 = Lord. 
i = One. 
j^ = Man. 

The partial coincidence is certainly striking, and if not the coin- 
age of oriental reverie in later times (for Cabalistic Jews are accus- 
tomed to revel in such modes of deduction), are somewhat confirma- 
tory of the speculations which have deduced the Chinese population 
from an Egyptian original, and in so far tending to retrace the two 
traditions to a common origin in Egypt, where Abraham resided with 
a reputation of divine inspiration after the promise of the world's 
redemption had been given him. 

With regard to writing and reading among the Jews in Kae-fung- 
foo, it is stated that they are generally ignorant of the Hebrew lan- 
guage, although from the effect of constant repetition they read off the 
law with much fluency. For this ignorance they accounted by alleg- 
ing a total loss of books on grammar (Too-king-pwan), and the ces- 
sation for two centuries of all arrivals of brethren from the west (Se- 

From probably the same causes they have learned to read Hebrew 
with Chinese pronunciation ; thus though their written alphabet is 
precisely the same as with us, the consonants B, D, G, and R, are 
pronounced P, T, or Z, 'K, and L, and for the termination, ^;^, to 
a word they give a nasal sound, as (in Gen. i. 2), "^niSl inri> ^^^y 
read Theohung-vO'peohuHg. One of them writing his name, l{n*^{n)3» 
pronounced it Manthuiohung.* 

* The names of the five books of Moses they pronounced Pe-Iesh-itze, She- 
meot-ze, Va-yi-ke-lo, Pe-me-ze-paul, and Te-ve-liim. The Prophets' names 
they . read from the Bible of the missionaries, I-se-ha-ha, Ie-Ie-me-o-hunfr» 
lu-on-a-ha, Mi-ca-ha- Na-hoo-am, Ha-pa-coo-ke, Se-pha-ne-o-ha. Ho-ko-e, and 

!)'20 The Jiws in China. July, 

They seemed anxious to hear their visitors read with European 

Although they admired the neatness of the printing, paper, and 
binding of the Hebrew Bible, they expressed no covetousness iu 
that matter. 

Their rolls of the law have no vowel points. When asked the 
reason of this, they replied, that the Lord uttered the words in too 
rapid a manner for Moses to insert them, but that they were after- 
wards supplied by the learned men in the west. 

The Talking sections of the law are written in larger character 
than the rolls, and have vowel-points, stops, and accents, all of which 
are comprised under the general name Simon or marks. The 
accents are about the same name as with us, only they write 
Athnahh, > ; Merca, ' ; and Zakeph-gadol, t. 

The subject of Keri and Kcihih was quite new to them, and they 
knew of no " alteration by the Scribes" in Gen. xviii. 22. 

The small or large letters occasionally met among words of Scrip- 
ture they retain with scrupulous exactness, as in ail other Hebrew 
texts, long after the reason of the variations has ceased to be under- 
stood. Thus in Gen. ii. 4, the n of Ofi^lJ^niS ■* diminished, and in 
xxiii. 2, where the ^ in ntlD^bl ^^^ ^^ appear small, the rabbi 
declared that it was and ought to be so. Also in xxxiii. 4, as in 
our printing, the word '^npID'^ ^^ ^^^ ^'^ ^^^ above it, with the 
first larger than the others^ -^ 

The short line called Rapheh is empjpyed in the roils of the law 
above the tnBD^!!i^ letters, when these have no Dagesh, 

With respect to the Pethuhhah and Sethumah, for either ggg and 
ODDt or g and q, they leave no spaces, but insert in the margin 
either •g, or •q, or •qb, yet very frequently the minor division is 
not regarded at all, as in the benediction of Jacob (Gen. xiix.), and 
these signs seldom occur in the same places as with us. Thus in 
the first section of the law they have only four divisions marked, 
viz., at the end of chap. i. 9 ; at the end of verse 2G ; at the end of 
chap. ii. 20; and of iii. 13. 

The song of Moses in Deut. xxxii. is written in double columns. 

In the rolls of the law the sections are not always separated. 
Thus after *' Noah^' all the remainder of Genesis is marked *7^ *7^, 
but the smallest subdivisions (Pesukim) are carefully observed, and 

Se-ca-le-o. The Chronicles, Ti-ve-16 ha-ya-mim ; Esther, Is-se-tha ; and 
Mordecai, Mol-tho-sai. Thus the vowels are, for Kholem, ue or eo; for Ka- 
mets, o ; for Pathanh, broad ae ; and i, as in French. — 

* Over these three and aronnd the left side titere is drawn a heavy line, 
which the type in our office cannot represent. Ed. Chi. Re.p. 

1845. The Jews in China, I^J7 

are uijifortii wilii ours. Each book of the sections fias the sum of 
these Pesukim given at its close : thus at the end of Btreshith is 
written ^^^p (146), and at the end o{ Noah is written yif^p (143), 

These books have their titles on the first page w ithin a square of 
blue, green, or white * lines, as thus, |in*'!)Pg^1!ll » but the name is 
not repeated over each page, and the pages are not numbered with 
the letters of the alphabet, but with the full words, one, two, three ^ 
d^rC. The page contains about ten lines. 

It is observed, that these manuscripta, both rolls and books, are 
not of parchment but of several folds of the thin Chinese paper 
{)a8ted into one consi8tence,t and the Hebrews never emplojr Chi- 
nese pencils or ink for sacred purposes, but they split bamboo into 
^ns, and like the European Jews make annually at the feast of TIei- 
bernacles sufficient ink for the ensuing year. 

It is stated, that they have written no books about themselves buf 
one, which they keep and exhibit to the Gentiles whenever their 
religion is called in question. 

This chapter may conclude with an explanation of the calendar 
of the ritual mentioned in chapter ii.| As it stands, being but ill' 
arranged, we find that there are five terms called Mineah, one cor^ 
responding to each of the books of Moses. This is shown by trac^ 
tng a line from the word Genesis to the Mineah, ^, from the word 
Exodus to the Mineah, ^, and so of the rest. The first, therefore^ 
is read during the twelve sections of the law in Genesis ; the second 
during the eleven in Exodus ; the third during the ten in Leviticus^ 

But the word Mineah can be nothing else than MinKhahf i. e.,. 
the aflernoon service; changing one guttural letter for another^ 
which we are warranted to do by the inscription upon the title-page 
of one of the Le-ptu books, which, though it has been copied incor- 
rectly in another of its letters, is correct in this guttural, the title 
being TttH HflSH- Thus the afternoon-service, which in Euro* 
pean liturgies is uniform throughout the year, is varied in China- ac-^ 
cording to the book of the law which is read.|| 

** Chineie paper is not white. 

t Those who delight to trace the Chinese to the Egyptians, may find that 
this method was used by the latter people in preparing papyrus. See Wilkin- 
son's ** Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians." lii. 148. 

t See Appendix F. 

II Is it possible that in this synagogue lliere is no service for the morning 
beyond reading the section of the law on ihe Sabbath.^ and no evening service 
whatever? The Le-pae hooks are not said to bear any title hut Minhhnhy and 
this calendar hits uo such terms as Shahharilk or drabiih. No other caleudac 
is known. 

3^ The Jews in China. JuLV, 

But besides the 31inhhah there are the terms 3ioed Ncumah and 
Muphtar Minhhah, When Domenge inquired the signification of 
these he was Unable to seize the meaning of the reply, owing to 
their Chinese pronunciation of Hebrew words, only he understood 
that the Neumdh was a book in twelve parts, one of which was to 
be read on the first days of each short month (i. e., a month of 
twenty-nine days), or second days of each long month (thirty days), 
and that Muphtar is the title of a book appointed to be read on the 
lifleenth days of each short month, or sixteenth days of each long 

Hence, De Sacy believes that as Jlloed is the Hebrew for " festi* 
val," and Neumah is the Persian for " new moon," that they have 
thus a variable form for celebrating the new moons, whereas in Eu- 
rope that celebration is always the same. 

Muphtar 3Iinhhah is read at seasons of full moon ; the latter of 
the two words determines the time to be aflernoon, and the former 
signifies, " dismissal."* 

This', too, is varied according to the alternate months ; but for the 
'full moon the Jews of Europe have no appointed prayer or thanks- 
'giidng, only they have a custom *' to bless the brightness," as they 
express it. This they do from a notion that the continual provi- 
dence of God is more discernible in the rotation of the moon's 
changes than in the sameness of the sun's appearance. 

Whether the long and' short months of the Chinese-Hebrew calen- 
dar correspond with those in these western parts we are not inform- 
ed, but in the latter we have the new moons not only observed on 
the first days but also on the day which closes the preceding month ; 
thus in one sense resembling the calendar in Kae-fung-foo, which 
allows a diversity of day according to the character of the month. 

One more observation. Domenge describes the third of October, 
1722, as being the twenty-third of the seventh month, according to 
the synagogue, and the octave of the *' feast of tabernacle," the next 
day being the feast of "rejoicing for the law," when they carried 
the thirteen rolls of the law *in a procession round the Beth-el, but 
there must be an error here. The law commands that the '* feast of 
tabernacles" shall be kept upon the fifteenth day of the seventh 
month, its octave would thus occur on the twenty-second, and the 

* In literal sij^nification the tf rm applies very well to the Haphtorah por- 
tions, but with Uiis idea the above description by no means coincides. Still 
it iniibt be reiiieinbered that Domenge had great difTiculity in comprehending 
the rabbi's mcauitig, which, therefore, he may have mistaken. 

1845. Tht Jews in Cltina, 320 

*' rejoicing for the law " upon the twenty-third. Either, therefore; 
he reckoned erroneously in the Christian calendar or in that of the 
synagogue, through a confusion in the long and short months. 

Inscriptions, History, S(*c. 

It is remarkable how entirely all Chinese books have contrived to 
omit the existence of the people under our consideration. The terms 
.used by the latter for their exclusive designation, as Kew-Keaou, 
the ancient religion; Y-sc'lo-gel ^eoou, Israel's religion ; Ttwu'kiu' 
keaoUf the religion of cutting out the nerves or sinews. These are 
not found in their dictionaries ; and the geographical work in forty 
books upon Kae-fung-foo and its district, published in 1G94, des- 
cribes every edifice in the city, with characterestic minuteness, except 
the synagogue, and avery public inscription except those on the 
walls of that synagogue.* Yet these are the best records of its 
history known to survive the frequent devastations to which the 
community has been exposed. 

The fortunes of the city have been greatly diversified. Before the 
Christian era it was the capital of a petty kingdom named Wei. 
Under the Tsin and Han dynasties it was annexed to other districts. 
Its present appellation was bestowed in the middle of our third cen- 
tury; afterwards replaced by that of Peen-chow, but again resumed. 
Under the Woo-tae it was named Leang-chow ; under the Kin, called 
Nang-kin ; by the Mongol Tartars, named Peen-lang ; and finally 
under the Ming, it recovered the ancient denomination of Kae-fun^ 

Its greatest prosperity was in the twelfth century, when, accord- 
ing to the IGth book of the KtU'fung'fiHhrJte, the city was six lea- 
gues in circuit, approached by five roads bordered by willows and 
aspeh-trees; one of these roads being reserved for persons of distinc- 
tion, two for foot passengers, and two for carts of burden, &c. Its 
palaces, gardens, and government-houses are pourtrayed with great 
animation. This city has nevertheless suffered from inundation 
fifteen times ; from general fires, si.x- times ; and has sustained eleven 

It was in a. d. 1163 that the Israelites obtained leave from the 
emperor Heaou-tsung, to- erect there a synagogue. 

In 144G an inundation* of the ffwang-lio (yellow river) destroyeif 

* Memoires concernant let ChiDois-, par les- Nfissionnairerde Pekin. Paris, 
1791, torn. XV. p. 52. Also Oei^uignes- '' Histoire Generaic,'* i. 26, audi 
Gu'zlalTs " Three Voyageii," p. 2»7. 

f Til. Murr., from the ** Atlas iSinensis' ' of Martini, pp. 59, 60. 

VOL. XIV. NO. VI k -^ 

330 ne Jtws in China. Iolt, 

the*8ynagQgue wbieh had stood for nearl^y three hundred years, aud 
many of their books perished. 

In the beginning of the 8e?enteenth century, under Wanleih, the 
synagogue was consumed by fire, and all its books were burned. 

And in 1642, in order to terminate the horrors produced by the 
siege of a rebel army, when human flesh was openly sold in the 
markets, and the garrison were served with rations of the same ; the 
imperialist commander opened the dykes of the river for the purpose 
of overwhelming at once both the enemy and the' city. From this 
act the invaders suffered least, but in the city 100,000 persons* 
perished. It need hardly be added, that the synagogue shared the 
common fate. 

These facts, and the traditions concerning the more remote his. 
tory of the Hebrews, are chiefly gathered from the following four 
inscriptions in Chinese upon the marble tablets of the synagogue. 


{Ended by King-chong^ a learned JsmdiUf a, d. 1444.) 
**The author of the law of Israel was Abraham, the nineteenth from 
Adam.t This holy man lived 146 yean after the beginning of the Chow I 
(dynasty). Hid law was transmitted to Moses, who received his book on 
Mount Sina, when he had fasted forty days and forty nights. He was 
-always nigh unto heaven (God). In that book are fifty-three sections ; its 
doctrine is nearly the same with that of the Chinese sages [here he pro- 
duces traditions from each, which have great similarity], prescribing nearly 
•the same rites for the worship of heaven (God), for ceremonials, fasting, 
prayer, and honoring tlie dead. Moreover, in the (Chinese) book Yi-king, 
are found vestiges of observing the Sabbath. Moses lived .613 years after 
the beginning of the Chow (dynasty). [Then in a reference to Eeo] he by 
exceeding diligence reestablished and reformed the people.** 

Apended ta the above is a statement that the synagogue was 
destroyed in the eleventh year of Ying-tsung (a. d. 1446,) and most 
of the books spoiled by water, but that fresh books were supplied by 
Israelites from Ning-po and Ning-hea, one of whom named Yu, from 
Ningpo, brought in 1462 a complete copy of the law, by which they 
corrected what they had remaining. And that in the second year of 
Huiig-che (a. d. 1490), the synagogue was rebuilt at the expense of 

• Some say SMO,000, but others 300,000. 

t This was their constant assertion. It is to be accounted for by the omis- 
sion of Cainan from the genealogy. (See the precedin^r chapter.) 

X Not the Chow empire of all China, but their earlier domination in the 
kini^doms now provinces. 

§ Qu. Ventura ? 

d h^ 



iSiA. The Jews in China. 331 


(Ended hy Tsu-iang, Treasurer of the province of Sze-ckuen, in the ffUtnih 

year of Hung-che,) 
**The law of Israel Adam the first man was from Teen-chu* in the 
west The Israelites have a law and tradition. The law is contained in 
five books, or fifty-three sections. [Then follows a commendation of the 
law.] The Israelites worship heaven as we do : the author of their law was 
Abraham their father : Moses their legislator gave them his law. In the 
time of Han they settled in this country. In the year 20 of the Izvth cycle 
(▲. D. II63)> they brought a tribute of Indian cloth to the emperor Heaou- 
tsung.t Being well received they remained in Kae-fung-foo» which wss 
then called Peen-lang. Then they were seventy Tsungt (i. e., surnames or 
clans). They built a synagogue, and in it laid up sacred books, which con- 
tern not only themselves but all men, kings and subjecti, parents and chil- 
dren, the old and the young. Whosoever studies therein will perceive that 
their law differs but little from ours. Their summary is, to worship heaven, 
to honor parents, and to give due veneration to the dead. Thiv people 
excelling in agriculture, in merchandise, in magistracies, and in warfare^ 
are highly esteemed for integrity, fidelity, and strict observance of their 
religion. Their law was transmitted from Adam to Noah, from Noah to 
Abraham^ from Abraham to Isaac, to Jacob, to the twelve tribes, to Moses, 
to Aaron, to Joshua, and to Elzra, who was a second lawgiver." 


(Ereded a. d. 1663, the second year of Kang-he^ by a Mandarin^ afUrwxrds 

MinisUr of State,) 

[After mention of Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Moses, he extols] ** the 
virtue of Abraham, who adored the effective and preservative cause of all 
things, without any image or figure. Of the law which Moses received on 
Mount Sina there are thirteen copies, besides other books. The Israelites 
came to China in the time of the Chow (dynasty.)** [After praising their 
constancy in religion, he adds.] ** They scarcely differ from us in the wor- 
ship of heaven, in the duties of civil life, or in honoring the dead. The 
Sabbath was anciently observed by the Chinese. The Hebrew letters 
resemble the old Chinese." 

[Then is related at length tho inundation of 1642, in which the synagogue 
lost twenty-six of its volumes. Also is described tlie care taken in 1654 to 
revise, restore, and transcribe their books, with the names of persons who 
assisted in rebuilding the synagogue.] 

* Gaubil aaya, that Chinese books mention five placet under this name. 
The first near Medina, in Arabia, the others are in Tartary. 

f Cotton cloth was first woven in China, near the end of our thirteenth 
century. ** Morrison's View," dtc. 

X That Tsung denotes a clan, is seen from what Domenge was told, that in 
the seven Tsung then remaining there were a hundred families. A century 
earlier Ricci, was informed of ten or twelve Tsung of Israelites subsisting in 

392 The Jtws in China, July., 


[This inscriptiott is af the lame Bubject-mattcr as tho lost ; but has added 
the names of the seven Hebrew Tsung, then residing in Kae-fung-foo, viz., 
Tao, Kiut Che, Kao, Temaa, Le, aad NgaL] 

By these durable and respectable documents we are directed to 
two eras of this colony's arrival in China. The second of the tab- 
Jets states, that *' in the time of Han they settled in the land," i. e., 
between a. jc. 305 and a. d 220. The third affirm»-that they 
arrived in the time of the Chow, i. e. between a. c. 1122 and 249. 
And it deserves remark, that these two inscriptions, for whatever 
purpose, or from whatever motive, were set up by non-Israelites. 

A third date has been deduced from the answer to Gaubil, in 
1723, when he inquired of these how long they had been in the 
country, and they said« about 1 650 years. Now this would coincide 
with the Roman overthrow of Jerusalem, and be included in the 
dynasty of Han : but may it not denote the period of their coming 
to Kae-fung-foo? and as we know that their compatriots have resided 
and prospered in other parts of the empire, the latter may have been 
settlers from the prior dynasty of Chow. 

It has been said that they are a remnant of the ten lost tribes; but 
there are no reasons for the supposition beyond the asserted igno- 
rance of the denomination Jew, expressed by the first visitor to 
Rtcci, and the fact that fragments of those broken tribes are really 
to be found in several parts of Central and Southern Asia. 

But that the Hebrews in Hon an are Jews of the restoration from 
Chaldsa, is evident from the following considerations : 

1.. The tablets speak of a tradition of the law from its origin to 
the time of Ezra, *' the ^lecond lawgiver and reformer of the people ;" 
a description which implies a knowledge of the reestablishment in 

' 2. They possess, besides some portions of the prophetical books 
written after the captivity of the ten tribes by Shalmanescr, a few 
verses of Daniel, and the book of Esther (whom they venerate under 
the title of " the great mother "), in which the word Jew occurs many 
times, although the word Israel and Israelite are not found there at all. 

;l. Their Haphtorah (a selection dating only from the persecution 
by Aiitiochus Epiphanes, about a. c, 170) comprises portions out 
of prophets who lived in Jerusalem during the second temple, as 
Zechariah and Malachi. 

4. They have adopted the Seleucidan era of chronology. 

5. Ill the list of rdbbis annexed to the section-book, Bereshith^ 
gro found the titles, *' our master, our rabbi," dLC, which give it 


1845. The Jews in China. 3:]:) 

quite a Talmtulic complexion : and they have Rabbinical rules for 

6. The synagogue inscription over the emperor's tablet, is a verse 
from Scripture, frequently repeated in Jewish liturgies to the pre* 
sent day. 

The force of all the above reason might indeed be abated, by 
taking into account, that for several centuries their sacred b<ioks 
and some of their teachers, have reached them from another country 
in the west, and concluding that thus only may have been imported 
the later Scriptures and Jewish peculiarities. But this conclusion 
is entirely gratuitous, without evidence of even the lowest degree. 

That this, however, is a very ancient ofi^shoot from the Jerusalem 
Jews, anterior, probably, to the incarnation of Christ, seems plain 
from their ignorance of his name Jesus, that '* which is above every 
name," until it was mentioned to them by the missionaries; perhaps, 
also, from their indifference towards the crucifix ; from their free* 
dom from Rabbinical despotism ; and above all, from those religious 
usages in which they differ from all Jews known elsewhere, such as 
reading the law through a veil, erecting a throne for Moses, together 
with their diversity in the sections of the law, and in their rituaJ of 
worship. But these will not lead us to declare their descent from 
the ten tribes.* 

We have sufficient testimony of their similarity for enabling us to 
connect them with the families of Judah and Benjamin, every day 
before our eyes ; and, at the same time, a sufficient discrepancy to 
prove that the two branches of the same people have been long with- 
out mutual intercourse. 

Their own account of arrival thither is merely that their fore-fa- 
thers- came from the west, probably by way of Khorassan and Samer- 
kand, the main route of ancient commerce in that direction : and their 
use of Persian words has been connected with this circumstance. 

- * The Abb^'Sionnet, in 1837, published a memoir on the subject, which 
has been commended by eminent scUolars ; in which he contends for Uie ear- 
liest supposed migration of this people, and that from the following reasons: — 

1. A comparison of Jewish with that of China, under the dynasty of Chow. 

2. The traditions to be found in Chinese works, written some centuries 
before the Christian sera, in which allusions are made to Paradije, the tree of 
knowledge of good and evil, the rainbow afler the deluge, Noah's sacrifice, 
the woman changed to a statue, the seven years' famine, the manna with a 
pleasant taste, the rock which gave out water-when struck by a rod, the sun 
arrested by command of a chief, &c. 

3. The Divine name in the Hebrew religion, being found in the Tao-te-king 
of Laou-sze, written six centuries before our aora. — See Appendix E. 

But can the first of these be clearly established ? and would not the second 
and third be answered by the great probability of Laou-sze having procured 
the Hebrew law in Assyria during the seventy years' captivity^ at the same 
period with Pythagoras, the western philosopher r* 

!)34 Tie Jews in China, Jc;lv, 

A soKtary glimpse into their middte-age history is found in arr 
account of India and China, by two Mohammedan travelers of our 
ninth century/ who describe a rebel, named Bae-choo, taking 
Canton by storm, in a. d. 877, and slaughtering J 20,000 of Moham- 
medans, Jews, Christians, and Parsees. 

Their residence in the. central empire seems to have partaken 
of the monotony and comfort of the native Chinese ; and the tablets 
erected by Gentile neighbors in their very synagogue, open to the 
world, and' challenging contradiction, bear witness to the esteem 
which thiff community in general has maintained, and the honors to 
which members of it have arrived in various pursuits of life. 

There is much of pleasure in perceiving how fresMy they retain 
the sentiment of their nationality, as we find them rehearsing to their 
visitors the leading events of scriptural record, particularly how they 
had formerly inhabited a country in the west which Joshua con- 
quered ader leaving Egypt, and traversing the Red Sea and Desert 
with their people, to the number of sixty wan (myriads); comme- 
morating their ancestors, even though it be with Chinese modes of 
reverence — paying respect, even though by mistake, to the picture 
of Rebekah and her children ; and, perhaps, not less exhibited by 
their attachment to the Hebrew language under circumstances of so 
much discouragement, and by the pleasure they showed in inviting 
the missionaries to read to them some Hebrew Scripture. 

Had there been a visitor from Europe of the family of Abraham, 
we cannot doubt that he might have gathered information more 
ample and more definite respecting this colony, than that now in our 
possession. Not every Christian preacher is competent to succeed 
in such a task, even when no difficulties arise from adverse preju- 
dice, or a want of facility in the standard language. And when we 
consider how greatly the dialects of the several Chinese provinces 
vary from each other in pronunciation, we can scarcely wonder 
that the Jesuits frequently complained of the replies to their ques- 
tions being nearly unintelligible ; just as those questions also may 
have been to the persons to whom they were addressed. 

Fortunately, the Hebrew books and the Chinese inscriptions were 
not so liable to misinterpretation. _^ 

Here we close our long extracts from Mr. Finn's little book, and 
they are sufficient evidence of the high value we put upon his work. 
His " reflections", with some remarks of our own, must be reserved 
for another occasion. 

* Trsnslaled by tbe A*bb6 Reaaudot. Paris, 17X7. 

1M5; Great Destruction of Lift by Fire, 335 

Art. II. ■ An account of the great destruction of life by fire ^ at et 
theatrical exhibition held near the Hall of Literary Examina^ 
tions in the city of Canton, 25th May, 1845*. Writteu by Lianu 

It 18 an ancient cuatom in the aoutb of China to grve thanks to the 
gods (lares rustici) who (are supposed) to preside over the grain, and 
to .go forth to visit the idols. Generally these are attended witb 
great excesses and prodigality,— ^^ustoms which have been transmitted 
from former times. Therefore on this occasion- there* wa» a collect- 
ing together to stroll about at leisure and without restraint. The* 
19th day of the 4th month (24th May, 1845), was the birth day of 
Wh&h-to, an ancient physician and surgeon. In front of the Hiob 
Kien (Hall of Literary Examinations) a theatrical performance i» 
kept up for several successive days ; the spectators, men ami women,, 
like clouds are accustomed to assemble on the occasion. This year 
the Kingfuh company of theatricals (literally the happy and blessed 
company) superintended the performance. This company in sing-^ 
ing and tumbling surpasses all others, consequently groups in unite<l 
masses like swarms of bees repaired thither. Men are naturally ad* 
dieted to roaming, which is to delight in approaching the firey pit 
(Facilis decensus averni). Do they not known that heaven is dTsF^ 
pleased with such extravagances, and that by a great conAagratiori 
it has shown to men that they should guard against such doings ire 
future? One day having elapsed, on the 20th day (25th Msy) at TIP 
o'clock A. M. at length these actors.caused Hwui-luh (a god of fire) ire 
the twinkling of an eye to reduce their stage to ashes, like a vast firer 
on a mountain that cannot be extinguished. Alas! the gems and com-' 
roon stones (the good and indifferent) were all burnt with scarcely a; 
remnant. Immediately the officers of government made investiga- 
tion and reported, of spectators, men and women, young snd old,, 
were burnt to death one thousand three hundred seventy and odd I 
Others, who with burnt heads, lascerated foreheads, severed armir 
and maimed limbs, fleeing in trepidation returned -to their homes 
where they perished, are not included in this number. This severe 
judgment has not a parallel. Rumor states the cause of this to be 
that, in a temporary building on the west side, there was an infamous 
old woman, named the Alack MouUn (Hih Miiu-^t^n), smoking her 
tobacco through water, who carelessly dropped some fire,, and pre« 



CttetU Dcslruction of Life by Fire* 


sentljrthe temporary building ignited, and quickly the flames ex- 
tended to the roof before it could be extinguished. The multitudes 
were alarmed, and in their haste to escape, the eastern gate being 
Tor some reason locked, and the western doc>r being the only remain- 
ing avenue^ of escape, they all rushed to this, like a mountain torrent, 
and the heavy arch over it fell down, when the minds of the whole 
multitude became the more confused, and the fire being truly fierce, 


t'ley trampled each other to death. At a little distance, on the north 
side, there were more than 600 men standing up, who, runing into 
the Hall of Literary Examinations, fortunately escaped this fire ; and 
after a time, when the conflagration subsided, some men came out of 
the Hall, and stated with tears the particulars of this calamity; this 
fierce judgment, reaching to the sky, orignated from the hand of one 
infamous old woman. Why such venom ! 

Since writing this, a friend has addressed me saying, alas ! try 
and consider this affair ; is it of man ? or is it the purpose of heaven ? 

There were eight shops involved in the conflagration, and those 
who perished by the fire are not less than 2,000 ! Furthermore, I 
find, on examination, that in the I8th year of Kidking (1813), at a 
theatrical exhibition, at the same place, by the falling of the wall on 
the south side, fifty or sixtj persons were crushed to death ; therefore 
this singing and tumbling may be called a judgment, as is manifest 
from these coincidences, which should serve as a future warning. 

The following diagram illustrates the scene of the calamity. 









D - 


« I 


ii. ,. 




1845. 3letedroioffical Observations in Bangkok. 337 

A The theater. B The Hall of Literary Examinations. 

C D and D Temporary buildings for the speetators. 

D D The apartments for men. 

C The apartment for women, where the fire commenced. 

F The southeast gate, lucked. £ The southwest gate the only one open. 

Our friend Liang, the writer of the foregoing notices, will please 
accept our best thanks for his communication. His estimate of the 
numbers lost in the conflagration is probably too low. Usually, 
at such theatrical exhibitions in Canton, there are present many 
who come to the city as strangers and visitors ; and it was no doubt 
so on this occasion. The exact number of the lost, therefore, can- 
not be ascertained. The scene must have been horribly teriflic. 
The whole area of the enclosure was covered with the dead : in 
some places the bodies were piled upon each other ; in others they 
were burnt almost to ashes; while here and there large masses of 
human bodies were found standing erect, crowded densely together 
shoulder to shoulder ! These were from various and distant parts of 
the city, and from among all grades of the people. Eleven persons 
are known to have been lost from one family. The effect was 
great. '* The tears of (he people flowed in torrents !'' 

r <^^ ^ t^<^ <^^^*^>^^^^^^*i^^^^0 

Art. III. Meteorological notices of the thermometer^ i^r., made 
in Bangkok,, Siam^ daring Jive successive years, ending 1844. 
By J. Caswell. 

From an inspection of the following tables, it will be seen that 
there is great uniformity of temperature in this country. During 
the five years to which these notices belong, I have not known the 
mercury to rise higher than 97 degrees, nor sink lower than 61. ° 
In January of the present year, however, it stood at one time as low 
as 54."^ The observations for 1844 may be regarded as a little more 
accurate than those of the preceding years. Formerly it was my 
practice to notice the thermometer as it hung in my house ; but dur- 
ing 1844 it was placed outside early every morning, where the mer- 
cury sometimes stood three or four degrees lower than it would 
inside, i regret that the daily range of the mercury was not marked 
during the years included in these notices. During the first four 
months of the present year the report is as follows. Greatest daily 
range 24, 16, 15, 15. Smallest do. 10, 8, !), 4. Average daily range 
16. 03, 12. 64, 10. 90, 10. 60. Daring the hot season, reckon- 
nvf from the middle of February to ihc niiddlu Miy, llic mercury, iu 

VOL. XI v. NO. VI f. 4o 


Mcicorologicat Observations in lianghoh 


the morning, seldom stands below 77, or above 83. In the hottest 
part of the day it is seldom seen below 87, or above 93. The rainy 
season usually commences about the middle of May, and jasts till 
about the first of November, when 'We commonly have two or three 
weeks of quite warm weather before the setting iiv^f the N. E. mon- 
soon. During this season the temperature of the mornings varies 
but little from that of the mornings in the hot season ; but that of the 
afternoon is about five degrees lower than the corresponding time 
during the hot season. 

1840. ' 






of means. 


77. 16 








83. 13 
















84. OH 








83. 12 












82. 16 




, 82. 83 




80. 15 





81. 27 



81. 15 








77. 11 





nop sis 

/ extremes. 











































































Mean temperature of ^nch year. 








it r ernes' 

of temp 


each y ear 









Easy Lessons in Chinese. 







• Syi 

nopsis of 



January, 1 




February, 3 * 





March, 2 





April, 9 ; 





May, 18 





June, 21 





July, 16 





August, 19 

17 - 




Sepember, 14 





October, 9 





November, 8 


.. 4 



December, 6 







Art. IV. Easy Lessons in Chinese: or Progressive exercises to 
faeilitate the study of that languagi, especially adapted to the 
Canton Dialect. By S. Wells Williams. Macao, printed at 
the office of the Chinese Repository , 1842. 

NecEssiTY, advantage, convenience, and pleasure are all alike every 
year and month putting forth and urging new claims for studying the 
language and dialects of the celestial empire. These claims are be- 
ginning to be recognized, and somewhat of due consideration is 
now given to them. As an instance of this, we are happy in being 
able to state that, a circular from H. B. M.'s foreign office has re- 
cently been addressed to all the British consular establishment in 
China, recommending, especially to the junior members, the assi- 
duous study of the Chinese language, and intimating that proficiency 
in this study shall, othefnthings being equal, regulate the scale of 

The acquisition of this language is not so difficult as many sup- 
pose, and no one will fail to acquire abtlify to speak it, if recourse 
be had to the proper means. The words are easily spoken and 
easily remembered ; itnd constant practice will very soon give facili- 
ty in their use. We have known an instance, where in one hundred 
days an individual acquired such ability to speak the court dialect, 

340 Easy Lessons in Chinese. .July, 

that on all ordinary subjects he could maintain easy and intelligible 
conversation. We have also known unlettered persons who have 
acquired the oral language of the Chinese in a few months, and that 
too without any effort, beyond what the child naturally makes in 
learning its vernacular. The great difficulty has been — and is — 
that people do not try, or try by wrong means. Constant practice is 
the main thing; and no one who resolves, and keeps the resolution, 
to use the Chinese, and nothing but the Chinese, constantly, will 
long continue ignorant of this langnage. Let any one, who is in 
daily contact with the people or officers of China, lay aside the old 
rediculous jargon, and try to speak as the Chinese themselves speak, 
and the requisite ability to do so will very soon be acquired. This 
acquisition, by means o{ conatant practice, will be greatly facilitated 
by having recourse to such books, as have been prepared for this 
specific object, and of which the Easy. Lessons. afford us a good 

This little volume, of 283 neatly printed octavo pages, was pub- 
lished three years ago, and was briefly noticed in the Repository for 
July 1842. We then promised to give an analysis of the work, 
which we will now do, showing as well as we can its character and 
object. ** The volume is most respectfully inscribed to D. W. C. 
Oltphant, esq. of New York, U. S. A., the steady and manificent 
friend of all efforts for the good of China." The author says — 

" The design of this volume is to provide a book suitable to be put 
into the hands of persons commencing the study of the Chinese Ian. 
guage, not only in China itself but abroad ; to be a work which can 
be advantageously used by the foreigner in his own country, or on. 
his voyage hitherwards, as well as dfler his arrival among the people. 
It is introductory to larger works, yet has somewhat of completeness 
within itself; for while some of the lessons will require no aid from 
other books in order to understand them fully, for those in the two 
last chapters the student will probably need the help of a teacher or 
a dictionary to learn all their meaning. But if he has learned the 
previous lessons as thoroughly as he ought, he will no doubt be gra- 
tified with the degree of facility with ^which he can read them, and 
fftel that he has made some progress in acquiring the. language. 

"The first four chapters, with the Vlth, Vlllth, and. fxth, are as 
applicable to the study of any -other dialect as to that of the Canton, 
as they 4:ontain little or nothing local or provincial. The remarks in. 
the first three chapters should be carefully read, and it will probably, 
be found by experience that the best way to commence learnino' cha-. 

1845: 'Easy Lessons in Chinrse. 341 

racters will be to bcgia with the radicals, and make them as familiar 
as an alphabet is made in other languages. Their universal use in 
the composition of characters, their influence upon the general mean- 
ing of words, and the use made of them in arranging the imperial 
dictionary of K^nghi, together with the aid they afford in remem- 
bring the component parts of characters, are all strong reasons for 
taking them up at first. The various points briefly touched upon in 
the second and third chapters, regarding the construction of charac- 
ters, and the rules for reading and writing Chinese, are it is hoped 
explained with sufficient clearness to serve the purposes of the begin- 
ner, and enable him profitably to read what other authors have said 
more at large upon the same subjects. Mr. Gallery's Systema 
Phoneticum Scripture Sinicae, referred to on page 47, contains 
nearly fourteen thousand characters arranged under 1040 primitives. 
These primitives are arranged according to the number of their 
strokes, and those consisting of the same number are placed in suc- 
cession according to a kind of alphabetical plan, in which the first 
stroke on the led hand corner is taken as the initial letter. It seems, 
from a careful examination of this system, that to render it useful 
in learning the characters, the meaning, the form, the name, and 
the collocation of this list of primitives ought all to be made very 
familiar ; since all the characters in Part Second of the book (only 
about one third, however, of all in the Chinese language) are ar- 
ranged under them. It is almost unnecessary to observe that the 
method adopted by the Chinese scholars who compiled K^nghi's 
dictionary has not, by this arrangement, been simplified or improved, 
so far as classifying the characters in the language, or facilitating 
the labor of finding them, in concerned. The Systema Phoneticum 
will, however, furnish the scholar with all that has been said upon 
the primitives, and aid the advanced student very much in compar- 
ing the meaning of characters in which the same primitive is joined 
to different radicals. 

" If the student is learning any other than the Canton dialect, he 
can by the help of his teacher interline the sounds of the characters 
underneath the original in those chapters which contain reading les- 
sons. If he has not the help of a teacher, he need not pay much 
attention to the sounds, but have more regard to the meaning of the 
words; for their sounds and tones are to be learned from the living 
voice^ and no system of orthography can do much if any more than 
aid that. As he advances In his studies, he will probably find that 
the meaning and the structure of a character are much more closely 

Easy Lessons in Chinese, July, 

connected in his mind than the sound and the stracture; for if he 
has forgotten the meaning of a character, its component parts will be 
imperfectly remembered, while the sound of those characters he has 
read, but whose meaning he does not remember, will soon pass out 
of mind. 

" The con?ersations in chapter V., and the exercises in chapter 
YII., probably canmit be used in other dialects to much advantage 
without some slight alterations, which the student will find to be a 
good exercise to make. It seemed desirable to furnish a few sen- 
tences to be used with a teacher when the student first sits down 
with him, and with servants when occasion requires, both of whom 
may know nothing of English; the former ought not to be suffered to 
talk English even if he knows it. *^ 

"Almost all grammaticd remarks upon the lessons have been omit- 
ted, for that part of the study of the language belongs to other treatises 
solely devoted to it. The books required for the thorough study of 
the Chinese language are numerous; some of them have not yet been 
eommenced, and others have been but im|>erfectly executed. The 
simple object of this volume is to furnish a few easy lessons for the 
beginner, so prepared as to lead him on from one step to another ; 
it is designed to form one in the series of work, which, it is to be 
^oped, will erelong be prepared. It is intended to be, as its Chinese 
Citle indicates, )^ ^ 'H.^-^^^V ^^^P Tdi-shing, Short Steps 
to Excellence, and the degree in which it will aid the scholar to at- 
tain that excellence in the language he looks forward to, will depend 
as well on the faithful use made of it as on its adaptation to that end. 

** These lessons are also tolerably well fitted for teaching the Eng- 
lish language to Chinese lads who are somewhat advanced in that 
tttttdy ; they will at once see the difference between the idioms of 
the two languages, and learn both to translate from their own ton- 
gue into idiomatic English, or to turn short English sentences into 
Chinese. The Hamiltonian plan of verbal rendering seems to be 
well fitted to assist each party to learn the other's language. Some 
explanation and assistance will however be necessary to enable a 
native youth to use these exercises advantageously. 

" It is unnecessary to repeat any of the observations made here 
and there in the course of the work. If any of them deserve to be 
repeated, it is perhaps that upon storing the mind with Chinese sen- 
tences, and even paragraphs, by committing them to memory. Such 
an exercise, in some measure, reconducts the scholar over the same 
ground he trod when he learned his mother tongue> He need not 


1845. 'Ea&y Lessons in Cluiusc^ 343 

be solicitous about the rules of grammar or the elegancies of styl«, 
until he has acquired a stock of words and phrases in which, as in 
examples, he can instantly see the application of the former, and 
relish the niceties nf the latter. It is enough at first to know thai 
such is the way the Chinese talk and write, and that they understand 
what is thus said and written. 

" In preparing these lessons, some aid has been derived from fel- 
low-students, and some extracts have been taken from Chinese Chres- 
toinathy; the system of orthography is the same as in that work, 
and the exercises in writing are also the same. The hope is cherish- 
-ed that this volume will facilitate the acquisition of the Chinese lan- 
guage, and by inducing some to commence the study who have been 
deterred by its forbidding aspect, and disheartened at its reported 
difficulty, thus assist in improving the intercourse between two great 
portions of the human family — those who speak English, and those 
who can understand Chinese. The time has come when their inter- 
course must be in some other commodities than those.of the shop,, 
and every friend of man will rejoice to see so mighty and so ancient 
a race as the sons of Han about to be made acquainted with the 
arts, the improvements in social life and the knowlege of the 
West, together with that greatest gif\, the fountain head of all other 
excellencies, the religion and the hopes of the Bible. To th« 
advancement of all these objects, and the extension of every measure" 
to promote an honorable and Christian intercourse, is this volume 
contributed.'' Here ends Mr. W.'s preface. ^ 

Chapter first gives us a full and very satisfactory account of tli^ 
radicals^ keys or indices. It would appear from a general survey 
of the language, that when the compilers of the imperial diclionary 
began to arrange the characters, " the problem they en^avored to* 
solve was, to select such characters, for keys or radical^ as should' 
be easily recognized,*' while reference to an arrangement into natu- 
ral groups was not neglected. The majority of characters was' 
easily assorted, but there would still be many lefl tb be arranged by 
some one of their constituent parts, of which the most important 
and prominent was taken as the radical and the arrangement made* 
accordingly. The number of keys has- not always been the same,, 
some lexicographers have taken more* and some less. The Skwoh- 
Wan^ for example, has all the words of ttie language arranged under 
540 radicals or heads. In the imperial dictionary of KAnghf they 
are arranged under 214, which gives an average of little more thniiF 
300 characters under each. Mr. Williams recommends ''the st«^ 

344 Eas^ Lc^sms in Chinese: Jctr, 

dent to learn these 214 radicals in their order, so as to be able to 
write them memoriter, and repeat their names and meaning." 

Chapter second is occupied with remarks on the primitives. Mr. 
W. thus introduces this subject. 

" By the term primitive is meant that part of characters, which is 
joined to the radical, to form a new one. For instance, in the 
words tung j|^, Ian, ijm, lin^ /l^, d£»c., the~part of the charac- 
ter on the right, viz, fj^y t^ ^ and ^, is the primitive. The 
meaning; of the terms is also extended so as to incfucfe these charac- 
ters, even when standing alone, or when they are spoken of as filling 
thisotiice; — and the word is used in this sense in the preceding 
chapters. This part might also be called the phonetic or voca) part, 
inasmuch as it gives its own sound to a very great proportion of the 
characters ; but as this rule has a multitude of exceptions, primitive 
appears to be on the whole the best term. It is not applied thus, 
however, on account of its original use, or for priority of any sort, 
but merely ^as a convenient term to express that part of a character 
which is not the radical ; it is primitive solely because it was formed 
prior to the compound characters in which it is found. The term 
derivative has been used by Marshinau to express the compound cha- 
racters formed by the union of a radical and a primitive, and when 
speaking of them in this connection, may be used to avoid a peri- 

** The number of primitives in the language, — that is the number 
of different characters, exclusive of the 214 radicals, which combine 
with a radical to form derivatives, — 3S67, according to D. M arshmaa 
from whose Clavis the following estimates are derives. They are 
not, however, all equally prolific in their philological progeny. More 
than seventeen hundred of them combine only once with a radical to 
form a third character ; and as they are themselves for the most part 
compounds of radicals joined to simpler primitives (i. e. such as . 
belong to class V.), they hardly deserve that name. For instance, one 
of the derivatives of lung ng is chung ^,. formed by joining that 
primitive to the radical mitif r^; this compound character joins 
once with yttn J^^ to form chung ^^, which according to K^ug- 
hl's Dictionary means deflected, and which probably would not be 
met with once in a hundred volumes. For all practical purposes, 
therefore, these may |>e excluded from the list of primitives. There 
are also 4o2 others, formed, generally speaking, in the same manner, 
each of which produces only two philological shoots, and these may 
also be discarded, and for the same reasou. Tliese two sums, making 

ld4o. Easy Lessons in Chintse, 345 

2178 characters, which, as they are the parents of only 2630 deriva- 
tives, and are themselves mostly included and defined under simpler 
forms, can have little or no influence on the great mass of characters, 

and may be considered, to borrow a term from natural history, as 
aberrant forms of their own primitive. There are then lef\ 1689 
primitives, out of which, by the addition of radicals, are formed about 
five sixths of all the characters in the language. The number of deri- 
vatives from any one of these primitives varies from three up to seven- 
ty-four, which is the highest, but the average is scarcely fifteen to 
each. To this number, the 214 radicals must be added, (for the ma- 
jority of them also act as primitives in a greater or less degree,) making 
a total of 1903 primitives, from which, by the addition of 214 of their 
own number, at least seven eighths of all the characters in the Chinese 
language are formed : — a proportion, that for all practical purposes, is 
fully equivalent to the whole. 

" The primitives may, for convenience, be arranged into five classes, 
according to the relation they bear to the radicals. These are : 

" I. The 214 radicals themselves, when used as primitives 

"II. Primitives formed from a radical by an addition that of itself 
is unmeaning. 

"III. Primitives formed from two radicals, or those which can be 
separated into two complete radicals. 

" IV. Primitives formed of three or four radicals. 

" V. Primitives formed from a derivative by the addition of another 
radical, or by the combination of two primitives." 

The whole of this chapter deserves a careful reading, and affords 
the student a very correct idea of the structure and nature of the 
language. It closes with the following paragraph. 

" Attempts have been made by scholars to trace a leading idea run- 
ning through all words containing the same primitive. Dr. Marshman, 
in a chapter on the primitives, in his Clavis (republished in the Chi- 
nese Repository, vol. IX., page 303), has several groups of characters, 
through which he endeavors to trace one leading idea ; his remarks 
are worthy of attention, and have not been overlooked in writing these 
paragraphs. Mr. Lay, in an article in the Chinese Repository (vol. 
yil, page 255), has also several remarks on this subject ; and M. 
Callery, a French gentleman, has published a dictionary on this plan. 
These writers have probably said nearly all that is worth saying 
on the subject. There can be no doubt that many characters can be 
selected from the body of the language, whose component parts do 
give the idea of the derivative ; several have already been brought for- 

VOL. XIV. NO. vir. 44 

346 Easjf Lessons in Chinese, July, 

ward. They are worthy of notice because they freqaently illustrate 
Chinese notions ; but as they have been often quoted and illustrated 
by writers on the language, they have, perhaps more than any one 
thing else, tended to strengthen an idea current in the west, that the 
Chinese language is a wonderful collection of ideographic symbols, 
which are intelligible to different nations merely by presenting them 
to the eye, while they cannot be understood when spoken ; and that 
in some magical way, a Chinese, a Cochinchinese, and a Japanese, 
who had never before seen each other, and could not understand a 
word of each other's conversation, as soon as a phrase in Chinese was 
handed to them, were able to communicate intelligibly. An anecdote 
is told of Scaliger, who, being visited one day by a scholar from 
Edinburgh, and addressed in Latin, begged his pardon, and requested 
an explanation, as he did not understand Gaelic. He would have un- 
derstood, if his visiter had written his salutation, and this is just the 
case with the three Asiatics. The preceding paragraphs will tend to 
explain the manner in which this idea has originated, and show that, 
as there is no integrant sound in the character itself (as there is in 
an alphabetical word) which can be learned by inspection, or by 
observing any rules of pronunciation, its sound must be learned 
traditionally, while its meaning is acertained from dictionaries, or 
from the context. This peculiarity has, probably, been the chief cause 
of the dialects now existing in the empire." 

Chapter third, on the orthography, tones, &c., has been in part 
borrowed from the Chinese Chrestomathy, and we pass it over with- 
out remark. 

Chapters IV., V., "VTl., give a good variety of lessons in- reading 
and conversation, the Chinese character for the most part being 
accompanied with two translations, one literal and the other verbal. 

The **cl€LssiJiers" so called, form chapter VII, perhaps the best in the 
book. This subject has never yet received the attention it deserves. 

The remaining chapters, VIII., IX., X., comprise a large va- 
riety of exercises in translating, and cannot be too carefully read 
by those who ptirpose learning to write the Chinese language. 

In closing this brief notice of the Easy Lessons, we have only to 
remark, in its favor, that, taking it all in all, it is one of the best books 
that can be put into the hands of any one, who is sitting down to 
commence the study of Chinese in the Canton dialect. 

^-V <^^ ^^^»^^N^^N»»^»#»^>^^^^^M^^^>^^»>^%^^^« 

184$. List of Foreign Residents in Canton. 347 

Art. V. List of foreign residents in Canton, July Anno Dimini 
eighteen hundred and forty 'five, with notices of their factories , 
houses, S^c. 

Within a few years there has been almost an entire change of fore- 
ign residents in Canton ; and the alterations in their residences are 
neither few nor unessential. By turning to a list published by the 
late hon. Mr. Morrison in 1892, it will be seen that, excepting the 
Parsees, the names of only three, then resident in Canton, are found 
on the accompanying catalogue. 
The thirteen factories, counting from the east stood thus 


1 . Creek factory, or I' ho (Ewo) hong. 

2. Duiek factory, or Tsik-i hong. § ^ 'i B 
Z^- English foctory, ar Pauko hong. ^I^ S ^«- 

Is ' Bor IianOf or San-lau Idn. ^ S S * 

S *^^* 8 "^ ^ a 

£ 4. Chaw-chow hong, or Fungtai hong. I & 9 i 

« IS g ® o 

^ 5. Old EngUghfaaory, or Lung-shun. O © ^ *§ 

« « ^ ■** >, 

g 6. Swedish factory, or Sui hong. "5 :g g -g 

S 2 7. imperial factory, or Md-ying hong. S jj *^ S 2 

« 5 8. Pau shun hong. S J "^ ^ g 

H 9. American factory, or Kwdng-yuen. S ® ^ 2 

S China UU or Tsingyuen ked. J | jea » 

H ^ g B rS 8 

H 10. Mingkwa'shong,orChung'hohong. S .£ 1 Q 

H 11. French factory. S § "S <^ 

12. Spanish hong. 'S - ^ "3 

Old China St. or Tung-wan kai, S '§ g S 

W S Q, ^ 

13. Danish hong, or TehingkAi. 8 -5 ^ 


Thus they Stood prior to December 7th, 1842, occupying a plot 
of ground extending, say, sixty rods from east to west, and forty or 
iifly from north to south. The factories were divided into three, 
four, or more houses, built chiefly of brick, and most of them only 
two stories high. Before the Creek hong there was a small custom- 
house station, and another one in front of the Swedish and Impe- 
rial hongs. There were also small inclosures before the Dutch, the 
English, and the Danish. 

348 List of Foreign Residents in Canton, July, 

December 7th, the day above named, the three eastern hongs, be- 
tween the creek and Hog Lane, were burnt by a Chinese mob ; and 
on the 26th October 1843, the three on the other extreme were 
nearly all destroyed by afire, which orignated in a Chinese house 
a few rods in the rear of the factories. The latter three have all 
been rebuilt, and in a miserable style. The other three are now 
being rebuilt,— or rather, on the site of the old ones, houses of a 
new and much improved order are being erected. The old custom- 
house stations in front of the factories have been reduced ; the en- 
closures before the Dutch and English still remain; and on the 
ground in front of the old Danish, Spanish, French, and Mingqua's, 
lines of houses, of an inferior order, have been erected, extending 
quite down to the river ; while between these and the garden, in 
front of the English factory, the whole space has been enclosed by 
a high fence, and the ground tastefully laid out, partly covered with 
turf and shrubs, and partly occupied with chunamed walks. 

The factories, as they now stand, are but poorly fitted to accom- 
modate the foreigners resident in the provincial city. They are 
neither sufficiently spacious nor airy. They afford a few, and but a 
few, good houses, and many of the residents are compelled to take 
up with quarters that are both inconvenient and unhealthy. Coun- 
try seats and larger houses are almost indispensable, and these we 
suppose will erelong be enjoyed by men from afar, as well as by the 
Chinese, since both are henceforth to dwell together in peace, each 
enjoying the same advantages ! 

The following list of residents has been prepared with some care, 
but we fear it is yet incomplete ; and hope the errors that are found 
in it, will be viewed indulgently. 


Dahish Hong, or TB-Hriiia Kai. 

No. 1. 
Noormhamed Dattoobhoy. 
MuUoobhoy Doongeney. 
Thamerbhoy AUam. 
Alladine Peremjee. 
Nanjee Tasaom. 
Curim Nuwjee. 
Cbromjee Eesab. 
Mhamod Thanet. 
Goolam Huaaon Camalbhoy. 

No. 1. 
J. B. Rodrignea. 
M. D. Bemadino. I No. 10. 

No. 2. (Rev. J. Lewis Shuok and fam. 

8. E. Patullo. IRev. T. T. Devan m. d. and fam. 

No. 5. 
A. Viegaa. 
J. J. Viegaa. 

No. 6. 
William Lane. 

No. 7. 
Henry Rutter. 
William Rutter. 

No. 8. 
Edward Vancher. 

No. 9. 
Arthar Agaasii. 
Edmand Moller. 


List of Foreign Residents in Canton. 


No. 12. 
M. J. Senn van Bawl. 
W. T. H. van Ryck. 
Louis Wjsman. 

No. 13. 
Caraam Jesup. 

No. 14. 
fiyramjee Muncheijee Bhandara. 

No. 15. 
H. G. H. Reynvaan and fam. (ab.) 
L. Carvalho. 

No. 16. 
Rev. E. C. Bridffman, o. d. and fam. 
Joaqnim doa Anjos Xavier. 

Nkw Hovo, or Souik Tb-hiro Kai. 

No. 1. 
George C. Bruoe. 
Henry Robert Hardie. 

No. 2. 
C. Campbell. 

No. 2. 
Oaya Jamal. 
Doaabhoy Mawjee. 
Byramjee Pestonjee. 

No. 3. 
Henry Balkwill. 

No. 4. 
E. Jean Ganreta. 
Robert Ker. 
John Thomas Cavillier. 

No. 5. 
Y. J. Marrow. 
C. G. Clarke. 

No. 6. 
B. Seare. 

SpARiiH Hong. 
Henry Mool. 
George Moul. 

FREiicn Hoiro. 

No. 1. 
Buijoijee Framjee Cohedaroo. 
Pestonjee Hormusjee Cama. 
Dhunjeebhoy Hormusjee Huckimna. 
Sorabjee Framjee Curraca. 
Nanabhoy Hormusjee. 
Rustomjee Merwanjee Nalearwala. 
Rustomjee Burioijee. 
Nusserwanjee Bomanjee Mody. 
Manchersaw Nusserwanjee Mody. 
Rustomjee Dadabhoy Camajee. 
Bomanjee Eduljee. 
Dadabhoy Eduljee. 

No. 9. 
L. Bo vet. 
A. Bugnon. 

No. 3. 
Maneekjee Nanabhoy. 
Rustomjee Framjee. 
Bomanjee Muncherjee. 
Limjeebhoy Jerosetjee. 

No. 5. 

Shamsoodeen AbdooUatiflT. 
Jafurbhoy Budroodren. 
ShurrufuUy Chadabhoy. 

No. 6. 
Pestonjee Nowrojee Pochajee. 
Oorabjee Nesserwanjee Cama. 
Pallanjee Dorabjee Lallcaea. 
Ardaseer Dhunjeebhy Wadia. 
Hormusjee Nesserwanjee Pochajee. 

No. 7. 
Fmncis B. Birley. 

No. 8 and 9. 
George B. Dizwell. 
John Heard. 
Joseph L. Roberts. 
Oliver E. Roberts. 
John 8. Bruen. 

New Freiicr Hoifo. 

No. 1. 
G. Lunn, m. d. 

No. 2. 
John Paton Watson. 
Samuel Mackenzie. 

No. 3. 
Maximilian Fischer and family. 
William A. Meufing. 
Edward Reimers. 

No. 4. 

Philip W. Ripley and family. 
Henry Hammond Smith. 

No. 5. 
P. Tiedemanjr. 
L. C. Delmarle. 
F. H. Tiedeman. 

No. 6. 
J. C. Vincent. 
Richaed Brown. 

Min^cta's Hoifo. 

No. 1. 
James Church. 

Winiam Stirling. 
William Gilbert. 

No. 1. 
Robert H. Hunter. 
Henry Charles Read. 
Robert Forrester Thorburn. 
Jehangeer Framjee Buxey. 

No. 2. 
James S. Anderson. 
Patrick Chalmers. 
James D. Paik. 

No. 3. 
W. Fryer. 
Travers Buxton. 


List of Rortign Residents in Canton, 


Amkrican Hong. 

No. 1. 
Archibald A. Ritchie. 
Jaraei A. Bancker. 
Richard H. Douglas. 
Frederick A. King. 

No 3. 
Rev. P. Parker, m. d. and family. 

No. 3. 
John. Millar. 

No. 3. 
Alfred Wilkinson. 
Joseph Mackrill Smith. 
Thurston Dale. 
Richard Gibbs. 

No. 4. 
C. R. Compton. 
C. Sanders. 
A. E. M. Campbell. 

Paushun Homo. 

No. 1. 
Isaac M. Bull. 
W. Buckler. 

No. 2. 
William Hastings. 
Abraham Sedgwick. 

No. 3. 
John Shepard. 
Thomas Pyke. 

No. 4. 
Heerjeebhoy Horrousjee. 
Nesserwanjee Byramjee. 
Ardaseer Rustomjee. 
Aspunderjee Tamooljee. 
Cursetjee Hosenjee. 
Nesserwanjee Framjee. 
Manackjee Pestonjee. 
Pestonjee Rustomjee. 
Dadabhoy Pestonjee. 

No. 5. 
Cowasjee Sapoorjee Lungrana. 
Pestonjee Jemsetjee. 
Hormusjee Jamasjee Naudershow. 
Rustomjee Pestonjee. 
Pestonjee Byramjee Colah. 
Framjee Sapoorjee Lungrana. 
Nesserwanjee Dorabjee Mehta. 
Oossabhoy Hormusjee. 
Merwanjee Eduljee. 
Ruttonjee Dossabhoy Mody. 
Framjee Hormusjee. 
Dadabhoy Jemsetjee. 

No. 6. 

William Leslie. 

John Caldecott Smith. 

Joaquim V. Caldas. 

Imperial Hong. 

No. 1. 
Samuel Wetmore, jr. 
Nathaniel Kinsman. 
William Moore. 
S. T. Baldwin. 
Joseph C. Anthon. 
C. F. Howe. 
William H. Gilman. 
Jacob C Rogers. 
Florencio Gutierres. 
William Buckler, jr. 

No. 1. 
S. B. Rawle. 

No. 3. 
Samuel Maijoribanks, m. d. 
Athanasio de Souza. 

No. 4. 
Joseph G. Livingston. 
John Silverlock. 
George Gibb. 

No. 6. 
John N. Alsop Griswold. 

No. 5. 
George Barnet. 
William Barnet. 

No. 6. 
W. F. Gray. 

W. Ellis. 
Joseph Hodgson. 
Charles Ryder. 
David SiUar. 


No. 1, 2, and 3. 
Paul S. Forbes. 
J. T. GilmAn. 
D.* N. Spooner. 
W. H. King. 
S. J. Hallam. 
George Perkins. 
R. S Sturgis. 
William F. Pierce. 
E. A. Low. 
Sigesmundo J. Rangel. 
Quenteliano F. da Silva. 
P. J. de Silva Loureiro, jr. 

No. 4. 
John D. Sword. 
John B. Trott. 

No. 5. 
R. Silver. 
H. F. Bourne. 
E. Canv. 

Old English Compant. 

No. I. 
Gideon Nye, jr. 
William W. Parkin. 
Clement D. Nye. 
Thomas S. H. Nye. 
Henry M. Olmsted. 


Journal of Occurrmces, 


Timothy J. Durrell. 
Juliua Kreyenhagen. 
Joaquira P. van Loffett. 
Jttzino de £neama^ad. 

No. 2. 
Samuel G. Rathbone. 
Jamea Worthingtoa. 
Mareiano da Silva. 

No. 3. 
Alexander Walker. 
William Melroae. 

No. 4. 
William C. Le Geyt. 
Thomaa C. Piccope. 

No. 5. 
Stephen Ponder. 
Frederick Chapman. 
John Butt. 

No. 6. 
R. J. Oilman. 
Alexander Johnston. 
L. Josephf. 
W. H. Vacher. 
John Williams. 
A. John Yoang. 

Chavchau Hone. 

No. 1. 
Dhnnjcebhoy Byramjee Ronna. 
Rttitomjee Heerjeebhoy Shwroff. 
Byramjee Rustorojee Uudawana. 
Jommoojee Naioervanjee Mehrjee. 
Mnncheijee Bdnljee JBuooey. 
Jehangeer Framjee. 

No, 2. 
£duijee Ciirsetjee. 
Eliaoo D. Saaioon. 
S. A. Seth. 
Rufltomjee Byramjee. 
Curtetjee Ruitomjee Daver. 
Peatonjee Dinshowjee. 

No. 3. 
Qowaajee Pallanjee. 
Cooverjee Bomanjee. 
Cawaajee Framjee. 
Sapoorjee Bomanjee. 

No. 4. 
Cowasjee Sorabjee Patell. 
Peatonjee Dhunjeebhoy. 
Dhunjeebhoy Dossabhoy. 
Curaetjee Peatonjee Caraa. 
Buijorjee Hormuajee Harda. 
Dadabhoy Sorabjee. 

No. 5. 
Peatonjee Ruttonjee Shroff*. 
Dadabhoy Buijorjee. 
Buijorjee Sorabjee. 
Dhunjeebhoy Dadabhoy. 
Sorabjee Byramjee. 

British Consulate. 

Francis C. Macgregor. 
Richard B. Jackson and fam. 
John Backhouse. 
Thomas Taylor Meadows. 
J. A. T. Meadows. 
£dward F. Giles. 
John L.du P. P. Taylor. 
George de St. Croix. 


T. W. L. Mackean. 
£. Levine. 
W. Walkinshaw. 
R. L&ing. 

KwANG.LiB Uoira. 

David Jardine. 
Gervas Humpstom 
R. H. Rolfe: 
A. P. Siiveirx. 

Po-TAi Ho!»o. 

C. V. Gillespie and fam. 

San Sha. 
Rev. W. Gillespie. 

Tcmo-sHiH KoK. 
Rev. I. J. Roberts. 

Tdho-waii KaA 

John Wright. 

Art. VI. Journal of Occurrences : office of the Chinese Reposi* 
tory removed to Canton ; payment of two millions of dollari 
to the British government by the Chinese; public ezff cut ions in 
Canton and Hongkong ; U. S. A, frigate Constitution : neio 
Legation from U. 8. A. to China ; changes in the government at 
Hongkong ;^ new American consul; importation of ice: French 
missions in Cochinchina; Protestant missions in China, 

C1&CUM8TANCC8 beyond our control, and in which we see cause for 
devout gratitude to God, have caused a removal of our otHce bacl^ 

332 J^oMtHol of Octurrmces* 

to 118 original site, the city of Canton. With the aisistance of 
numerous and able correspondents we trust that our pages will be 
worthy the attention of all those who are now so much interested in 
this great empire^ — a third part of the whole human family. To 
awaken interst, and direct effort, for its improvement, has been, is, 
and shall be the leading object of the Chinese Repository. 

Early in the month an enstalment of two millions of dollars was 
paid over to the officers of the British government in Canton — as 
part of the 21,000,000 sitpulated for in the Treaty of Nanking. 

Public executions — by decapitation in Canton and by hanging in 
Hongkong, — have attracted attention during this month ; the first on 
account of their great numbers and frequency, and the latter from 
the short period, 60^ hours, between the passing and the execution of 
the sentence, on two malefactors, one a Chinese and the other an 
Englishman. In Canton more than twenty persons, some of them 
women, were decapitated in one day. Here, on all ordinary occa* 
sions, the criminals are adjudged in the morning and then are led 
away to the potters field, where they are decapitated the same day. 

The U. S. A. frigate Coustitution arrived off Macao June 5th and on 
the 19th came up to Whampoa— or rather Blenheim's Reach, — where she 
now \a. The foUowing is her list of officen. 

Co^pfatii, John Percival ; ftetiienonit, Amasa Paine, W. C. Chaplin, James 
Alden, J. W. Cooke, John & Dale; acting iietd. G. W. Grant; odm^ mot- 
ier^ Isaac G. Strain ; purmr^ T. M. Taylor; ttiimm, D. C McLeod ; lietiL tf 
fnarineSy J. W. Curtis ; auUkuU surgeonB^ M. Duvmll and R McSherry, jr^ 
ntUwralisij J. C Reinhardt; cqaUM§ dark^ Bern. F. Stevens; muM^pmen, 
C Terret, W. F JDavidson, J. £. Hart, J. R Hopson, C. Comagys, G. R Dou- 
glas^ J. J. Cook, M. P. Jones, W. P. Buckner; ooaitwainj R Sunpson; gtm- 
nar^ G. Sirian ; carpenier^ H. G. Thomas ; Mailm/aker, Isaac Whitney ; yeoman^ 
Abraham Noyes ; maater*s maU^ Charles Woodland. 

Alexander H. Everett has been appointed plenipotentiary, on the 

part of the United States, to the court of Peking ; he comes out in 

the Columbus, and will be the bearer of the ratified Treaty. 

The hon. R Mont jromery Martin, colonial Treasurer of Hongkong, has 
reaiffned ; and the office is filled by Mr. W. T. Mereer, pending the receipt 
of if. B. pieasnre. 

F. T. fiuah eaqaire has been appointed U. S. A. contol for Hongkong, and 
the appointment approved by the jBritifh, government. 

We are glad to oee there has been an importation at Hongkong of ice from 
Boston, by ahip Lenox. 

The French bithop of Cochinohina, long held a prisoner there^ has just 
srriTed ris Macao, having been released by the French commissiener, Langren6. 

On the 26th init. the Rev. W. Gillespie, of the Lon. M. Soc. arrived in 
Ganton ; and the Rev. Dr. Bridgman and lady on the 3d instant. 

On the 5th init. the Rev. Mr. Woods and lady, the Rev. Mr. Graham and 
lady, and the Rev. Wm. Fairbrother and lady, embarked on the John Hortnn 
for ShAnghAi. Mr. and Mrs. Cole embarked in the same vessel for Chuian and 

Afarried — in the colonial chapel, on the 28th June, 1845, by the Rev. 
Vincent John Stanton, chaplain of Hongkong, — the Rsv. £luah Colbhas 
BaiDGMAN D. D". TO Miss Eliza Jane Gillett. 



Vol. XIV.— AiTGusT, 1845.— No. 8. 


Art I. Message from the president of the United States to the 
senate^ transmitting the treaty concluded between Mr, Cashing 
and Klying in behalf of their respective governments. 

This treaty, sigaed at W4nghi4 on the 3d of July 1844, was sub- 
mitted to the senate of the United States, for its ratification and 
approval, on the 10th of December last, during the second session 
of the twenty-eighth Congress. Of that ratified treaty, no copy has 
yet reached China, but we have before us a series of documents, 
which were communicated with the treaty, and which will enable us 
to give our readers a tolerably full account of the negotiations be- 
tween the two high commissioners. The treaty was unanimously 
approved and ratified by the senate, and will be brought out, by 
Mr. Alexander H. Everett, who is to be, on the part of the U. 
S. A., commissioner resident in China. Mr. Everett, sometime 
minister resident at the Spanish court, is a highly accomplished 
literary gentleman, who will do much to make known both China 
and the Chinese and to illustrate whatever belongs to them. As he 
comes out to reside permanently in this country, we suppose he will 
proceed — according to common usage>— directly to court, and take 
up his residence as near as possible to his august majesty, Tau- 
kw4ng. The residence of such* a minister is indispensible to the 
carrying out of the stipulations of the new treaty and that policy 
which led to iu formation*. To the latter, — ^the policy of the United 
States in regard to China,— our attention is called by the documents 
now before us, containing the essential parts of Mr. Cushing's cor- 

VOL. XIV. NO. viii» AS 

354 " Treaty with the Unilated Siaies. Aug. 

respondence with the Chinese government. Having attentively 
perused these, we will make some selections, and give such an ac- 
count of the whole as may enable our readers to -form their own 
opinions of the policy adopted. 

The documents were pubHshed by order of the Senate. The 
following is the president's message : 

*' To the Senate of the- United States : 

<< I have great pleasure in submitting to the senate, for its ratifica- 
'* tion and approval, a treaty which has been isoncluded between Mr. 
'' Gushing, the United States commissioner, and the Chin^ empire." 
'* WASHiNGfotf^ j>BC. 10, 1844. John Ttlbr. 

Mr. Gushing having arrived oflT Macao, addressed the following 
communication to his excellency the governor-general of Kwingtung 
and Kw.ingsf. 

'' Ou board the United States Flag-ship Brandywine, 

^ . <* Macao Roads, Februaiy a7th, 1844. 

** Sir: The undersigned, bearing commissions on the part of the United 
States of Aqerica, as commissioner and as envoy extraordinary and minis- 
ter plenipotentiary to the imperial court, and also invested with full and all 
fnanner of power, for and m the name of the United States, to meet and 
confer with any person or persons having the like authority from the Chi- 
nese empire, and to negotiate, conclude, and sign a treaiy or treaties for the 
purpose of regulating the intercourse of the people of the two countries, and 
for establishing and confirming permanent relations of justice and (nendship 
between China and the United States, has the honor to inform your excel- 
lency, that, being on the way to the city of Peking, there to delirer a letter, 
containing sundry special matters, addressed to his imperial majesty by the 
president of the United States, he finds himself under the necessity of land- 
ing at Macao and remaining there a few weeks, until the Brandywine shall 
have taken in provisions, and made other preparations to enable her to con- 
tinue her voyage to the mouth of the Pih-ho. 

*'In these circumstance, the undersigned feeU it to be his duty to enter at 
once upon the fulfilment of one part of the instructions which he has receiv- 
ed from his government ; which is, that, immediately on his arrival in Chi- 
na, he shall make particular inquiries for the health of its august sovereign- 

** The undersigned, in the performance of this most grateful duty, has now 
the satisfaction to address himself to your excellency, as the nearest high 
functionary of the Chinese government, and to express, as well in the name 
of his government as of himself personally, the most ardent wishes for the 
health, the happiness, the prosperity, and the long life of his imperial majesty* 

** The undersigned wonld esteem it a favor to receive from your excellency 
immediate intolligonce of the well being of his imperial majesty, that he 
may have it in his power to communicate the same to the president of the 
United States at the earliest opportunity. 

184&. Treaty with the United States. 35i3 

^ Wkh which ihe nndenigned prays your excellency to accept the assu- 
ranee of his most distinguished consideration. 


** To his excellency the governor-general, &c., &c.** 

No reply was made to this until the L7th of March ; which delay 
however is not to be charged to the acting governor, but to the fact 
that Mr. Gushing had at hand no translator, and consequently his 
eommunication did not reach the acting governor, till at least a 
. fortnight after it was written. As the case wa8,^elay was unavoida- 
ble. The Chinese, from the emperor to his lowest officers, seldom 
allow more than one day to elapse, after the receipt of any docu- 
ihent; before giving a reply. The following is a copy of the acting^ 
governor-general's communication, given in answer. 
Reply of his excellency Ching, acting governor-general of Kiv4ng-tung 

and Kwingsi, to a public dispatch of C. Gushing, envoy extraordinary 

and. minister plenipotentiary to the court of Taukwang. 

March 19th, 1845. 

''Ching, of the celestial dynasty, acting governor-general of Kwang-tung 
and Kwangsi, director of the Board of War, acting memBefof the Board 
of general inspections, [at Peking,]' assisting imperial adviser, lieutenant 
governor of Canton, commander-in-chief of its military forces, and acting 
commissioner of the Grain Department, addresses C. Cushing, envoy extra- 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary of the United States of America, in 

** Whereas it appears major O'Donnell has brought and delivered a public 
dispatch, from which I have fully ascertained the honorable plenipoten- 
tiary, having arrived in China, desires, in behalf of the United States, and 
in the plenipotentiary's own name, truly, sincerely, and respectfully to in • 
quire after the health and happiness of the august emperor, which evinces 
respectful obedience, and politeness exceedingly to be praised. 

^ At the present time, the great emperor is in the enjoyment of happy old 
age and quiet health, and is at peace with all, both far and near ; of which it' 
in proper, in reply, to inform the honorable plenipotentiary, in order to an- 
swer his sincere desire of what is just and proper. 

'^ As to the public dispatch, in which it is stated, ** the frigate Brandy wine 
has gone to Manila to take in a ftill supply of provisions, that, after about a 
month's delay, she may repair to Tientsin, dtc," hitherto it has been neces- 
sary to deliberate whether it be feasible — a subject which it is not a light 
matter to agitate. I have examined, and find that every nation's envoy 
which has come to the Central Flowery Kingdom with a view of proceeding y 
to Peking, there to be presented to the august emperor, has ever been requir- 
ed to wait outside of Uie nearest port on the frontier till the chief magis- 
trate of the province clearly memorialize the emperor, and request the impe- 
rial will, pointing out whether the interview may be permitted. 

" Again : if [the plenipotentiary] presume to go to the capital, still lie 


356 Treaty with the United States. Aug. 

must stop ; ibr if he do not wait to memorialixe the eraperor, and request 
premission, but proceed hastily, by a narrow passage, with a man-of-war to 
Tientsin, this will be to put an end to civility, and to rule without har- 
mony. Furthermore, hitherto no merchant-ship, even of any nation trading 
at the ports of China, has been to Tientsin ; but this business (of proceed- 
ing thither with a man-of-war) is vastly different When the honorable 
plenipotentiary shall arrive, then there will be no officers fully informed 
who can manage the business, neither linguists who can fully understand 
his verbal and written communications. If he desires to be presented to the 
augiut emperor, it is exceedingly to be feared there will be no means of 
presenting the subject intelligibly ; and there being no high commissioner 
residing at Tientsin, who will negotiate with the plenipotentiary the regu- 
lations for intercourse of the people of the two nations. 

^ Then, at the commencement of business, the emperor must appoint some 
person properly to regulate the intercourse of each foreign nation, which 
cannot be fully provided for, and there will be no means of negotiation. Tru- 
ly, in every respect, it will be very inconvenient In the adjustment of every 
thing relating to trade with England, it was necessary the plenipotentiary 
(Sir Henry Pottinger) should retiun to Canton, in order to deliberate with 
the Chinese high officer upon all the details, and settle them. This may 
be clearly substantiated. 

**In the autumn of last year, your honorable nation's consul, Forbes, re- 
ported to the high commissioner TsLyeng, and the governor-general Ki 
Kung, respecting the honorable plenipotentiary's desiring to proceed to Pe- 
king ; and at that time he received their reply, which the consul waste 
transmit to the honorable plenipotentiary, that it was useless to go to Pe- 
king. Considering it has happened that the envoy had embarked so early 
that he did not receive it, he should endeavor, with the consul, Forbes, to 
examine the original reply, and, as proper, clearly to understand it 

''And still further, the high commissioner Tsiyeng and the governor 
general Ki Kung have already memorialized the august emperor upon the 
subject, and the augnst emperor, in his compassion to people from afar, 
cannot bear that the plenipotentiary, having passed the ocean, should again 
have the toil and trouble of traveling by land and water. 

** Already has the imperial edict been received, directing me, the acting 
governor general, to wait the arrival of the envoy at Canton, and then to 
soothe and stop him, as it is not at this time convenient to huny to the 


'^ As to what is stated, of publicly deliberating upon the particulars of 
perpetual peace, inasmuch as it relates to discoursing of good faith, peace, 
and harmony, the idea is excellent ; and it may seem right, because he has 
heard that England has settled all the particulars of a treaty with China, he 
may desire to do and manage in the same manner. But the circumstances 
of the two nations are not the same, for England had taken up anna against 
China for several years, and, in beginning to deliberate upon a treaty, these 
two nations could not avoid s\isp\cioTi*,\i:ieTe^oT^,>3a^N: ^^iVXXfc^^^ details of a 

1S45. Treaty with the United States. 35T 

tnaty, in order to conflnn their good faith ; bat since your honorable nation, 
from the commencement of commercial intercourM with China, daring a 
period of two hundred years, all the merchants who have come to Canton, 
on the one hand, have observed the laws of China without any disagreement, 
and on the other there has been no failure of treating them with courtesy^ so 
that there has not been the slightest room for discord ; and, since the two 
nations are at peace, what is the necessity of negotiating a treaty ? In the 
commencement, England was not at peace with ChinaN^ and when afterwards 
these two nations began to revert to a state of peace, it was indispenntble 
to establish and settle details of a treaty, in order to oppose a barrier to fu- 
tore difficulties. 

**! have now discussed this subject, and desire the honorable plenipoten- 
tiary maturely to consider it Your honorable nation, with France and 
England, are the three great foreign nations that come to the south of China 
to trade. But the trade of America and England with, China is very great 
Now, the law regulatingthe tariff has changed the oldestablished duties, 
many of which have been essentially diminished, and the customary expen- 
ditures [exactions ?] have been abolished. Your honorable nation is treated 
in the same manner as England ; and, from the time of this change in the 
tariff all kinds of merchandise have flowed through the channels of free 
trade, among the people, and already has your nation been bedewed with its 

** The honorable plenipotentiary ought certainly to look at and consider 
that the great emperor, in his leniency to men from afar, has issued his 
edicts commanding the merchantB and people peaceably to trade, which 
cannot but be beneficial to the nations. It is useless, with lofty, polished, 
and empty words, to alter these unlimited advantages. 

** But should the honorable plenipotentiary still presume to go to Peking, 
I, the governor-general, must memorialize the emperor, and wait his august 
majesty's pleasure, that he may do accordingly. Certainly, it will not an- 
swer hastily Ip proceed to Tientsin, lest on the way reports may be circula- 
ted, perhaps to the producing of suspicion and anxiety. Therefore it is 
proper that I should, beforehand, make this reply, together with the expres- 
sion of my desires for the daily increase of your health and happiness. 

''The above communication is to C. Cushing, envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary of the United States of America. 
** A true translation: Pxtxr Parkxr, 

^^ini CkintBt Secretary to Legation.^ 

These two communications, — the first from Mr. Cushing and the 
second from Ghing, — ^give us a clue to the policy of the two respec- 
tive governments. " The necessity of landing at Macao and remain- 
ing there a few weeks," was quite sufficient for the Chinese, and 
gave them ground enough to circumvent the stranger, so as to pre- 
vent him from going to Peking. If Mr. Gushing really intended to 

35S Treaty with the United States. Ato: 

go to the capita], as we beHere he did, he ought not to hare landed 
at all in Macao, nor to have allowed the Brandywtne to remaine in- 
this vicinity more than eight-and-forty hours. Having made the 
necessary arrangements, he should have proceeded as near as pos- 
sible to the emperor at once, and then he would have negotiated his 
treaty at or near Peking, visited the imperial court, and paved the 
way for a permanent residence there, — a point of no small impor- 
tance yet to be gained. If he did not intend to go, or waa in doubt 
on the enbject,. silence regarding it should have been maintained. 
In dealing with such a people, or with such a government, nothing 
should be proposed except what is most palpably right and' proper ; 
and a measure once proposed should not be abandoned except for 
most cogent and weighty reasons. 

Ching managA^I like a true Chinese, puting forth palpable false* 
hood first and then- poceeding to reason thereon as if it were plaia 
matter of fact, admitted truth. This unblushing falsehood, about 
the Jrtgat^B going to Manila^ merited stern rebuke, and was cause 
sufficient for terminating with him all correspondence. If Mr.-' 
Gushing wanted additional reason for hastening to Peking, he had it 
in this falsehood, which he should have laid before the emperor, 
with an avowal of the imposibility of treating with such an unworthy 
servant of his august majesty. But instead of ending at once the 
correspondence, Mr. Gushing adopted a different course, and gave 
the following answer. 

Macao, Marr.h 23» 1844 

"Sir: The undersigned,. conumssioner and envoy extnordinaiy and min- 
ister plenipotentiary of the United States of America to the court of Peking, 
and bearer of letters from the president of the United States to the august 
sovereign, and also invested with fiill and all manner of power, for and in 
the name of the United States, to meet and confer with any person or peiw 
sons bearing the like authority from the Chinese empire, and to negotiate 
and conclude and sign a treaty or treaties, for the purpose of regulating the 
intercourse of the people of the two countries, and for establishing and 
confirming permanent relations of justice- and friendship between China 
and the United* States, has the honor to acknowledge the receipt this day 
of your excellency's communication of the 17th instant 

** The undersigned tenders his hearty thanks to your excellency for the 
information given of the happy old age and good health of his majesty, the 
august sovereign, and of the peace which the empire enjoys; The underaigned 
will lose no time in communicating intelligence of these gratifying fhcts to 
the president: of the United States. 

^ The undersigned has read the residue of your excellency's oonimnm'oar 
lion with that respectful attention which is due to your excellency^ char- 

1845. Treaty with the United States. 359 

actor, i^iid to the diatuigubhed station which yoa occupy in the Chinese 

** Yooi excellency presents varioos considerations which induce you to 
think, in the first place, that it is not convenient for the undersigned to pro* 
ceed to the North ; and, in the second place, that there is no occasion for a 
treaty between China the United States of America. 

** The undersigned regrets that he cannot, consistently with the views and 
instructions of his government, discuss either of these questions with any 
penon, however eminent in character and station, except that person be 
MXk imperial commissioner. 

^ If the undersigned were permitted to discuss these questions with your 
excellency, he feels abundantly confident that he should be able to exhibit 
satisfactory reasons in reply to the arguments presented by your excellen- 
cy. And he feels constrained to express his disappointment that he does 
not find in the frontier province an imperial commissioner having powers 
coextensive with his own, and authorized to adjust with him the terms 
and conditions of the future intercourse of the two nations, especially if the 
imperial government be desirous not to have the legation proceed to the 
north. Under any view of the latter point, questions of commerce might 
well have been settled here, reserving other and higher questions to be dis- 
cussed and settled at the court of the august sovereign. 

^ The undersigned cannot forbear respectfully to advert to an error of fact 
in the communication of your excellency. In that communication the fol 
lowing expressions occur, namely : ** as to the public despatch, in which it 
is etated the frigate Brandywine hoe gone to Moaniia, to take in a fuU wppty 
offramnanM^ ' %ce. <, 

: ** Your excellency will see, on reverting to the communieation which the 
undersigned had the honor to make, that the above expressions do not 
4)ecar in it, and that it is impossible they should have done so, inasmuclr 
as, at the time that communication was written, the undersigned was on 
board the Brandy wine, then Ijring at anchor in Macao roads. Her voyage 
to Manila was a subsequent event And, while abstaining from all present 
discussions, suggested by your excellency, the undersigned desires to advert 
to two. of the statements incidentally made in your communication. 

''Your excellency observes that it has been cuutomary, in the case of pre^ 
vious foreign embassies, for the chief magistrate of the frontier province to 
memorialize the emperor on the subject, and to ascertain his^will as to an 
interview with the envoy. 

''The undersigned suggesti, as to this, that it was to a£S>rd opportunity of 
conveying to the emperor such preliminary intimation of the contemplated 
mission of the undersigned, that the consul of the Unites States at Canton 
was commanded by the president of the United States to make known- that 
fact to the public authorities, of the two Kwang provincea 

** The undersigned is highly flattered to learn, from your exceUency'e 
communication, that the emperor, on receiving the above intimation, was 
graciously pleased to take interest in the welfare of the envoy of the Unitedf 

860 TrtiUy u^iih the United l^aies. Auck 

States, and to desire to relieve him from the additbnal toil and trouble of 
continuing on from the frontier province to the imperial court 

*'Thi8 act of kindneaa, which ie in full accordance with the beneficent 
character of his imperial majesty, with the civilisation and courtesy of 
the central empire, and with the spirit of distinguished hospitality which it 
has manifested in times past towards the envoys of other governments, 
augmenta the solicitude of the undersigned to present to the emperor in 
person the letters of business and of amity which he bears from the pre- 
sident of the United States. 

** Furthermore, your excellency deprecates any such course of procedure, 
on the part of the undersigned, as might produce suspicion -and anxiety. 

'^The undersigned assures your excellency, on this point, that his mission 
to the court of the august sovereign is one of peace and friendship; that 
the government of the United States is animated only with sentimenta of 
respect and good will for that of China ; and that he himself while firmly 
adhering to the discharge of the substantial parta of his duty, and the punc- 
tual fulfilment of the instructions of the president of the United States on 
that head, yet is both willing and -ready, in the mode of doing this, and of 
approaching Peking, to consult the opinion of the high functionaries of the 
emperor, so far as he consistently can, in order to avoid all possible cause of 
suspicion and anxiety. He deems himself bound by his instructions to 
continue his journey to the north ; but if the imperial government prefer 
to have him proceed to the court by some other route, rather than to be 
conducted by the squadron of the United States to the mouth of the Pih-ho, 
whatever additional personal inconvenience he may sustain by adopting 
such other route, he will cheerfully encounter this, in order that he may 
thus evince the fiiendly disposition of the United States of America towards 

^ In conclusion, the undersigned tenders to your excellency the expression 
of his high respect, and of his wishes fi>r your health and happiness. 

C* CuSHUf«i 

** To his Excellency the Acting Governor Gxnbrai. 
or KwASG Tung and Kwajvg Se." 

An error of fact ^ with a witness ! Why suchlfalsehood should be so 
lightly passed over, we cannot understand. We shall see by and 
by that, on. a subsequent occasion, for a breach of etiquet, in the 
style of address, Ktying was promptly and wisely called to account. 
So ought Ching to have been in this case. And we repeat the 
opinion, that for putting forth such a falsehood, all communication 
with him should have been terminated at once, and the matter re» 
ported to his master 

On the Ist of April, Ching gave the following reply to Mr. Cu- 
shing's communication of March 23d. It is» the reader will see, 
puerile and jejune enough : 

^ 1S45; Tttaiy Ufiih the United States. Ml 

*")[, Ghing, of the great pure dyti&fltyi acting governor general of the two 
Kwkng provinces, dt.c., received the honorable plenipotentiary's despatch, on- 
the 28th inst and have fully ascertained froin it that the honorable plenipo- 
tentiary's proceeding to Peking, there to be presented to the emperor, has. 
arisen out of sincere sentiments of respect and good will to China. 

** Still more necessary, therefore, it is Uxawaitat Canton the imperial will^ 
pointing- out the proper course of procewire. As to a willingness to pro- 
ceed to Peking by the inland rivers, it is an excellent idea of the plenipo- 
tentiary, with a view to avoid producing among the people suspicions and 
anxiety [incidental to] the sailing by sea; but the inner rivers are narrow 
and shallow near the banks, and it will be sti4 more unsuitable to travel- 
upon and along these through the countryj I, the acting govemw-gen-f 
eraViwill, as in duty bound, take, the honorable plenipotentiary's senti^; 
ments which have come to hand, and, respectfully reporting them to the- 
emperor, will memorialize the august sovereign, to ascertain whether he 
will '[grant orders to proceed to the capital by way of Tientsin, or by the 
inland rivers, or whether the emperor will appoint an imperial commie^ 
sioner to come to Canton, to deliberate with the honorable plenipotentiary, 
(in which event it will be needless to repair to- Peking,) or whether there 
may be some other mode of managing the business. 

''It is inexpedient for me, the acting, governor general, to take upon my- 
self to deal with the honorable plenipotentiary. Besides, it cannot be a 
light matter to commence movements which> may eventuate iu the loss of 
tlre^ invaluable blessing of peace. . 

:** Ae is requisite, I make this communication.. 

, "The foregoing communication is to* his excellency C. Cushino^ envoy 
I , 'ixtnurdmarjf and ndmHcr j^empaUniiary itf the United Statee (j/f 

. '•TAtJKWAifo, 2Uh year, 2d moon, Utk day^AptH 1, 1844;. 

-.v^.r A faithful translation: PsTXa PAaxxa, : 

. Jbuii Chinese Seeretary to Legation* 

'Under this date, April fst,' IVfr: Cashing' addressed the acting 
goyernor^geueral,. and requested of him complete and perfect copies 
of the several treaties recently concluded between China and Great 
Bxitain.fapd Portugal- . 

i In-bis communication to Chinrj^, March 23d| Mr. Cushing express- 
ed' Acs regrets that > he could not, *' consistently withr the views and 
iiistructione of hisgovernrment," discass, except Witb an imperial 
commissioner, the questions of his not going to the north and of 
there being no occasion for a: treaty betwieen Cliin^ and' tlm* United 
States of America— -questions raised by the acting governor-gewerafi 
And (Hainly he couTd not ; and he ought therefore to have adhered 
ri^dLj to those ** views and instructions." Ching having requestecl 


2f^] Treaty m^h the , Ifniied Slaia. Acq.] 

lhet|rienipotentiary to remain iu the " proviaoe of Yah," Mr. Cu- 
abing, on the' 16thi of April thus replied. 

**Sirr I have the honor to admoivrledge the receipt of your excellency's 
eomiaifnication 'ef the 13th instant' - j •. > >•(,•;;, 

^ By thia I 'learn that nocommiaaioner hav yet been appointed to meet me- 
oil behalf of the Bujgragt'sov^reign;^ ' ■'''• "» f • v^- ^' ■ ' •'' ' ' ' 

"^A]bOj that a reply* fW>m Pekiftgr to 1^ <ii)Bpateb of yOttB ex6eli»icy, an-f 
nonndiifj^ th^ arrival of the AnMiHcaa legatibn, 'atid ite'iiitenti6& to repair' 
tb^'Pekingv may be expected 4tt< three 'ttidnfeha? time^ '' i'* ' >''•'' ' 
"'«tJMer theee -cir^ettirtaiicei^'-inaamijwh' aa your (BxdelUiH^ dbea not pro-- 
lioa^ to open to -mis' the iiilaitd roa^ to' P^kihir, 'iii' thd event ^f ihy ^ waiting* 
hM^tEtitil the fkvorabl6 D^ioeaobii: ftir' j^oceedihir to the' norAr by sea shall' 
ha^paaseda^yvi^n^iu^^- cannot, without ^dur^gard of '*tb»c6mnaxKls of 
ihy'gbvemineati permit the season to* elapse withoor puitohilig'the objects 
6f 11^ mission, I ihall hnmiediaielv leave- Macao in' the 'Brttndy wine. 
' ''T'teel t&elesb hesitaXioh in pursuing this coixrae; iii Cdnsideration of the 
tenbr of the several'- cotmnuhieationa which 1 liavo' received from your 
excfdlency^^^*'''-*-'^^^^^^ •■ " ■ ' ' '■■"'-'^'- ■ ^'* •• v-'n:-;!. -• 

'^ '^ii is obmiia, that if the court had entertained any very particular 

• • • f 

desire that L should remain'her^, 'it would have caused an imperial com-- 
missibnsir 66 be 'on th^spot, ready ~to-fecieive' me 'on my arrival; or, at any 
Me} ihstnxetions woiild have been fbrwardei Col yoinr excellency for the^ 
V^deptiob' of the legation ;. islnce^ in order that ifo pMper ' act of Coartesy to-i 
wards the Chinese government should be *left niiobiierved, noUce was duly 
given last autumn, by the cohsdl oF'thd United^ SttLt^ that my govern- 
ineht^ had ' appointed a minister to China. The omiesion of the court to 
U£ke eiiher 6'f these steps seems to indicate expectation, on its part, that I 
should probably land at some port in the north. 

<* Besides -which, your excellency is well aware^' that it ie neither the cus- 
tom inChixia, nor oohsistent with the hkfh character of -ile- sovereign, to 
decline to receive the embassies of friendly states. To do so, indeed, would 
arnqng Western Statea. be considered an aot of national dnsu)t» and a j|ust 

** Permit me to. observe, that your excellency misapprehend? the i.ature of 

,•'>■?•!• • '■ I .»'• ; ' ' 'A' ' ' ' '• • ■ ' ■ '< - * ' r • .i-'- 

my commiinlciations, if you look lipon them aa conveying an iniporturtate 

request on any subject whatever; not having understood that* y6ar'exceli> 

lencyhiiS'atty' power to negotiate with foi^ign miniiteie ;?'and«baving con- 

ieMed myself With courteously replying, to what eeeined;to ma<tfae import 

Uxnate: seqneatiof; yctur excellency* tq bave me f> abstain). frommgoing: to 

Pelting, i- '! ^iii » I ":••'. ' r r A '^^ f.d.-.fp • '? ,-•> -.i^-i: :• ■ ■, 
y H|n4eed, myrsole object, .origixudlyt in addressing your excellency was to 
signify my higii peirspnal r^pecjt, and that of my gpvemment, for the august 
sovereign, by seizing the earliest moment, after arrival in China, to make 

inquiry for his bealtn. 

** Deference to the government of the province demanded that' this mquiry 
should be addressed to your excelienoy. ' .. i ; 

1S4S. Tteat^ mU tie United SldUs. 9AD 

"^Iii:'doLn|^'thi% I had the opportuidtypalsO) of lendeiing my coraplimen'ta 
to joor excelldney,. who: thit^^ heonmq i^ci^HUiiy infoFmed of' the arrival 

of the legataoa • ..,.,. •., ,„ f....... .• . : :-;^--.- ,/ 

''These were acts of courtesy, which seemed to be proper to be performed 
by the representative of the government of the United States to the nearest 
great functionary of that of Chihal 

** And here the correspondence on m]^ part would hkve stopped; but for 
thefkct that your excellency conceived it^ bd your duty, in r^ply, to entet 
into arguments on the question. of whether it was convenient' for the lega- 
tibi^ to proceed to Picking, and whether there was any occasion for a treaty 
between China and the United States, and lAore especially suggesting that 
the presence of the squadron of the United States' in«the gulf of GbihU 
might occasion suspicion and anxiety. ' - '■■'"' 

«Td these suggestions I cOttld not either in civility to your e^ceUency olr 
in justice to my government aivoid responding, so far as to malce -known 
'the friiendly purposes of my government, atad my own readiness td^ ptnoceed 
to the north by the inland routes, if that course would be more" «eceptabT6 
to the- imperid government * ' •'• ' v- r: 

**! had no occasion to request of your excellency •the means of proee^in|[ 
to the norths as my government had itself provided such means, in thii^ua- 
dron 'dispatched by it to this coast for that among other purposes; 

''In regard to the mode and place of deliberating upon all things relative 
to the perpetual peace and friendship of China and the United States, your 
excellency refers to the precedent of the late negotiationa with thie pfenipo^ 
tent&ary of great BKtain. "* 

"The rules of politeness and (Ceremony observed by sir Henry PdttingeV 
were doubtless just and proper in the particular cit^cumstances of the case. 
But, to render them fully applicable to the United States, it would be he*- 
cessaty* for my government, in the first instance, to subject the people of 
China to all the calamities of war, and especially to take possession of somd 
Island on the' coast of China, as a place of r^idence for its minister. I can- 
not sdppose that the imperial government wishes the United States to do 
^isi' Certainly no such wish is entertained at present by the United 
States, which, animated with the* most amicable sentiments towards China^ 
feelB assured of being met with corresponding deportment on the part of 

" I have ^e honor now to take my leave of your excellency, and, in doing 
so, to express my regret that it has not been compatible with my duty to 
ihake my compliiilentB in person, as it would, have given me pleasure to 
do; to the governor of the province. ^ 

" Wishing your excellency all health and prosperity, I remain,** &c. ' 

Having thus taken leave of Ching, and declared his purpose (6 
quit Macao immediately, it might have been well to have suited 
the action to the word. However, " circumstances alter cases.*' 

It may be noticed here, in passing, that on the 13th of Aprii« three 

; 364 Treaty mtk the Untied States. Aon. 

days prior to the date of the preceding communication, Mr. Gushing 
addressed a note to Ching informing him that the United States frigate 
Brandy wine, bearing the broad pendant of commodore Parker, was 
that day proceeding to Whampoa, " on a visit, for a few days, of 
courtesy and civility to the capital, of the province." 

On the 19th of the same month, the acting governor-general ac- 
knowledged the receipt of two public documents from Mr. Gushing, 
and gave the following in leply. He says: 

** At present^ the trade of every country with China is harmonicas, and 
every point relating thereto is properly adjusted, whieh « was accomplished 
when the imperial commissioner Tsiyeng, in conjunction with the present 
acting governor, deliberated upon and settled aU tlie various points with 
the English plenipotentiary, Pottinger, repeatedly discussing them until 
we had arranged and fully agreed upon them alL The consuls of every 
nation were, moreover, to act in every particular according to this same 
arrangement Henceforth, China and foreign nations would be at peace, 
gladness and prosperity would be without liinit, and joyfal contentment 
•be every where diflTused. 

** (iOt your excellency, in order to prove this, take the several regulations 
which I, the acting governor, on that occasion^ promulgated,, and : again, 
with your country's consul, Forbes, examine the former general regulations 
with those which were subsequently agreed upon, and carefully look 
.over them ally and be will then know that our august emperor tenderly 
cherishes men from afar, and that whatever would be of advantage to the 
merchants of every nation has certainly been done to the utmost. 

** Your excellency is of course fully aware that between China and Elng- 
land, France and Portugal, there is henceforth to be lasting peace and good 
will; bow much more, then, between yoiu* country's merchants, who have 
come here for two hundred years, quietly pursuing their business, and China, 
should there be still greater concord and intimacy— henceforth forever ex- 
isting the pleasing interchanges of peace and good wilL Still more need 
we not wait until matters occur which will require; a trea^ ; and between 
our two countries this is no cause of apprehension whatever. 

^ Moreover, the high officer Tsiyeng has already received orders to be 
governor general of the two Kwing, and in course will come to Canton, 
so that the public business of the two countries can then be stiU more 
easily deliberated upon. 

** But it ia highly necessary that I should also remark, concerning the man- 
of-war Brandywine coming up to Whampoa. The Bogue makes an outer 
portal of Kwingtung, where an admiral is stationed to control and guard- 
Heretofore, the men->of-war of foreign nations have only been allowed to 
cast anchor in the seas without the mouth of the river, and have not been 
permitted to enter within. This is a settled law of the land, made a long 
time past Whampoa is the place where merchant ships collect together 
not one where men-of-war can anchor. Now, since the sole design of 

184&. TretUff with the United States. 365 

roerchftntnidB ia to trade, and men-of-war are prepared to fight, if they en- 
ter the river fright and suspicion will easily arise among tlie populace, 
thus causing an obstacle in the way of trade. Furthermore, the two coun- 
tries are just about deliberating upon peace and goood will, and suddenly 
to have a man-of-war enter the river, while we are speaking of good faith 
and cultivating good feeling, has not a little the aspect of distrust 

^ Among the articles of the commercial regulations it is provided, that an 
English government vessel shall be allowed to remain at anchor at Wham- 
poa, and that a deputy shall be appointed to control the seamen. The 
design of this, it was evident, was to pat an end to strife and quell disputes. 
But this vessel is a small one, containing, but few troops, and moreover 
bring a petty officer, so that it is a matter of but little consequence, one 
way or another. 

**If your country's man-of-war Brandy wine cofi&ins five hundred and 
more troops, she has also a proportionately large number of guns in her, 
and brings a commodore in her; she is in truth far different from Uie 
government vessel of the British, and it ia inexpedient for her to enter the 
river; and there are, in the aspect of the affair, many things not agreeable. 
When the Engliah admiral Parker and Saltoun went up to Canton last 
year they took a small vessel, and left their Jarge men-of-war at anchor 
'in Hongkong, not entering the river in them. This is plain and sufficient 
proof of what is proper; and I accordinf^y, in reply to your excellency, 
[beg] that you will clearly examine with regard to this ship; if she has 
not yet entered port, to require her to return immediately to her anchorage 
at Macao ; and, if she has entered the river, also to straightway send a 
message to commodore Parker, that he sail out, and return with his ship 
to Macao. She certainly cannot remain long. This, too, will be full evi- 
dence of courteous friendliness. 

** The regulations of all governments are dissimilar, but the principles of 
reason are the same; whence it is that peace and good will among nations 
consist in each keeping within their own limits. It cannot be permitted to 
the men-of-war of other countries lightly to enter the mouth of the river, 
and remain there at anchor. " 

« r beg your excellency to well consider this, which is one important ob- 
ject of this communication. 

''To his excellency the honorable the American Plenipotentiary, &c. 
^'TAoakWAifo, 24f^ year, M moon, 2dday-^(Apnl Idth, 1844.) 

True translation: S. Wells Williams. 

Despite every thing, a war of words now became inevitable — a 
war in which the Chinese never fear discomfiture. In addition to 
the Jong communication of April 19th given above, the acting go- 
vernor-general wrote ta Mr. Cushing again under the same date, 
complaining of the U. S. A. consul's conduct in opening a dispatch, 
intrusted to him for transmission. On the next and the day fol- 
lowing, other communications from Chinig were sent both to the 

366 TVfdEfy wUh the UniUd &aiis. Hod. 

commodore nnd to the plenipotentiary, complaining^ of the Brandy- 
wine's entering the Bogue, declining to exchange salutes and tb 
receive a visit from commodore Parker within the walls of Canton 

Again in his turn, on the 22d, Mr. Cashing addressed the acting 
governor-general, in the following language : • • :^, . . . 

'^Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, this day, of your 
excellency's three letters, under date- of the 19tb and 20tli instant, to certain 
points of which some ^rief reply seems requisite. . ,, . t .(•£ i 

** When I addressed your excellency on the J 3th, thanking y^n for copiei 
of the treaty of Nanking and of that of JPortugal, I was not aware of the 
fact which I have since discovered with much regret, that your excellency 
did liot deem it convenient to communicate to me the whole of the treaty 
of Nankinir^ 

''In regard tb the letter which. Mr. Forbes opened, it is but justice to him 
to state that he did it in the company of lieutenant. Pegram, the aidei>de- 
camp of commodore Parker, under the suppoiiition that, as stated to him by 
the bearer of it, the letter was designed for commodore Parkec t regret 
the occurrence of the mistake, and. am sure it was the farthest possible from 
the intention of Mr. Forbes to be guilty of any disrespect towards yoi^r 
excellency. No such accident could have happened, if the letter had been 
sent to my residence instead of that of Mr. Forbes. 

'^In regard to the Brandy wine, it is hardly necessary fbi me. to repea^ 
that the object in visiting Whampoa was one of respect and friendship only, 
80 far as it concerned the Chinese government , . 

'''h is customary, among all the nations of the west, for the ships of war 
of one country to visit the ports of another in time of peace, and^, in doing 
W), for the commodore to exchange salutes with the local authorities, an^ 
to pay his compliments in person to the principal public functionary. To 
omit these testimonies of good will, is considered as. evidence of a hostile 
orieast of an unfriendly feeling., -^'. ., 

^But yoar excellency says the provincial government has no, authority 
lo exchange salutes with commodore Parker, or to receive a visit of cer&- 
mony from him. And I dee]^iy regret, for the sake of China^ that such is 
the fact China will find it very difficult to remain in peace with any of 
the great States of the west, so long as her provincial governors are pro- 
hibited either to give or to receive manifestations of that peace, in the exr 
change of the ordinary courtesies of national intercourse. . . ' ' * - ' ^ 

''And' I cannot ' forbear to express .my surprise, that in the great and 
powerful province of Kw&ng tung, the presence of a single snip of war 
shotild be cause of apprehension to the local ' goverimient ' ' ' ' " ' ' ' ' ^ *'' 
- " Least of alt should such apprehension be entertained in reference to any 
lAapB of wat belonging to the : United StiHes, . which 'now feels, and- (unless 
ili treatment of our < public agepta should produce a change of sentimenta) 
will continue to feel^ the most hearty and sincere .good will toward China;. 

<" And. your excellency will find, on inquiry, that commodore Parker, in- 

1S4S. Treaty with tke Umttd Statet. 36t 

ttoad of doing injr unuaual thing in ftnchoring in the Bogue, hu but fol- 
lowed the example, in thia reepect, ofbia predecessor, commodore Keuney, 
who spent some time at anchor there, two fern ago, with the United States 
ships of war Constellation and Boston. 

" Your ezcellenc; quotes llie late trealf with Elngland, aa bearing on this. 

'■'Ibev« exsmined the^ article referred to,; and Gad that by it Eoglsnd is. 
i-equired to keep a government vessel at anchor in each of the five porta of 
'Kwan^'i^hau, Fu(?haii. Amoy, Ningpo, ,and Stiangh&i; but I find nothing. 
in the article to limit tbe aize and the armament of that vessel, and nothing 
"Vhicli prohibita England from keeping two or ten government veasels in each 
of the five porti^ if it suits h<.'r pleasure. I pfeanme ahe eonaiilts' her own 
convenicncR in keeping at present only one govemment veesel, ^d that or 
aniaQ size, anchored at Kwangchnn. u-kicb'she- may well do, laving a fleet 
of large vessels so near at hand, at Hongkong. ' ' 

nf^But ddestfattt aitiele. appljr to ths other great natitina of the west? : If 
■OiifMd leaoll af, them is'retpiiied to keep ■ govenlmcnt Tessel,' tn^ each of 
the five porta, the effect wij[. be to fill the very interior portsofChiiM with 
Ifi^ sqiutdrona of foreign men-of-war, to & degree which might well giva 
disquietude to the Ci^nese gof^nmient; , 

,1 "pThis qiieation, ifi^ere were no othets, might verve to aatiafy jour go- 
vemiiieat, that thelatp treatiea between China and Great Britain, iastead.of 
diaf^epsingi withall,<)c«tLsioti,f^^,.tfe>tiea with America and France, have 
^i4.Tend«re4 aiMjh. treptiea tjie more indiapensabl^r. necessary to themainr 
f^QfH^ cf gckce and gpofj understanding. 

^,f|I/sn|;o(>nG;dentyour esceUeucy will, on reflection, peiceive [hat none of 
^B|Bescit<^of thepracticeof the Britiah government or its c^iieia, caq 
bp^,aiij| bearing on the United States,, for the reasons which were hinted 
a(t^,nny, Ifstcommuniqafion.. ,Tlie two cas^ will, not, begin to be. pvailel 
yotili An»nc« shall, have deemed, her honor aggrieved by tha eomlact of 
China, loirardf her public officere,.and shall thereupon have taken ep arni^ 
iod «hall hove- seized rOpon a portion of the; terriloryi of the. empire, i God 
flffbid th^'Sny such deplorable sventa should pccurj to diiturb- the. harmony 
which now exists between Chins and the United States. 
^.fl have^f^nlyi to add, . tJ^ i when' ifae, Brandy wine went to Whan^MS, j| 
was thaintAQtioaof comfqodoj^iPsrlwr'to return so soon as the slats of the 
|ide shpuVl wlmit of tx:r <Mt>ssing the barJn safety ; and to ^is original in* 
tentien^e fviU stilf, adhere. . I have no disposition toincrease the embar-i 
nsMB^ whicl^ your eieeltency is already subjected, by; the grvve 
anisBJen lOf ,tfaa ipippcial .gouernment in. neglectii^ to nialie proper pn^ 
viMeoi fori the American legation, immediately on leeeiving notiMofiit* 
intended arrivaL , -i]; i' ■ ■ .■ I...." j; . j;. . j'l /.(itMii - 

."{^ming'hereiioib^half of mygoverament, to. tender to China, the Irknd- 
•hipof the greatest of ^lepowers. of America,-it is. my duty„io the outset,, 
not to omit any of the tokens of respect customary among westeru. M* 

368 IVeaij^ wiik ike VniteH Siaies. Aval 

tionB. If theie demdiiatrations are not met in a correapondent manner, it 
will be the miafortdne of China, but it will not be the &ult of the United 

**l notice the fact, atated by your excellency, that Taiyeng haa been ap-' 
pointed governor-general of the two Kwing piovincea, but not that he, or 
any other peraon, haa been appointed imperial commiaaioner, nor any in-* 
formation aa to the time of the arrival of Taiyeng at Canton. 

^I have tlie honor to rehew to your excellency my wiahea for your health! 
and happineaa,' and to remain, with due reapect, youir obedient aervant, 

"■7 /•"' V'; '."" '".^ ."^7':,''" "• ::.: c.:cuaHiNo.» • '••; 

' A yerjr^ timely lecture, and for delivering it we are half inclined 
to excuae the plenipotentiary for awerving from hia right purpose of 
aaying no more to hia exceilencyT— especially regarding the topics 
of forming a treaty, dtc. . ;.,•«.>;; * • : j,,., - wj r... •-••/ m.^- •- , 
l The following ** lucid communication" written- April 2iat, was 
(evidently) received by Mr. Cuahing subsequently to his writings 
iind forwarding that of the 22d, given above. •- '^ '' ■• ' 

*C%»fig, acUng gavemar-genertd of Kw6ngtunf(' and Kwdtigsi^ maiJter 
of the Board of War^ tfc^ nutkes thU lucid eommunieaium in rtpf^ 1* - 
<* On the dd of the 3d month (April 20, 1844) your excellency's dispatch 
waa received, atid, having been peruaed, waa flilly undeistood. i. li. r / 

' '''Yottr excelleitcy^ earnest request to -proceed to' Peking, X, the acting' 
governor-general,'^y'' express,' -immediately reported'^ to' the throne; and 
when the pleasure of the great emperor ahall have been- received in an 
edict, it shall be madc^knofwn [to you]. Thia will be acting strictly ac- 
cordiitg to the laws^ I airi not ignorant that your excellency, having arrived 
in the provihce of Canton, ia tinwilling to be long- detained. But from thd 
prdvince of Canton to the -capital, and from the capital to the province of 
Canton, the gbiing and retorniiig, together, require ^more than* fifty daysj 
wheii the imperial pleaaore inay be received invn edict And fbr'an im** 
penal Commiaaioner- to corner to Canton, thei^e also unavoidably must be 

rieqtiired-much l^me.- ^ ThCfi^ theh, in traveling on the roadthere must bo'no 
inconsiderable delays^ •• : -►i-r'T :;-j ?,/;: rn:i.-> i-- :-' - ;.:.vv.':. ; ,.,.f 

^ Noir, although ^oUt exceHenty had a letter brought to China last year, 
still, on accoent ^ the variable aea wimls, it could not be ' known ' wheii you 
^ould arrive;' and; accordingly, a ' high imperial commiiBaioner could not 
be bete long in wdting. • When your Excellency did airive in the province 
of Canton, I, the acting governor-general, immediately mader^poit thereof^ 
by^niemorialj to the*' throne; and ao, while no peraoii' has been selected 
and' appointed [aa 'imperikil commissioner,] this- too, in my replies, I must 
faithfully declare, without one word of deception. ...^i.i-r. : .. : i 

** Alao, regarding the- reception of yourself the high commissioner, tt is 
necessary to wait till the imperial pleasure shall have been -received in 
an «dict^ and then to act accordingly. 

1845. Tnaiy with the United States. 3G9 

** your excellency cannot hold indiacriminate iotercourse with- [our] offi- 
cers, and will not deviate from your appnipriate sphere of action; Also, it 
is inconvenient for me, ^e acting govemorogeneral, to hold any unofncinl 
intercourse. From this fixed rale of China, I, the acting governor-generaj, 
cannot take upon myself to deviate. But when- once the imperial pleasure 
has been received in an edict, and an imperial commissioner chosen and 
appointed, then it will be incumbent [out me] to communicate the same in 
due form, and not to keep your excellency long in anxious suspense. 

'^Regarding what is said of the settled usages of Western nations — that 
not to receive a high commissioner fixmi another State is an. insult to that 

State— this certainly, with men, has a warlike bearing^ 

• • • H' %, m « 

''But during the two hundred years* of commercial intercomBe between* 
China and your country, there has not been> the- least animosity nor the 
slightest insulu . It is for harmony and good will your excellency bar come ; 
and your request to proceed to the capital, and to have* an; audience with 
the emperor, is wholly of the same good, mind.- If, then, uk the outset, 
such pressing language is used, it will destroy the admirable nlatioos^ 

** As. it IB said [in your dispatch] the people of China assuredly cannot 
wish to have the United States act in this- manner, so- assuredly it is that 
my country does not harbor such evil intention. Hence it is apparent that 
your excellency's coming is for the good purpose, of securing tranquillity. 
. <* At no distant day, the imperial pleasure will be received in an ediet, and 
an, imperial high commissioner may come to- the province of Canton; 
then it will be proper to hold intereourse witb yous excellency, accoiding 
to the rules of etiquet, and to conform, to those which were- observed 
with Pottinger, without the slightest -abatement. I beg that jrour excel- 
lency will not, through urgency, create suspicions* 

• ''For this I make this communication in. reply, desiring your prosperity. 
May it reach the person to whom, it is addressed.- 

• " The above is the lucid communication* 

"To CusHiira^ Enocy extraimHnanf and minister plenipotentiary^ ifc^ 

^(&e United States of America, 
Taukwang, 24M year, Sd moon^Atk dayr^AprU 21, a. d. 1844.) 
•True translations £. ClBkioGMAif, 

Joini Chimese secretary to- the U. S. Legation* 

The following is Mr. Cushing's answer. 

'^iTnited States Legation^ Macao^ April 24, 1844. 
"Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the letter addressed 
;to me by your excellency oar the 2fst instant, and have conridered its 

"In that letter you state that the Craittnnssion and retdim of diispatcfiee 
between Canton and the capital occupy about fi% days, white in your letter 
of the 12th instant the* time is fixed at about three months. 


870 Sr>ea/y toUk ike United StaUs. Avo. 

' *'Thi8 difference of expression produces uncertainty in A vety important 
particular; and that uncertainty is increased by the circumstance that it 
no where distinctly appears, in your excellency's several letters, on what 
day yon reported to the emperor the arrival of the legation. 

^I am thus left in doubt, not only as to the number of days, but as to the 
time when those days began to ron. 

' 'As to the other jpoihts touched upon in yonr excellency's commnnication, 
it seems to be quite unnecessary, to continue to discuss theni, as it now 
ajp^msrs that, notwithstanding the notice given last autumn of the arrival 
of the American legation, you were forbidden by your government to receive 
the- legation, or even so much as to exchange the most ordinaiy courtesies 
yr'iih any of the public officers of the tJnited States. 

<* I can only assure your excellency, that tiiis is hot the way 'for China to 
cuitivato good will and maintain peace. The late war with England was 
icAiMed by th6 conduct of the authorities at Ctinton, in disregarding the 
¥t^t9 of public officers who represented the English government 
•' "^'If; iti th^jfac^ of thfe experience of the last iive years, the -Chinese go. 
vemment now t^verts t6 antiquated customs, wliidi have alrisady brought 
%utih disasters upon her, it can be regarded in no other light than as evi- 
•^dence that she -invites and desires [war with] 'the .other great western 

<* The United ^t&tes would sincerely tegrei such ii result ^We have no 
'deiire whatever to dismember the territory df the empire. Onr citixens 
^have tit ail times depbrtied thenteelves here in a just and * respectful manner. 
'Th^ posttibh and {A^icj^ of the United States enable us to ie the most dis- 
^inierested and the moM Valuable of th6 friends of China. I have flattered 
-myself, tfaerefiErtre^ ^and cannot yet abandon 'the %ope, that the imperial 

government will see the wisdom of jpromptly' welcoming and of cordially 
•reepondlng lo the 'aniibable assuraneee of thie government of t&e United 

States. '' • '■■::'•'- "^■-•»ii: '^•- •• ■■ '->• . . : 

*'In this expectation^ I have the honor once 'more to subscribe myself 
with due consideration, your exceUeiD^y's obedient servant ^ 

«To his excellency CtaiRe,-^ .N^l:. i.i . > 

** A copy of « brief memoir on the United States tiEnsmitted herewith. 

To (his, we have the following rejoinder. 

*" Ij Ching, qf the great pure dy^fiasfy^ acHng gove^ 
-reply. . . 

^ Upon the rSth instant, (dd May,) I received the honorable plenipoten- 
tiary's dispiatch, wiih ^ 'brief memoir of the United States, and have read 
and fully understood it As to your statement t^t l» the acting governor, 
;have liefore twice addieased a. communication, making- .^ststtements that 
were discordant relative to the receiviitt^of the, imperial, vulL now, either 

1845. Tttaiy wiih thi Uniied Suiiis. 87S 

the hononiblo plenipotentiaiy hai not carefUlly examined theniy' or the 
translation has not been penpicaousi As to the misunderstanding,!, th^ 
acting governor, upon the 9d month, and 85th day, (12th April,). madfe a 
reply, in which it was expressed, that within three months the imperial 
will* may be received. This refeized to the third month of the present 
year, which is this month, and not the: period of thiee monthii. Alsd,! on 
the 4th day of the 3d moon, (24th April,) I made a reply, in which it w^ 
expressed that, to go to Peking and return requires fifty or more days ^ 
which, connecting it with the time of the honorable plenipotentiary's 
arrival in Yuh, requesting to enter Peking, to be presented to the emperorj 
which I, the acting governor, did, upon the 2d moon and 4th day, (22d 
Jiiarch,) report to the emperor, reckoning for going and coming fifty day^ 
or more, then truly, as previously stated, it will be in the last- decade of 
the 3d month; and there is no place for any discrepancy with the period of 
my former communication. In a. little time the imperial pleasure will be 
received, when I, the acting governor-general, as behooveth me, wiU 
transcribe a complete copy, and appoint and dispatch an officer to Macao, 
to proclaim it aloud, that the honorable plenipotentiary may understand i^t 

folly, ; 

** We must wait till his excellency Tsiyeng arrives, when it will be con- 
venient and proper, with the honorable plenipotentiary, unitedly to de- 
liberate upon the affidrs of the two nations ; and I request you to lay aside 
suspicions. . .i . i 

* *^' As to your honorable nation's scholars and merchants who have hitherto 
come to the south of China, they have been respectful and complaiaant, 
^d there has not been the slightest agitation of injaheos and troublesome 
conduct, which I, the acting governor, have very well known, and in 
which I have rejoiced ; but I wish that henceforth free commerce and good 
will through myriads of years may secure universal peace and prosperity; 
nnd, upon this point, my sentiments coincide with the honorable pleni- 

''As- to the American nation's being jone of vast extent among the nations 
of the West, I, tho acting governor-general, had previously read the book 
.on the liistory of the United States, [literally, provinces,] and partially 
understood its purport ; and now I have perused your excellency's memoir 
^f the United States, which, generally speaking, agrees with what is con- 
tained in the brief history of the United [States] provinces. 

''Although our two countries are very remote from each other, yet I have 
long since heard that your honorable country was the great nation among 
.,the Western [powers,] and it is the last we would dare to rewd as a 
,weak and petty state. ' ., • .^ 

"A second time I request no suspicion. Making this reply to your com- 
niunication and the accompanying memoir, I avail myself of the opportii- 
nity of presenting my complimentB and wishes for year happiness and 
promotion. As requisite, I make this reply. ^ 

373 Treaty with the VniUd Siaies. Aug; 

" The foregoing !■ to his excellency Gushing, .envoy extraei^dinaiy and 
minister plenipotentiary of the United States of America. 

Taukwang, Wk yeoTi 3d moon, I7th day-iMay 4^ 1844.) 

A faithful translation : Pbtee Parker, 

•^tnf Chmut Seentary to LegaHoHi 

Under the same- date, May 4th, Ching foryirarded another dispatch^ 
in which he explained and apologized for not sending the entire 
treaty of Nanking, expressed his satiaifaction with the explanation 
regarding the consurs opening his dispatch and promised' in futdre 
to send them by special messengers, repeats that the frigate's enter- 
ing the Bogue was in opposition to the established laws of tlie 
central kingdom and exults in the facts that she had now retire<l 
without the Bogue and no salute had been . fired, and concludes by 
stating that he dare not, in opposition to old usage, meet the high 
officers of foreign states, and that Kiying, having been appointed 
governor-general of the two Kw&ng, had commenced his journey 
southward from Ki&ngnin on the 19th of April and might be ex«- 
pected in Canton by the 5th of June. It is to be noted here that, 
at the time Kiying was appointed, the arrival hereof the American 
ambassador was not known at court. But knowing, as his majesty 
did, that such a minister must soon be in China, he no doubt made 
•the selection of the noble and generous Tartar with : reference to 
that event. . ^ . . ., 

We shall quote only one more of Mr. Cushing's lectures, given 
with su<ih hearty good will to his friend Ching. ' 

<* United States Legation, Macao, May 9, 1844. 

**Sir: I have the honor to acknowledgie the receipt of the two letters ad- 
dressed to me by your excellency, under date of the fourth of the present 
month. . ' 

**In view of the facts set forth in those letters, and of your excellency^i 
earnest protestations of the frieiidly intention of the imperial government, 
I have concluded to wait here a short time longer, in the hope of the arrival 
of satisfactory advices from the court 

** At the same time, it seems proper to state to your excellency, in all 
frankness, the circumstances under which t have adopted this conclusion. 

** Foreign ambassadors represent the sovereignty of their nation. Any dis- 
respect shown to them, is disrespect to their nation, government, or sove- 
reign. They possess the right, in the discharge of their public duty, to come 
and go, witiiout let or hindrance. Causelessly to molest them, is a national 
injury of the gravest character* . . 

** Accordingly, in the West, foreign ministers, on arriving at the bordera 
of the government to which ili^^y are sent,*%re accustomed to enter this 
country immediately, and to ^raceed, without delay or obstacle, to tlie 

1S45. Treaty with the United States. 37S 

coart, where, after paying their reapecta to the iovereign, they addrMs 
themaeWes at once to the appropriate miniater of atate, for the transaction 
of the buaineaa of the mission. 

** Such are the usages followed by the West, in the general interests of 
humanity. For, when great nations deal together as auch, they must deal 
through the medium either of ambassadors, the instruments of friendship, 
or of fleets and armies, the instruments of hostility. There is no other aU 
temative. And thus it is, that the agency of ambassadors is found to be 
of the greatest utility, not only as the means of terminating the calamities 
of war, but also as the means of securing the continuance of the blessings 
of peace. 

-: **: These principles are universally received in the West, and 1 have reason 
to think they are in China also ; for I find that in tlie fourth and sixth arti- 
cles of the treaty of Ke&ngnin, his imperial majesty makes special men- 
tion of the injuries done to captain Elliot and other British officers by Chi-r 
nese ministers of state, and recogniaes the jastice and propriety of granting 
reparation therefor to the government of Great Britain ; and I find, also^ 
thati on occasion of the embassy of lord Macartney, in the reign of the 
emperor Kieblung, orders were dispatched to all the seaports of China, 
previous to his arrival, commanding public officers to give to him a hospi- 
table reception wherever he should appear on the coast, and to afford to 
him all facilities for immediately proceeding to the imperial court 

** That the Chinese government might not be unprepared for the contin- 
gency of my arrival, it received official notice, last autumn, that the presi- 
dent of the United States had appointed an envoy to the court of Peking. 
■ ** Whereupon, it was competent for the Chinese government, if it desired 
that the envoy, on his arrival in China, should confer with an imperial 
commissioner before proceeding to Peking, to have had such commissioner 
in readiness in the frontier province ; or, if that was inconvenient, then to 
have given authority and instruction to the provincial government for the 
reception of the envoy. 

<* Respect towards a friendly nation, justice, the principles of international 
comity, the love of peace, all required that one of these two things should 
have been done. 

•^But, instead of either of these things, instructions were given to the pro- 
vincial government to importune the envoy, on his arrival, to wait at the 
frontier an uncertain time, while the provincial government was lefl, in 
the interim, without any authority to receive the envoy^nay, without au- 
thority even to exchange the most ordinary courtesies either with the envoy 
.or with the commander of the squadron of the United States. 
, ''I must not conceal from .your excellency Uie extreme dissiatisfaction and 
disappointment which the people of America will experience when they 
learn that their envoy, instead of being promptly and cordially welcomed 
by the Chinese government, is thus molested and delayed, on the very 
threshold of the province of Yuh.. 

674 Trefay with the Uniiefi States. Auol 

" Thft people of America have been accastomed to eoneider CHina thtf 
ttioet refined and the meet enligfhtened of the natione of the eaat; and they* 
will demand, how it is possible, if China be thus refined, she should alloip 
herself to be wanting in courtesy to their envoy; and, if China be thus en- 
lightened, how it is possible that^ having just emerged from a wsr with 
England, and being in the daily expectation of the arrival of the envoy of 
the French, she should suffer herself to slight and repel the good will of the 
United States. And the people of America will be disposed indignantly to 
draw back the proffered hand of friendship, when they learn how impeiw 
fectly the favor is appreciated by the Chinese govmnment 

** In consenting, therefore, to postpone, for a short time longer, my depaiu 
ture for the north, and in omitting, for however brief a period, to consider 
the action of the Chinese government as one of open disrespect to the 
United States, and to take due measures of redress, I incur the hazard of the 
disapprobation and censure ef my government; for the American governs 
tnent is peculiarly sensitive to any act of foreign governments injurious to 
the honor of the United tStttes. 

^*It is the custom ef American citizens to demand themselves respectfully 
towards the people and authorities of any foreign nation in which they 
nay, for the time being, happen to reside. Your excellency has frankly 
tad truly borne witness to the just and respectful deportment which both 
scholars and merchants of the United States have at all times manifested 
in China. 

*^Thii cannot be more acceptable to the government of China than it is 
to ^at of the United States, which, accustomed itself and requiring its eiti<* 
cens to treat other nations and governments with perfect justice and cour- 
tesy, expects the same in return, snd is thorefore prompt to resent, by all 
the means in its power, any wrong which may be perpetrated on itn citi-* 
teens, and more espeeislly any indignity which may be offered to its public 
iagents, and through them to its sovereignty and honor. 

** But I left America as a messenger of peace. I came into China full of 
aentimenti of respect and friendship towards its sovereign and its people. 
And notwithstanding what has occurred, since my arrival here, to chill the 
warmth of my previous good will towards China, and to bring down the 
high conceptions I had previously been led to form in regard to the oourtesy 
«f its government, I am loth to give these up entirely, and in so- doing 
put an end perhaps to the existing harmonious relations between the United 
States and Okma. 

^ I have therefore :to say to your excellency, thtct I accept, for the ^present, 
your assurances of the sincerity and friendship of the Chinese government 
I suspend all the resentment which I have just cause to feel on aeoount of 
the obstructions thrown m the way of the progress of the legation, tuid other 
IMLTticulars df the action of the imperial and provincial governments,' ih 
llie hope that suitable reparation will be made for these acta in due time. 

**l commit myself, in all this, to the integrity and honor of the Chinese 

1845. Tftidy with the United States. 375 

government; and if, in the sequel, I ehall prove to have done this in vain, 
I shall then consider myself the more amply justified, in Che sij^ht of all 
men, for any determination which, out of regard for the honor of the United 
States, it may be my duty to adopt nnder such circumstances; 

**I assure your excellency, that it is my earnest desire* for the continuance 
of amity between the respective governments which alone has brought 
me to this decision* No other consideration would induce me to consent 
to remain for another day here at the frontier, where, while the business 
of my mission is retarded or delayed, and the disapprobation of my go- 
yemment is hazarded, I have no opportunity meaowhiler to relieve the tedi- 
um of expectation, by associating with Che scholars and staCesmen of the 
Flowery Land.. But I cling to the hope, thai, in submitting to these incon- 
veniences, I am consulting the peace and welfare' oT the two great nations 
of China and America. God grant that I be not disappointed in this hope, 
'bymay new delajrs on the part of our government 

' ^1 have the honor to repeat my wishes for your excellency's prosperity, 
and the iiealth and repose of his imperial majesty.- 

' ' ^ •C CuSHIXCGi. 

' ''To his excellency Ching, dcc,*^ 

. May 8th the acting governor-general announced to Mr. Cushmg" 
the following particulars : that, March 22d| he commumcatted, hf 
tneffloriai, the plenipotentiary's '* request" to go fb Feking';- XfM o» 
4th of May received the emperor's will that it was needless to go fo^ 
Peking, KSying having been appointed governor^eneral at Canton'^ 
with orders to repair thither in post haste and transact all proper' 
business with the honorable plenipotentiary ; that, April 1st; he had! 
again memorialized the emperor, conveying a " second request;'* andl 
on ihe 6th of May received the emperor's will',- appointing Kfyinj^ 
imperial commissioner with full powers to negotiate, d&c. 
. M«y 9th he sent a deputation of officers to Macao to convey iS9 
.Mr. .Gushing the three following rescripts of the imperial wilL- 

^^ Three eommunieaiums of- the imperial witi^ reapeetfidly transeri^edl- 
** We, great ministen of state, members of the privy council, Keun kiVSf 

Chin, communicate, that upon T6akw6ng, S4th' y6ar, 2d' moon, aad 22S 

day, /9th April, 1844,) we received the imperial mandate; that ChIng had'' 
^memorialized the throne relative>to the AroerteaO' envoy's- entering Peking p 
.but America never, as yet, having gone thxoogh- with preaevting tribute, them 

hastily proceeding to Tientsin, .it wilt be neceasary to ceqnire its immediate' 
.reiom. As 'to the leqneat to negotiate and' settle* commeicial' regulations, it 

will also be neceasaiy to deliver over to the original deliberatbr, (K'lyepg,).* 
• thegTfst minister of state, to negotiate and aetUe them. Certainly there* 
. esnsta no cause at the • north for hastily proceeding to Tientsin, requiring the* 

appointment of another high commissioner to^ negotiate, with himi The gieatt 

376 Ttiatg u>iih the Uniied Slates. Auo. 

minister of states Tsiyeng, the original deliberaior, has beien appointed go- 
vernor-general of the two Kw4ng provinces, and is. going post haste to Can- 
ton. Enjoin upon the said envoy quietly to wait at Canton, and by no means 
to esteem it a light matter to agitate disorder, which is an important concern. 
Take this mandate, and, at [the speed of four hundred U per day, (133 miles,) 
make it known. 

By the emperor. 


" We, great ministers of state, members of the Privy Council communicate 
that, on Tuukwdng, 24th year, 3d moon, and 5th day, (22d April,) we 
received the imperial mandate, that whereas Ching has memorialized the 
throne, that the American envoy still again importunately requests to enter 
-Peking, and is willing, by the inner rivers, to make the journey, &c., cause 
the said lieutenant governor again to issue a clear edict respecting the treaty 
to be deliberated upon, and which it is desired to negotiate -with an imperial 
high commissioner ; that now Tsiyeng has been appointed to the office of 
governor-general of the two Kwlng, and also, as before, the seals of imperial 
commissioner have been delivered over to him, the said nation*s envoy^ 
quietly waiting at Tub, (Canton,^ may properly negotiate with him. If, 
absolutely, he desires to come to the north of Pie-ho to Tientsin, there ia no 
imperial high commissioner there, and he will not be able to negotiate a 
'treaty, and positively he must return again to Canton, to negotiate with 
Tsiyeng ; and why unnecessarily take the voyage ? 

** Let the said lieutenant-governor receive this imperial • pleasure, then 
clearly explain that neither by sea nor land can it be permitted him to enter 
Peking, but let there be orders for him to wait for the imperial commissioner 
at Canton. It is not permitted to do otherwise. Take this mandate, and 
[at the speed of] five hundred If (166 miles) per day, order it to be known. 
By the emperor. 


<* Upon the same day the Nui 4Co {Imperial Cabinet] received the imperial 
edict, [stating] that Tsiyeng, now having been appointed to the office of go- 
vernor-general of the two Kwdng provinces, the supplementary appropriate 
business relating to the commerce of every province, let all be delivered over 
to the said chief agent, and cause the seals of imperial high commissioner to 
be dilivered to him ; and if it occur that he have to manage the business of 
fhoe commerce,* and the correspondence of the ports of each province, he is 
in like manner permitted to affix the seal, using great precaution, 
fiy the emperor. 
;. A faithful translation ; Pktir Parker, ^-c. 

The deputation reached Macao, on the I3th, and the following 
day, was received by Mr. Gushing who made a further commnnica- 
tion to Ching, expressing his pleasure in the appointment of so able 
and experienced a negotiator as Kfying, but declaring that he did 
hot "relinquish his purpose of presenting to theemperor, in person 
[ the letter " which he bore from the president of the United States! 
; Id the same communication^ Mr. Gushing repeated his intimation 

184& A Funeral Sermon. 9^7 

of a willingnesi to wait in Maeao, a reasonable time for the expected 
arrival of the imperial connniaaioiiei'. 

With one more short extract we roust close this article, to be con- 
tinued in our next number, — this forming the first scene in the 
drama, extending from the date of Mr. Cushing's first lefter to Ching, 
** on board the United States flag-ship Brandywiile, Macao Roads, 
February 27th, 1844," to the 24th of Mny, a period of nearly three 
months. Ching thus makes his exit.- 

* C^ngj ading govemor'general of KiJb6algl^nfir and tuf&nfrHf tfice-pren' 
deni qfthe Board of War^ ifc^ makti thu eommundeaHon : 

'•On the 19th instant (3d day of the 4th- month). I- received yoUtr excel*- 
lency's communication, (of the following tenor:) I have received the pub*- 
lic dispatch bnmght by the prefect Tain and- otherai coding copies of 
three documenti conveying the imperial pleasttre, which ought' to be re- 
Bpectedy Slc Perceiving hereby that your excellency will conform respect- 
fully to the great emperor's pleasure, my delight and joy are very great 
And, as is right, I make this communication in reply, for yout excellency's 

«< Wishing for your present happiuM' and' daily' advancement, mky this 
communication reach him to whom it is addressed. 

••The above communication- is' addressed tb his- excelleilCy Cilshiilg, mi*- 
nister plenipotentiBry of the United States of America.- 

••Taukwaxio, 24<A year, 4ih monO^^m, dm^M<nf 24, 1644./ 

•• True translation : E. C. BaiDeMAif, 

'.'. ' **Mnt Ckinue Secretary.'' 

t*^*irT'Mnft"T*"*t'""*f"'"""ni — i^i-innr^nrwirtojvtjuLr 

a ■ . • 

Art. U. a Funeral 8ermon\ preached at Mdcao^ on the death 
of Mrs. Mary Sword. July 27/ A, 1845. % the Rev. Peter 
Parker, m. d. 

[In former volumes of the Repbaitory, wi^liave noticed the death of leveral 
good and excellent i^cii, over whbse earlj removal from this world the fo- 
leign commttBity in China has been' called to mqurn^ Sixch'men were the 
Morrisons and the right honorable lord Napier. We hkve hlid also to notice 
the loss of womeu^— sUch as Mrs: Boonii, Mi^. E>ean; Mrs: Ball, Mrs. Shuck, 
and others— pioUs and codly in' their liyes, h^ppy and triumphant in their 
death. To thir list, we have nbw to add another name. The memory of all 
such is preciouk: I^' val'u^ ie' faV attoVe that of merchandise. We lore to 
tecord and repeat tibe names^— and- celebmlie thb Christian deeds, of those who 
in their conduct have striven successfully to imitate the life of that Great 
Exemplar, who spake as ntfver man spoke, and whose condutt was a* perfect 
iUaslration of the holy doctrines which- he tatight.]. 

VOL. XIV. NO. VIII". 47 

378 A Funerat Setman. Aug; 

Ok death ! wkert is thy sting ?. Ok gtamt i whott u thy uictory T 

Ist Cor. ZY, 55... 

Wb^ are aaaembled, dear frienda, on a moet solemn and afiecting 
ocoasion. The place of our asaembling is fall of tender asaoeiatiooa. 
The occasion is invested with solemn interest. We have met hera 
before^ but never as now. There is a void^ A dear one is absent.- 
Uer .countenance, we behold not, and h^r sweet voice is unheard. 
Death has entered .this dwelling, and the countenance so often aeea ' 
beaming with intelligence and the smiles of friendship and maternal 
joy he has changed, and the , deceased has l^en conveyed away. 
Already the funeral obsequies have been performed. ; We .meet 
again still further to improve the affecting providence of Ood^ ta 
btagnify the triumphs of his victorious gracey and to stimulate eack 
other to secure its blessings. 

' On occasion^ like the present there is usually something pecdliar 
in the circumstances of the death, or prominent in the life and cha- 
racter of thfe deceased, which directs the train of our reflections. 
Has the. death been audden and unexpected? theffi^ilty apd uncer« 
tainty of human life impress themselves upon us. Has one been, 
rpmoved confessedly and beyond doubt unprepared to appear before 
his Maker? the declaratioa of the apostle comes with emphasis^ 
** It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.'* Has 
a Christian died, distinctly contemplating an immediate exchange of 
existence, and conversed respecting it as calmly as one speaks of 
removing from one sid^ of this world to the other,— naturally ner- 
vous and timid-^has the grace of Christ raised the affectionate wife 
and devoted and tender mother above the fear of dying, anxipus only 
lest some the most dear to her of all on earth should fail of the grace 
of God ? Then the Christian's triumph attracts and invites our solemn 
consideration, as set forth in the interrogations, " Oh (death !, where 
i$ thy sting 1 Oh grave ! where is thy victory ?" 

The theme of the apostle in this chapter is the gospel, which he 
had preached to the Corinthians and which they had believed. Ho 
recapitulates its doctrines. First of all he declares the great truth 
that Christ died for our sins according to* the scriptures ; he adduces 
the evidence of his burial and the witnesses to bis resurrection ; 
magnifies the grace of God which had made him an apostle and 
eye-witness to the risen redeemer; enters into an extended argu- 
ment in proof of the resurrection ; notices the universal apostacy 
of man, the coextensive atonement there is in Christ, — whom he 
traces through all the work of redemption to the throne of mediator 

i84S. A Funeral Sermon. ^f^ 

"tdd the foU cottnBummatioii of his Riedistofia] reign. He then adverts 
to-eavilsv and rafutea objectiona lo the reaurreetion, and ahewa it to 
be^analafooa to facta aubject to the aenaea. He coneludea the 
argument with tbe diaeloaare of a aublime mystery, averring,* f We 
ahaU not all aleep, butiwe ahall all be changed, in a moment, in the 
•twinkling of an eye, at the laat trump, for the trumpet ahall aoond 
-and the dead ahall be raiaed incorruptible, and we ahall be changed ; 
-for thia corruptible muat put on incorrnption, and this mortal must 
pot on immortality. So when thia> corruptible ahall put on incor- 
roption, and thia mortal ahall hate put on immortality, then. ahall be 
bronght to paaa the aaying that ia written, ** Death ia awallowed up 
in victory," 

-: With the trump of God aa it were aounding in hia ear and rever- 
berating through creation, with the resurrection of the univeraal 
^ead» and all that waa corruptible and mortal appearing in the field 
•of-faith'a viaion in living incorruptible and immortal form, death 
htmaelf awallowed up in victory, the apoatlS'ahouta the Chriatiaii'a 
triumph, "Oh death! where is thy sting t Oh grave! where ia thy 

vidioryt" - . ? . 

I Ordinary language is too feeble to expreaa hia deep emotions-: 
hC'breaka forth in a bold figure by which he peraonifiea death -nnd 
the^anw. He addreasea them aa actual exiatencea. The one riaoa 
^up as a venomoua monater endowed with a deadly ating; the other 
aa a universal conquerer bent on victory. The effects of that venom 
-firat transfused into the original human pair, and tranamitted by 
'them down through all their deacendanta of every age and nation, 
and the apecific antidote obtained from Christ, paaa through hia mind. 
The univeraal triumpha of that conqueror he perceivea to be but ap- 
parent and momentary and not real, for the resurrection had revers- 
ed the victory, and blaated him with actual and eternal defeat. 
He beheld theacenethua reversed, and exultingly asks, " Oh Death ! 
where is thy Hingf Oh 'Chavel where is thy victory ? Death ! your 
ating ia gone, and you are helpleaa and harmleaa, *' swaUowed-up in 
vietaryy *^Grave! you are vanquiahed and your unnumbered cap- 
tivea are henceforth forever free! He now drops the figuf^, and ifi 
the context defines, in literal language^ his meaning. The sting of 
death ia stn, and the atrength of sin is the law. ^' But thanka be to 
■God who giveth ua the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ." 
~ In pursuing our reflectiona, it ia prqpoeed to consider; 


2dlt, the cHRiariAN's triumph over it and the aouRCB op 

HIS victory. 

D80 A JF\tit«ro/ Sefmdn, Aud. 

Death is the destruction of living and organized agents, yet it is 
predicated of inanimate, inorganic, and ideal objects. And the des- 
truction of anything and eveiry thing, evil and things indifferent 
excepted, is always contempUted with pain — it has a sa'it^. How 
painful the contemplation of the deatrvctjon of anything useful* or 
beautiful in the productions of nature, art, or intellect! In behold- 
ing the rich harvest destroyed by frost, or drought, — ^the forest of a cen- 
tury's growth destroyed by the^tornado of an hour,-^the domestic dwel- 
ling where all comforts were accumulated, the city with its sacred 
temples, lofty domes and pal aces, Jevc^lled with the earth by fire ; or the 
vast library containing the literature and science of an empire for 
ages destroyed by a ruthless hand ! None of these are ever beheld, 
or contemplated, but with sorrow* Death, whenever or wherever 
met, st^l thrusts its s^tfi^. 

The death of the beipg Qod has created in his own image, however, 
has .the keenest stipg. Sucb are the immediate consequences to 
the Jiving being, the tidqder ties it severs, ;the hopes it destroys, the 
aid and council it .ends, that here it has a peculiar poignancy. None 
of these entered i^to .the apostle's meaning, (or if so, they held 
a subordinate pi ape,) but rather the consciousness of ^tct'A, its keen 
xemorse, and the future :everjaatiug punishment to which it introduces 
the sinner. In yjew of this some have said, " they fear not to die, but 
to be dead." The Ju^gniiept after death, the result of sin,.Ma< will 
sting. , 

We are living Q»y friends, under the administration and govem- 
mept of the qiora;! governor of ^he universe. Qriginally created in 
his own ,in;iage^ eudow.ed with intelligence, judgment, and a rational 
and immortal soui,- we are .possessed .of a conscience, the vicegerent 
of Qod within us. Upon every word, thought,. action and motive, 
this conscience, if unbiased, pronounces a just and impartial decision. 
It instipctiyely appro.v:es the .things that are morally right and virtuous, 
and as promptly coodemus theiir opposites. It feels and acknowledges 
iheJhrc^ of moral obligations. 

Of the importance of Jaw to |;he well-being of any government 
parental or civil, all are sensible. The necessity that law, in order 
to* attain its end^ he. supported by rewards to the. obedient, and 
penalties to the trausgfessor, is self-eyident : and that the strength 
of any law wiU be in propor^tjlQn to the magnitude and certainty of 
the rewards %o obedieqce^ and ihe severity rof the penalty to dis- 
disobedience, is universally ^Mlmitted. - > 

Now the law of God to 4yhich wfs are ai) amenable is sustained 

1846. A Funeral Sermchn. 1S8\ 


by infinite rewards and penalties — life to the obedient, death to 
the transgerssor, both eternal, both as sure as the veracity of Him 
who cannot lie. Hence the sting of death is sio, and the strength of 
5111 is the law, thus sustained by the omnipotent God. Take away 
the existence and consciousness of sin, and no sting of remorse shall 
dart its venom into the soul ; no fears of the frown of Jehovah shall 
mar present enjoyments; no apprehension of judgment hereafter 
subject to bondage m\\ our Kves through fiear of death and the 
f judgment that is to succeed. But a! as ! fellow sinners, w^ have all 
sinnedf and tlie poison of the sting of death we have all experienced 
.in different degrees, flowing through every vein, felt in every nerve, 
our heads have ached, and our hearts have swollen under its in- 
fluence. For there is no man that Jiveth and sinneth not. But 
thanks, infinite and everlasting thanks be to him, who " died for our 
sins:" our case need not now be hopeless. Christ can extract the 
sting of the monster, death, who has encircled the earth from east to 
west, in his coils, and darted his venom from pole to pole, through 
every child of Adam of every generation and nation: for- Christ 
died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and has arisen again 
that he might destroy these works of the devih 

Let us turn then to the contemplation, secondly, of the triumph 
of the Christian atid the source of his victory. 

The Christian's triumph is two fold, present and future. In 
•the present life he has an internal contest most graphically set forth 
by the apostle in the 7th of Romans, where he describes a law in 
the members, warring against the law of his mind, and bringing him 
into captivity to the law of sin which was in his members, and in 
view of which he exclaimed, " O wretched man that I am I Who 
shall deliver me from the body of this death I I thank God through 
Jesus Christ our Lord," that I shall be rescued. 


The first sad eflect of the original apostacy was the commence- 
ment of sin in the soul. Subsequently to the apostacy, God survey- 
ed the "wickedness of man," and has declared it to be ''great in 
the earth : and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart 
was only evil continually." His moral nature has become pervert- 
ed, and is not only averse to good, but inclined to evil. This is the 
state in which every one living finds himself on arriving at the age 
of reason, and of capacity to distinguish between right ^aud wrong, 
between duty and inclination ; and this is the condition in which 
•the gospel of the grace of God comes to man, with its prpflers of 
renewing and saving grace^ through the medium of the word of God, 
the atonement of Christ, and the sanctification of the Holy Spirit. 

383 A Funeral Sermtm^ Avd, 

Thtt man Bndi himself such t being, in sach a world, is the 
allolment of Htm who is infinitely wise, just and benevolent. He 
becomes guilty with his first responsible action, in which he does 
contrary to the dictates of conscience and the known will of his 
maker. This guilt and sin accumulate and magnify as he continues 
to neglect the means of his renovation,. sanetifioation and saWacionv 
and yields to the dictates of sinful nature. 

But we will suppose the case of one who has triumphed over the 
sting of death : he has experienced full conviction of the nataral 
un holiness and perversity of the heart and of his voluntary sine 
against God. In the exercise of deep and sincere penitence for them, 
has in humility and faith cast himself upon the merits of Christ, as 
his only hope, and in doing so has experienoed the renewing inflo* 
ences of the Holy Spirit Lo, all things have become new. In 
Christian duty, he has new pleasure, the Bible appears in a new 
and most attractive light, Christ becomes unspeakably lovely, and 
in prayer and communion with God he has joys before unknown, 
liolds sympathy with his maker in the great and benevolent designs 
■of the gospel, and cherishes the transporting hope that an inheri- 
aanoe undefiled and unfading is reserved for him in heaven. 

Whax a transition ! What a present triumph I But in the expe- 
rience of most every Christian, the law in the members (a cqnstiti»- 
tion of his fallen nature) for a time in abeyance, Tenews the contest 
with the law of the mind, and may cause doubts and fears. Hh 
-says, *'I hiid hoped I was a Christian, but perceiving so much e^il 
etill remaining, I sometimes yield to despondency, conclude I aiti 
"not a subject of grace, despair of heaven, and apprehend the future 
eonsequences of sin." There is a class of Christians spoken of, ifi 
tlie epislie to the Hebrews, represented as subject to bondage, all 
4heir liie, through fear of death, but whom Christ will ultimately 
deliver fttxn the sting of death and the victory of the grave. 

HedKli and physical temperament may modify the brightness and 
confidence of the Christian hope. The nervous Christian may be 
more enbject to despondency, than the same person with the same 
degree of piety under a different physical constitution. But when, 
in Christians of such texture, we see grace triumphing over double 
r-nd fears of death, possessing assurance and calnmess in the last 
illness, and « triumphant welcome of dissolution, how 4>eautiful, how 
tnestimabie ;fh8t graoe appears ! 

But then there is 9l future victory. Thus far the spirit has triumph- 
ad over the death of the body and the fears of spiritual death, yet 

1845. .4 Funeral Sermon. 383 

the grave has gained a victory over the body ; but when the last 
trump shall sound, the grave will give up its sacred deposit^ and 
even that mouldered body shall rise in new and immortal bloom. 

Whence Mis victory 1 The apostle answers, '^Thanks, be to God, 
who giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ/' When 
groaning under the weight of sin, in allusion to the Roman custom of 
attaching a dead body to the loldier as a punishment, he exclaimed, 
** O wretched roan that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of 
this death ? I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord" that I 
shall be rescued. 

: T)ie Bible is uniform upon this subject ; It is all of gracei No 
intellectnai endowments, no natural amiableness, or accomplish- 
ment, no works of mortals, win heaven, or extract the sting of death. 
.Those who gain the conquest, are under in6nite and eternal 
obligations to God who giveth them the victory over the sting of 
death, and the power of the grave, through Jesus Chrisf our Lord^ 
who by his prophet, declared centuries before his advent ** Oh 
Death 1 I will be thy plagues, Oh Grave! I will be thy destruction." 

The subject of our contemplation affords the highest conceivable 
consolation on this occasion. 

. One who was recently in health, blest with Che choice of her 
heart, surrounded by a young and lovely family, with the comfort* 
of life, and the prospect, at no distant day, of returning with theser 
living pledges of conjugal affection to her native land, has suddenly 
^nd before the meridian of life, been called away from kindred and 
friends and the Church of Christ on earth. 

To friends in her native land, who hoped to greet her once more 
on the shores of time, there remains the melancholy pleasure o^ 
welcoming her remains to repose with the dust of her fathers, tili 
the morning of the resurrection when they shai^ arise clad' in the 
shining robes of immortality, when all her pious friends shall see her 
again " with joyful recognition, and she rejoin them in a higher andf 
happier fellowship, before the throne and in the eternal kingdom 
of the Saviour." " Now that she is gone, and can no more mingle 
with us, in the intercourse of this life, nor hear what our lips may 
publicly utter of her worth, we may indulge, for a moment in the 
melancholy pleasure of recounting some of the scenes through whicb 
she has passed, and while we trace the excdlencies of her mind and 
beart" and witness the exemplification of the inffuence of divine grace 
displayed in her, gather fresh admonitions from her example, the 
providence and word of God, so to live, that we dear friends may 

^Bi A Pudefat Sermon. Aug. 

ih^t deaf fa as calmfy aa ahe did, and leave our aorvivors as good 
evidence aa alle haa done' of triomph over the ating of death and the 
powef of the grave. 

Mary Sword, the deceased, was born in Philadelphia (Penn. U. S. 
A.) Ist Oct. 1813. She was the third daughter of John J. Parry, esq. 
Her education seems to hate b6en that "best calculated to qualify 
her to be the intellectual and spiritual companion, the discreet in- 
structor and guide' of her household, and the ornament and joy of 
Bociety." .... 

Her correspondence exhibits a simplicity, chasteness of style, and 
cordial sincerity, such as ever characterised her intercourse with 
her friends and society. It manifests a well balanced mind, sound 
judgment and discretion. *' The heart of her husband doth aafely 
trust in her." Her letters as well as her life are a manifestation 
of a high order of piety, l^hough fond of retirement, she was punc- 
tilious in the etiquet and civilities of good society. In 1834, she 
received the ordinance of Christain baptism, and soon afler made a 
public profession of religion, and united with the Protestant Epis^ 
copal Church, under the pastoral care of the Rev. Dr. Delancy (now 
bishop Delancy) then pastor of St. Peter'a Church Philadelphia. 

No sooner had she surrendered her heart to Christ, and exper- 
ienced the consolations of his pardoning love and sanctifying grace, 
than she resolved to use her endeavors to communicate the same 
happiness to others, and to pour the light of divine truth upon youth- 
ful minds, and befcame a Sabbath School teacher in the Sabbath 
School connected with St. Peter's Church. 

Such Was her interest and fidelity in this labor of love, observed 
a friend, that no ordinary circumstance could detain her from her 
class. She scfems to have' been sensible, that " if we become the in- 
strument of saving but one soul fVbm death we start an immor^ 
ial mind, a glorified spirit, in a career where we shall see it going on 
firbm strength to strength, adding knowledge to knowledge, holiness 
to holiness, happiness to happiness, making approaches to goodness 
and bliss which are all but infinite, forever adorning the heavens 
With new beauty, and forigKtening with the splendor of moral glory 
through all the ages of eternity." In this school she continued till 
1837, when she entered a new relation, in which she has shone with 
beautiful and admirable lustre. Though in delicate health, she ac- 
companied hitfi to whom her love was plighted from land to land in 
prosecution of his calling.*^ 

* Europe, South America and China. 

1845. A Funeral Sermon. 885 

As a Chrbtiatt mother she waa most discreet and devoted. Here 
the experience she had acquired as a Sabbath School teacher arail* 
ed her in training her own immortal of&pring in the nurture and ad«» 
monition of the Lord. The cheerfulness and maternal tenderness 
with which her Christian instructions were imparted, invested them 
with attractiveness even to their young and tender minds. And not 
only did she pray with them, but taught them to offer prayers and 
praises evening and morning. Having often enjoyed here the hospi* 
taiity, so cheeirfuUy extended to friends, I seem still to hear the 
sweet voice of the mother mingling with her childrea's at theiv devo« 
tions. It has already been intimated that the deceased was naturally 
of a nervous temperament, imbued with- a tnriy humble spirit,, and 
has been more or less subject to depressing fears of her personal 
acceptance with God, though well establiahed in her fiuth-in- all the 
fundamental doctrines, of the Bible; Vut latterly; it has been re- * 
marked by her Christian friends divine grace has become more 
influential, and her confidence has been more unshaken,^ till even 
she who was naturally timid as the dove,, could meet terror's King 
with calmness and triumphant serenity. 

During her illness she was fully aware it might be her llsst. To 
a Christian friend she expressed- her sense of great unworthiness, 
and alluded to the sentence upon the fruitless fig tree as applicable 
to herself. She disclaimed dependence on her own* merits, and said 
with a distinct and emphatic voice, " my only hope is in the blood of 
Christ" At another time, she observed, ''my constant desire and 
prayer are to have no will of my own, but- that mine may be swal^ 
lowed up in that of God." On another occasion she broke the silence 
of the sick 'chamber with the exchimatibn, '* The Lord reigneth^^ 
showing evidently upon what her thoughts were revolving and the 
state of her miud. She conversed composedly of the disposal of her 
children after her decease, and said' *' I eon leave them in the hands 
of God.** Notwithstanding her extreme illness she manifested sin- 
cere interest in the spiritual welfare of her friends. Before it was 
quite apparent to others that she would not survive, when speaking 
of dying, she was desired not to discompose her mind, with an event 
that might be still future. With* a sweet smiie and with inexpressi- 
ble animation she replied, " it does not distress me, I am not afraid 
to die!" Oh Death! where then was thy sting? In this happy frame 
she continned till, ceasing to be absent in the body, she went to be 
present with the Lord. 

My friends, the occasion', and the subject of our contemplation, 

VOL. XIV. NO. viu. 49 

38dr A Fuhetal Serm&H. Autf. 

ire ifarested with unspeakable interest. We have oonternpUted one 
ef the* most consoling and sublime themes ever addressed to the 
hmnan mind. We have first viewed it in the light of that gospel 
which brings life and immortality to light, we have also beheld it 
embodied tmd exemplified in the life and death of oiir deceased friend: 
Okllthb glories untold, that await thesonls who follow Christ on 
tath.! T-hej die in hope and triumph! Their nnembodied spirits 
reliirh to Ghxl in peace, and their powers and faculties continue 
and expand, forever; They cease from suffering. iSm cannot purf 
sue them whither they have gone. Death cannot sting them ; not 
tfae.grave cover them. i. .. 

Afflict BD Husband, let me address to you, as from the clay cold 
lip8>of the deceased, her oym expressions, while living, in reference to 
this [very: hour. . ''Do not, :l beseech yoa, grieve too much for me: 
do not .repine lor be so sinful as to ihumur at God's will.... Though 
you may be desolate, think not of this life/ but Ijook^beyond to an^ 
.pther and :a better :world.f' . .i »:;!.: . { i- .!; .. ... 

- D^ar friend, that which your :pionsi)paTtnerao devoutly sought 
and above all things else desired for ryouand.'tithers,.!^ . obtainable^ 
0od is as ready to give to you the vietoty through the Lord Jesus 
Chrbt, as to her« Delay not then, to •seek jt in the way; she obtaiiir 
ed it, i>y rq>enting of your sins, and while casting yourself entirely 
upon the atonement ;Of Christ j receive the* sanctifying; and renova^ 
■ti^g grace of the Holy Spirit. Then shall your |)r^8ent affliction be- 
come comparatively light and but for a moment, and shall work out 
for. you a far more exceeding and eternal weight of ^glory. And 
when, you at length shall die, in expectation of a glorious resurrec- 
tion your survivors shall commit your body to the tomb, and when in 
the morning of the resurrection you shall awake with your beloved 
consort, clothed with shining and Incorruptible bodies*. you ^ill both 
unite in the triumphant song, ''Oh Death! where is thy sting? Oh 
Grave! where is thy victory?" 

Dgar CmLDREN, what a rich legacy has your.pious mother lefl 
you! I refer not to earthly treasure, but that which is inestimably 
more valuable, — her prayers, and her pious example. You cannot 
fully appreciate them now, but should , God spare you. to grow up, 
.yoa will .then comprehend my. meaning. Your .friend, who now ad- 
, dresses you, may. ihave gone to the grave^but if your eyes then fall 
upon this brief sketch of. the. life and last moments, of your glorified 
mother, and the subject, which they seem to him to. exemplify^ they 
will remind you what a mother you once bad, and that there is a 

1845. A FunjN^al Sermon. ^^9 

rich legacy of prayers filed away 'in the archives^ of heaven in your 

hehalf. ' ■• . r. :. ': ■ • 

Mt ahan*! be said that. pn.3niijBr 

** Breath was. ever spent in vain» ^ 

''Tfiis shall be known when we are dead 

••And left on long